Country Goes To War Traditional High School Packet

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THE TRADITIONAL CIVIL WAR CURRICULUM BY THE AMERICAN BATLEFIELD TRUSTGOAL 2 LESSON PLAN HIGH SCHOOL1861: The Country Goes to WarGRADES: High SchoolAPPROXIMATE LENGTH OF TIME: 90 minutesGOAL: Students will be able to discuss the state of the nation leading up to and at the beginningof the Civil War, citing specific documents and events.OBJECTIVES:1. Students will be able to identify and sequence events leading up to the Civil War.2. Students will be able to identify and discuss the relationship of war and technology inthe Civil War, focusing on the role of the telegraph, weapons, railroads and ironclads.COMMON CORE:CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.RH.11-12.7Integrate and evaluate multiple sources of information presented in diverse formats and media (e.g.,visually, quantitatively, as well as in words) in order to address a question or solve a problem.NCSS STANDARDS FOR SOCIAL STUDIES:1—Culture2—Time, Continuity, and Change3—People, Places, and Environment5—Individuals, Groups, and Institutions6—Power, Authority, and Governance8—Science, Technology, and Society10—Civics, Ideals, and PracticesMATERIALS:1.2.3.4.5.6.Bingo ReviewBingo Review with Teacher DirectionsCivil War TimelineCivil War Timeline Teacher VersionThe Country Goes to War PowerPointTechnology Centers SheetsThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to War7. Technology Graphic Organizer8. Technology in the Civil War9. In4 Video, Union10. In4 Video, Railroads in the Civil War11. In4 Video, Artillery in the Civil War12. Battlefield U, How to Fire a Civil War Cannon13. In4 Video, Small Arms in the Civil War14. In4 Video, Naval Tech During the Civil War15. In 4 Video, Civil War Photography16. Optional, Civil War Photography Live (9:04 video runtime)ANTICIPATORY SET/HOOK1. Hand out Bingo Review to review facts from the Disunion Lesson or from your owncourse work.2. When Bingo is completed, have students write a headline that might be seen in thepaper in 1858 or as the country moves closer to war.3. Ask students to hold up their headline for the class to see and discuss.PROCEDURE:Print out the PowerPoint with notes prior to class. There are notes included with the slides thatcan be on the printed slides, but won’t be seen by your students during the presentation.Activity 11. Hand out the Civil War Timeline. Students will fill in the blanks of the timeline,using information from class instruction during this lesson.2. Explain that while slavery had been an issue since the Revolutionary War, the eventsof the past decade had hardened attitudes about slavery. This set the stage for theelection of 1860.3. Begin The Country Goes to War PowerPoint presentation.4. Watch the In4 video, Union – discuss with students what Union meant to this newcountry and the reasons why people, North and South fought.Activity 25. Students will break into four groups to research one of four areas of technologicaladvancement during the Civil War, using the Technology Centers Sheets. Theseinvolve videos from civilwar.org, so providing a way for students to view the shortvideos would be helpful.- Railroads- Telegraphs (no video)- Ironclads- Weapons6. Students will record information on the Technology Graphic Organizer.7. Students can also conduct independent research on the technology they have beenassigned.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to War8. Upon completing their work, students will jigsaw with members of other groups todiscuss and complete the graphic organizer. Sources can be photocopied for largegroup use.CLOSURE:Hand out Technology in the Civil War. On this form, students will discuss what they believewill be the top two technological achievements that will have the most impact on the war.ASSESSMENT IN THIS LESSON:1. Informal assessment of Bingo activity, identifying events and compromises that ledup to the war.2. Completed Timeline, placing events leading up to the war in chronological order.3. Informal assessment through cartoon interpretation and PowerPoint discussionquestions.4. Completed Technology Graphic Organizer.5. Completed Technology in the Civil War.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:Bingo ReviewDirections: Select nine words from the Word Bank below. Write one wordper box in any order you choose. Swap your Bingo card with the person sittingnext to you.Word BankCompromise of 1850Free laborSlave laborCaliforniaMissouriSouthern statesFugitive Slave ActKansas – Nebraska Act360 30’Missouri CompromiseNorthern statespopular sovereigntyThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:Bingo ReviewDirections: Select nine words from the Word Bank below. Write one wordper box in any order you choose. Swap your Bingo card with the person sittingnext to you.Word BankCompromise of 1850Free laborSlave laborCaliforniaMissouriSouthern statesFugitive Slave ActKansas – Nebraska Act360 30’Missouri CompromiseNorthern statespopular sovereigntyThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarTeacher DirectionsCut out sentence strips below and place in a bag or other container. Pull out one sentence stripat a time and read the sentence aloud. Students will mark the bingo box with the correctanswer with an “x.” Game ends with Bingo. Review all sentences and answers.Answer: Compromise ofThis decision also included the Fugitive Slave Act.1850Answer: CaliforniaThe Compromise of 1850 permitted this state to enterthe Union as a free state, despite the Compromise of1820.Answer: Free laborWorkers receive wages and have an incentive tosucceed.Answer: Fugitive Slave ActFailure to comply with this law could result in a 1,000fine and a six-month prison sentence.Answer: MissouriThe Compromise of 1820 allowed this state to enter theUnion as a slave state.Answer: Slave laborThe economy of the Southern states relied on this.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 2Answer: Missouri1861: The Country Goes to WarThis law set a boundary line for the existence of slavery.CompromiseAnswer: Northern statesThe economy of these states was more industrial.Answer: 360 30’This was the boundary line for slavery set by theMissouri Compromise.Answer: Kansas–NebraskaThis law repealed the Missouri Compromise.ActAnswer: Southern statesThe economy of these states was based on agriculture.Answer: popularResidents of U.S. territories should be able to decide forsovereigntythemselves if they want to be a free state or a slavestate.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:Civil War Timeline1787Constitutional Compromise on .1820prohibits slavery above 36030’ in Louisiana Territory, with theexception of Missouri.1831William Lloyd Garrison publishes The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper.183118451846-18481850Nat Turner Slave RebellionTexas admitted to the UnionWar between the United States and MexicoCompromise of 1850 includes California entering the Union as a free state. TheAct is made stronger.1852Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe raises issue ofslavery throughout the country.1856Preston Brooks of South Carolina attacks Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner on the floor ofthe Senate with a cane, seriously injuring him, after Sumner’s “Crime Against Kansas” speech.1859John Brown’s raid on Harper's Ferry, Virginia increases tensions.185418571860Nov. 1860Dec. 20, 1860Kansas-Nebraska Act causes more sectional tension.Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision opens federal territories to slavery andoutrages many in the North.A series of fires in Texas during the summer spreads rumors of slaveinsurrection across the South.Abraham Lincoln elected as the first presidentThe first state to secede from the Union is .The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to War1861Jan. 9-Feb. 1The following states secede:Feb.-MarchSeven Southern states write a constitution for the ConfederateStates of America in Montgomery, AlabamaMarchApril 12-13April 15April 17-June 8May 20July 21Lincoln’s first inaugural speech states the following:Confederate bombardment results in the surrender ofLincoln calls for to suppress the rebellion.In response to Lincoln’s call for volunteers, the following fourstates of the Upper South secede:Confederate Congress votes to move the national governmentfrom Montgomery, Alabama to , Virginia.Battle of First Manassas (Bull Run) results in a Confederatevictory, which builds confidence in the South and convinces theNorth that the war will be longer and harder than first thought.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:Civil War Timeline (Teacher Version)1787Constitutional Compromise on slavery.1831Nat Turner Slave Rebellion1820183118451846-18481850Missouri Compromise prohibits slavery above 36030’ in Louisiana Territory,with the exception of Missouri.William Lloyd Garrison publishes The Liberator, an abolitionist newspaper.Texas admitted to the UnionWar between the United States and MexicoCompromise of 1850 includes California entering the Union as a free state. TheFugitivie Slave Act is made stronger.1852Publication of Uncle Tom’s Cabin by Harriet Beecher Stowe raises issue ofslavery throughout the country.1856Preston Brooks of South Carolina attacks Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner on the floor ofthe Senate with a cane, seriously injuring him, after Sumner’s “Crime Against Kansas” speech.1859John Brown’s raid on Harpers Ferry , Virginia increases tensions.185418571860Nov. 1860Dec. 20, 1860Kansas-Nebraska Act causes more sectional tension.Supreme Court’s Dred Scott decision opens federal territories to slavery andoutrages many in the North.A series of fires in Texas during the summer spreads rumors of slaveinsurrection across the South.Abraham Lincoln elected as the first Republican presidentThe first state to secede from the Union is South Carolina.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to War1861Jan. 9-Feb. 1The following states secede: Mississippi, Florida, Alabama,Georgia, Louisiana, TexasFeb.-MarchSeven Southern states write a constitution for the ConfederateStates of America in Montgomery, AlabamaMarchLincoln’s first inaugural speech states the following: I have nopurpose, directly or indirectly, to interfere with theinstitution of slavery in the South were it exists.April 12-13Confederate bombardment results in the surrender of FortSumterApril 15Lincoln calls for volunteers to suppress the rebellion.April 17-June 8In response to Lincoln’s call for volunteers, the following fourstates of the Upper South secede: Virginia, Arkansas, NorthCarolina, TennesseeMay 20July 21Confederate Congress votes to move the national governmentfrom Montgomery, Alabama to Richmond, Virginia.Battle of First Manassas (Bull Run) results in a Confederatevictory, which builds confidence in the South and convinces theNorth the war will be longer and harder than first thought.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:RailroadsRailroads were central to the conduct and outcome of the Civil War. Because railroads allowedfor the transportation of men and supplies over great distances and at a speed never beforeseen in war, they became central to the strategic thinking of both armies. The first battle of thewar, for example, took place near the crucial railroad junction at Manassas, Virginia, becauseboth sides recognized its logistical importance. The Battle of Manassas, or Bull Run, was alsothe first time in history that reinforcements arrived on a battlefield by rail.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarRailroadsThroughout the war, armies went out of their way to wreck railroads in order to sabotage theenemy. General Sherman’s troops were so effective at destroying track that Confederatesbegan calling the wreckage his men left behind – twisted beyond use or repair – “Sherman’sneckties.”Sherman’s men destroying Atlanta railroadsThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarRailroadsThe North had a distinct advantage when it came to the railroads. In 1860, there were 22,000miles of track in the Northern states compared to just 9,000 in the South, and the Northcontained virtually all of the track and locomotive factories. Union armies targeted cities likeCorinth, Chattanooga and Atlanta (and Manassas, twice!) because they were crucial Southernrailroad junctions, and capturing them would make supplying the Confederate armies withmuch-needed food, ammunition and reinforcements that much more difficult.Watch the In4 Video, Railroads - vil-warAlbert Bushnell Hart, LL.D., The American Nation Vol. 18 (New York, NY: Harper and Brothers, 1907) 62. Retrieved March 1,2010 , from e Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarTelegraphsThe telegraph was a monumental invention of the 19th century, allowing almost instantaneouscommunication over great distances, and was utilized to great effect during the Civil War. Bythe end of the war in 1865, the Union Army had strung over 6,000 miles of insulated copperwire. Most of this work was done by the U.S. Military Telegraph Corps, established in 1861 andled by a young Andrew Carnegie, who would go on to become one of the famed ‘titans ofindustry’ of the late 19th century. In 1862 alone, the U.S.M.T.C trained over a thousandtelegraph operators and sent more than one million messages to and from battlefields acrossthe country.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarTelegraphs(United States Army Center for Military History)The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarTelegraphsAn article in Harper’s Weekly explained, “The machine is a simple one, worked by a handle,which is passed around a dial-plate marked with numerals and the alphabet. By stopping atthe necessary letters a message is easily spelled out upon the instrument at the other end of theline, which repeats by a pointer every move on the dial-plate. The whole thing is so simple thatany man able to read and write can work it with facility.”Abraham Lincoln frequented the telegraph office in the White House regularly, and used it tocommunicate directly with commanders in the field, something never done before in wartime,and something that could not be matched by his Southern counterpart, Jefferson Davis,because the Confederacy lacked the industrial ability to string so much wire.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarIroncladsThe MonitorAs you can see from the dent above, ironclads like this one, the U.S.S. Monitor, wereimpervious to the sorts of direct hits that might have sunk a wooden ship in the past. Theironclad vessel was a Civil War invention, one of the many technological advances of historyaccelerated by the crucible of war. When news reached Washington of Confederate efforts tobuild an ironclad warship, Secretary of the Navy Gideon Welles feared it not only wouldeffectively disrupt the blockade, but could even steam up the Potomac and shell the WhiteHouse. Accordingly, he determined the Federal navy needed its own ironclad, to neutralize thethreat. Swedish engineer John Ericsson produced a design so ingenious, replete with theworld’s first rotating gun turret (seen above), Secretary Welles was skeptical whether it couldeven float and maneuver in the water. Ericsson declared confidently that “the sea would rideover her and she would live in it like a duck.” He was right.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarIroncladsThe OnondagaWhen the first two ironclads, the Confederate CSS Virginia (also known as the Merrimack)and the Monitor, came to grips at Hampton Roads, Virginia on March 9, 1862, they ushered ina new era in naval warfare, and made wooden fleets everywhere obsolete. The fight was astandoff. The Monitor and the Merrimack exchanged cannon fire for three hours at pointblank range, but neither was able to sink the other despite landing dozens of direct hits. Theiron siding achieved its desired effect. Northern and Southern shipyards set to work buildingironclads as quickly as possible.Ironclads dominated naval operations of the Civil War, and played an especially crucial role inthe Union effort to open the Mississippi River, which effectively cut the Confederacy in two andsignaled the beginning of the end of the rebellion.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarIroncladsThe Battle Between the Monitor and Merrimac – Kurz & Allison; notice the Union flagshipMinnesota sinking as the two ironclads exchange fire at close rangeWatch the In4 VideoNaval Technology - uring-civil-warThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarWeaponsThe Civil War saw the introduction of a new breed of technologically advanced weaponry.Whereas in wars past the ‘effective range’ of a musket was a scant 80 yards, in the Civil War thevast majority of soldiers used rifles which had an effective range of up to 400 yards, and weremuch more accurate. The increased range and accuracy of rifles changed the way war wasfought. Attacking a well-entrenched position became a much more desperate proposition,because the defenders could open fire much earlier and with greater precision.Springfield Model 1861: The most common firearm of the Civil WarThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarWeaponsDuring the Civil War, rifles not only became more accurate, cannons became larger. Under thesupervision of Army officer Thomas Rodman, the first 15-inch gun (shown below) wascompleted in 1861 and mounted at Fort Monroe, Virginia.The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum, Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarWeaponsAnother Civil War innovation was the repeating rifle. The Spencer carbine could fire sevenshots in thirty seconds, prompting one Union soldier to write that, “I think the Johnnys[Confederates] are getting rattled; they are afraid of our repeating rifles. They say we are notfair, that we have guns that we load up on Sunday and shoot all the rest of the week.”Spencer carbine (Smithsonian)The North enjoyed most of the technological advances that were made during the Civil War, forthe simple reason that it had the greater industrial capacity.Many scholars maintain that one of the principal reasons for the massive casualties thatcharacterized the Civil War is that antiquated military tactics had not caught up to advancesmade in military technology.Watch the In4 videosArtillery – y-civil-warSmall Arms - ms-weapons-civil-warThe Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:Technology Graphic OrganizerDirections: Use the available resources to find information about your assignedtechnological development. List a minimum of three facts, then make a conclusion about howthe technology was used during the Civil War. You will share your information with othercenters at the end of the activity.RailroadsFact 1:Fact 2:Fact 3:Conclusion:TelegraphFact 1:Fact 2:Fact 3:Conclusion:IroncladsFact 1:Fact 2:Fact 3:Conclusion:WeaponsFact 1:Fact 2:Fact 3:Conclusion:The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

The Traditional Civil War Curriculum,Goal 21861: The Country Goes to WarName:Date:Technology in the Civil WarWhat do you believe will be the top two technological achievements that will have the mostimpact on the war?1.Why?2.Why?The Traditional Civil War Curriculum High SchoolBattlefields.org

10. In4 Video, Railroads in the Civil War 11. In4 Video, Artillery in the Civil War 12. Battlefield U, How to Fire a Civil War Cannon 13. In4 Video, Small Arms in the Civil War 14. In4 Video, Naval Tech During the Civil War 15. In 4 Video, Civil War Photography 16. Optional, Civil War Photogr

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