Housing In The Czech Republic In Figures (August 2018 .

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HOUSING IN THE CZECH REPUBLICIN FIGURES(August 2018)Development in all areaswww.mmr.cz

HOUSING IN THE CZECH REPUBLICIN FIGURES(August 2018)Ministry of Regional Development of the CRHousing Policy DepartmentPrague, August 2018

ISBN 978-80-7538-195-8

ContentChapter I Housing . 5I.1I.2I.3Population, houses, dwellings . 5Housing construction . 12Expenditures, prices, affordability of housing . 15Chapter II Housing support. 23II.1II.2II.3Housing policy . 23Support by the Ministry of Regional Development (in 2018). 25Support by the State Housing Development Fund (in 2018) . 26Links . 33List of abbreviations . 33

Chapter I Housing1 Population, houses, dwellingsDwellingstockAccording to the “final results” of the 2011 Population andHousing Census (2011 census) the dwelling stock of theCR totalled 4,756,572 dwellings, with 4,104,635 occupieddwellings, of which 43.7% were in family houses and 55%in multi-dwelling buildings. This amounted to 454 dwellingsof all types (occupied and unoccupied) per 1,000 personsordinarily resident in the CR (whether or not in dwellings),corresponding to 391 occupied dwellings per 1,000 personsordinarily resident in the CR (whether or not in dwellings).For comparison – in selected European countries the givencivic amenity indicators show the following values: Belgium483, corresp. 415; Bulgaria 527, corresp. 361; Germany496, corresp. 452; Spain 540, corresp. 387; Poland 341,corresp. 332; Austria 530, corresp. 435; Slovakia 360,corresp. 322.Ground foruse of thedwelling55.9% of the occupied dwellings (2,294,250) were occupiedby their owners or owners of the houses, while 22.4%(920,405) were occupied by tenants. Co-operativedwellings, whose characteristics are similar to owneddwellings, occupied by households of members of cooperatives comprised at the census date 9.4% of the totalnumber of occupied dwellings in the Czech Republic.Another 3.4% of the occupied dwellings were occupied, forexample, by persons close to the owners (i.e. other rentfree use of dwellings).UnoccupieddwellingsAs of the last census (March 2011), there were 651,937unoccupied dwellings in total. From the number ofunoccupied dwellings, the dwellings located in familyhouses (461,007) outnumber the dwellings located in multidwelling buildings (176,641). 384,911 unoccupied dwellingsare located in unoccupied houses. One third of theunoccupied dwellings is located in small municipalities (withthe population smaller than one thousand), whereas in themunicipalities with the population smaller than two hundredone third of all the dwellings are unoccupied.5

Ageof dwellingsThe average age of occupied multi-dwelling buildings in theCR was 52.4 years and of family houses 49.3 years. Theaverage age of occupied dwellings at the census date was46.5 years. In comparison with other EU countries, the CRhas a somewhat older dwelling stock.Sizeof dwellingsThe average living area per inhabited dwelling in the Czech22Republic was 65.3 m , out of which it was 52.6 m in multi2dwelling buildings and 80.9 m in family houses. Theaverage total area per inhabited dwelling in the year of2census was 86.7 m ; in case of inhabited dwellings in multi2dwellings buildings it was 68.5m , while in case of inhabited2dwellings in family houses it was 109.1 m . In a Europewide comparison, the CR belongs among countries withrather less extensive dwellings (see graph page 11).Newly builtdwellingsThe number of dwellings completed in 2017 was 28,575(to date 20. 6. 2018).Population by way of housing and private households by way of housingfinal results according to the place of usual residenceTotalnumberof peoplepeople living indwellingsinstitutionselsewhereby way of housingPrivateHomelessinhouseholdsinnot inpeopleinstituin totaldwellings dwellingstionsIn the CR in totalas of 26th March, 10 425 064 10 144 961 194 456 85 647201111 4964 375 122 4 320 69151 3943 037Source: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.Housing of private householdsfinal results according to the place of usual residenceof thatPrivatehouseholdsin totalPrivatehouseholdsin totalprivate households living indwellingsprivate households not living indwellingsprivateweekend households1 PH2 PH 3 and moreliving inmobile makeshifthouses,in ain aPH in ahousingshelterrecreational institutionsdwelling dwelling dwellingcottages4 375 122 3 914 144 345 97060 57762431 967Source: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.618 8033 037

Houses by type of house and persons in houses and by occupancy andhouse ownerfinal results according to the place of usual residenceout of whichmultifamilydwellinghousesbuildingsHousesin totalHouses in totalout of whichby houseowner:occupied housesnatural personNumber of personsout of whichin family housestotal2 158 119 1 901 126 214 760 10 304 0415 043 3841 800 075 1 554 794 211 252 10 304 0415 043 3841 499 512 1 455 3674 729 64436 763 5 224 455municipality, state48 9489 58031 531housing cooperative31 5091 03730 404 1 023 0353 116137 68760 65176 522 2 048 197196 380co-ownership of owners of dwellings887 77332 749Source: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.Residential houses by occupancy, the number of dwellings in them, by housetype1 798 318out of ings1 554 794211 25232 2724 371 6611 896 9312 416 03358 6974 104 6351 795 0652 257 97851 592267 026101 866158 0557 105number of houses356 933346 3323 5087 093with following numberof (unoccupied) dwellings384 911359 14118 5867 184Houses intotalResidential houses by occupancynumber of housesOccupiedtotalnumberhouses withof dwellingsoccupieddwellingsin housesunoccupiedUnoccupiedHouseshouses withwithdwellingsdwellingsnumber of houses2 155 2511 901 126214 76039 365total4 756 5722 256 0722 434 61965 881occupied4 104 6351 795 0652 257 97851 592unoccupied651 937461 007176 64114 289occupied4 023xx4 023unoccupied1 111xx1 111Houses withnumberdwellingsof dwellingsin totalin housesHouseswithout dwellings*Source: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.* Houses without dwellings e.g. some hostels, student dormitories, boarding schools, homesfor children, old people's homes, social welfare institutions, monasteries, asylum facilities,hospitals, prisons ; albeit such types of institution may contain some dwellings.7

Occupancy of the dwelling stock (proportions) by municipality sizeas of 26th March, 2011Municipalities of population size100 000 and more50 000 - 99 99920 000 - 49 99910 000 - 19 9995 000 - 9 9992 000 - 4 9991 000 -1 999500 - 999200 - 499till 1990%20%40%Occupied dwellings60%80%100%Unoccupied dwellingsSource: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.Occupancy of the dwelling stock by municipality size as of 26th March, 2011Municipalities of population size100 000 and more50 000 - 99 99920 000 - 49 99910 000 - 19 9995 000 - 9 9992 000 - 4 9991 000 -1 999500 - 999200 - 499till 1990100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 100011001200number of dwellings (ths)Occupied dwellingsUnoccupied dwellingsSource: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.8

Occupied dwellings by legal ground for use of dwelling and by type of ownerof the housefinal results according to the place of usual residenceOccupieddwellings,totalownhouseOccupied dwellings, total4 104 635 1 470 174out of which type of theowner of house:Owner of the house1 894 868 1 407 789natural personout of which legal grounds for use of dwellingother freecopersonalundetermiuse ofrental operative otherownershipneddwellingownership824 076-140 348 920 405385 601 44 645140 348 183 856-319 38624 485138 390-29 746municipal, state372 214---342 468housing cooperative451 217---118 391-other legal person107 068---89 677co-ownership owners of dwelling908 99761 344665 155-118 609combination of owners259 746950124 555-33 39781 4832 79816 563undetermined110 5259134 366-34 00711 75440 306304 1173 03325 676-2 94314 448-9 63254 257Source: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.Occupied dwellings by legal ground for use of dwelling in the CR in total1,1 %7,8 %3,4 %own houserental9,4 %35,8 %personal ownershipco-operative ownershipother free use of dwelling20,1 %other legal ground for use of dwelling22,4 %undeterminedSource: Czech Statistical Office, calculations by the MRD.Dwellings by occupancy, occupied dwellings by type of house in the CR in total1,1 %13,7 %occupied dwellings in multi-dwelling buildings47,5 %37,7 %occupied dwellings in family housesoccupied dwellings in other buildingsunoccupied dwellingsSource: Czech Statistical Office, calculations by the MRD.9

Distribution of population by tenure status – share of rental dwellings (%)GermanyAustriaDenmarkUnited KingdomFranceSwedenNetherlandsEU (28 rgGreeceSloveniaPortugalSpainCzech 050Source: Eurostat, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) 2016.Occupied dwellings by number of persons in the dwelling and numberof habitable roomsfinal results according to the place of usual residenceOccupied dwellingswith following number of persons in dwellingtotal123456 andmoredwellings by number of habitable rooms(8m2 and more)12345 andmoreIn the CR intotal as of 26th 4 104 635 1 214 201 1 211 977 737 515 629 420 192 197 119 325 201 305 524 080 1 017 617 1 130 229 873 631March, 2011Source: Czech Statistical Office, final results of the 2011 census.10

Occupied dwellings by heating system3,7 %central7,1 %8,7 %stove (including storage heater, gas heater,convector heater, and fireplace)single-storey heating (with a boiler in dwelling)80,4 %other systems and undetermined casesSource: Czech Statistical Office, calculations by the MRD.Comparison of the composition of dwellings (shares of dwelling numbersin %) of some European countries according to the size of the using area2of dwellings (m ) in 2011Source: Eurostat.Country ascending sorted according to the proportion of flats up to 80 in square metres.11

2 Housing constructionTrends in housing completion and modernisation in the Czech Republicbetween 1997 – 2017 (number of dwellings)Source: Czech Statistical Office.12

Trends in housing construction in the Czech Republic: 1971–2017197176 926dwellings starteddwellings completed 70 226198757 309dwellings starteddwellings completed 49 000200336 496dwellings starteddwellings completed 27 319841985198689 55775 414198861 12050 700200439 03732 26889 09977 695198955 96555 073200540 38132 86396 16285 616199061 00444 594200643 74730 19086 24897 104199110 89941 719200743 79641 64983 02786 35019928 42936 397200843 53138 38077 93287 87219937 45431 509200937 31938 47384 69083 273199410 96418 162201028 13536 44283 61377 094199516 54812 998201127 53528 63069 45980 661199622 68014 482201223 85329 46753 76563 084199733 15216 757201322 10825 23848 48961 400199835 02722 183201424 35123 95454 45957 078199932 90023 734201526 37825 09460 92957 298200032 37725 207201627 22427 32247 33766 678200128 98324 758201731 52128 57551 97347 080200233 60627 291Source: Czech Statistical Office.Housing construction in the Czech Dw ellings completedtotal per1,000othercoope rativeinhab.1,40.1,63.2,15.4 6332,311,23 5792,452,53 0412,423,73 1332,685,64 2272,665,47 1243,165,49 8583,213,49 8762,941,618 3774,032,315 0273,681,816 1913,672,212 8713,462,48 4012,730,98 4752,801,07 7462,400,97 4192,272,4.2,38.2,58.out of w hich by form of cons 42630467238954095322575coope rativem 68298230566.Source: Czech Statistical Office.6 2776 6916 2927 0196 7816 5384 8604 4703 9041 8527578506031 6.in %m 28,830,731,0.average livingfloor area perdw elling (m 76,074,276,878,276,377,375,374,772,872,9

Number of completed dwellings in 2017 per 1000 inhabitants (by districts)

3 Expenditures, prices, affordability of housingConsumer price index - housing, December 2017In December 2017to average of 20150TOTALof which:04HOUSING, WATER, ENERGY, FUELin which:04.1Actual rentals for housing04.111NET RENT PAID BY TENANTS IN RENTAL HOUSING04.112SUM PAID IN CO-OPERATIVE DWELLINGS103,904.2Imputed rentals for housing04.211IMPUTED RENTALS OF OWNER-OCCUPIERS107,3107,304.3Maintenance and repair of the dwelling04.311MATERIALS FOR MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF THE DWELLING04.321SERVICES FOR MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR OF THE DWELLING103,899,3108,404.4Water supply and miscellaneous services relating to the dwelling04.411WATER SUPPLY04.421REFUSE COLLECTION04.431SEWERAGE COLLECTION04.441OTHER SERVICES RELATING TO THE DWELLING102,9102,8100,9105,7101,004.5Electricity, gas and other 31LIQUID FUELS04.541SOLID FUELS04.551HEAT 5100,5Source: Czech Statistical Office.15

Affordability of existing housing per average householdAffordability of new housing per average householdSource: Czech Statistical Office, calculations by the MRD.

Household final consumption expenditure on housing (domestic concept) to household final consumptionin 2005 and 2017, current prices (CZK million)data for the Czech Republic20052017Housing, water, electricity, gas and other fuels395 027of which expenses on:Actual rentals f or housingImputed rentals f or housing622 29853 80673 456187 492324 271Maintenance and repair of the dwelling11 79819 688Water supply and miscellaneous serv ices relating to the dwelling25 57837 268Electricity , gas and other f uels116 353167 615Share of housing expenses f rom total households expenses (%)1 613 92924,52 449 16425,4Actual indiv idual consumption1 895 6122 918 86220,821,3TOTALShare of housing expenses on actual individual consumption (%)Source: Czech Statistical Office, (last update 31. 8. 2018).Housing costs in 2017 – households (CZK)HouseholdstotalOne personhouseholdsunder 65yearsNumber of household absol.Housing costs:in CZK per household andmonth, totalas percentage of netfinancial household income4 372 257619 373OtherSingle parent2 adults, nohouseholds household,dependent children without dep. one or morechildrendep. children65 yearsbothat least oneandunder 65 adult 65 more617 782703 110654 890Otherhouseholdswith dep.children2 adults123 or moredependent dependentdep.childrenchildchildren374 271169 467429 604491 490111 549200 7205 6265 143,44 300,66 082,05 141,56 139,96 815,66 266,65 978,86 621,66 ource: Czech Statistical Office, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC) 2017.

Housing consumption as share of total household consumption in 2016current prices h republicSwedenFranceUnited 525,626,026,227,028,429,101020Source: Eurostat.1830

Household housing cost per month by legal ground for use ofdwelling in the year 2017 (in CZK)8 5008 0007 5007 0006 5006 0005 5005 0004 5004 0003 5003 0002 5002 0001 5001 000households,totalown house(family,residential andother)rentedcooperativeSource: Czech Statistical Office, Household Budget Survey.19personalownership

5,07,761,38,060,27,767,85 626 5 143 4 301 6 082 5 141 6 140 6 816 6 267 5 979 6 622 6 4319,8Households, totalless than 65yearsOne personhouseholds65 or moreboth less than65at least oneadult 65 or more2 adults, nodependentchildrenOther households withoutdependent childrenOne person with dependentchildren1 dependentchild2 dependentchildren2 adults3 or moredependentchildrenOther households withdependent childrenHousehold costs of energy in the Czech Republic (%)in terms of netmoney incomeHousing costs inCZK per householdand monthin terms of totalhousing costs59,320Source: Czech Statistical Office, Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (SILC)2017 – calculations by the MRD.The proportion of household costsspent on electricity, gas, hot water, heatenergy, solid and liquid fuels

Final energy consumption by the households of the EU countries perinhabitant according to the Eurostat methodology in 2016 in gigajoules toniaGermanyCzech RepublicHungaryFranceLatviaUnited KingdomNetherlandsCroatiaIrelandEU (28 0203040Source: Eurostat, (last update 31. 5. 2018 – energy, 27. 2. 2018 – population), dataprocessing by the MRD.Loans to households – inhabitants[1] for housing by the end of correspondingyear – total(CZK mil.)Households - inhabitants loans for housing toinhabitants totalof whichmortgageloansbuilding societyloans totalOtherother loans on households SVJ[2] - loansreal estates2007510 945333 901150 70526 33820171 148 0871 035 58181 84730 659[1] without household of self-employed[2] SVJ - associations of owners of individual dwellingsSource: Czech National Bank.2149 951

Average annual percentage rates of CZK loans provided by banks toinhabitants for housing in CR (new business, % p.a.)out of w hichLoans for housing(%)mortgage loans(%)building society loans(%)20075,275,304,8220172,382,223,44Source: Czech National Bank.Non-performing ratio for loans provided to households – inhabitants[1] andother households - SVJ[2] for housing (%)Non-performing ratio for loans provided to inhabitants (%)of whichfor housingmortgage loansbuilding savingsother loans20071,541,271,684,0720171,771,44,516,97Non performing ratiofor loans provided toother households –SVJ0,09[1] without household of self-employed[2] SVJ - associations of owners of individual dwellingsSource: Czech National Bank.Mortgage loans newly provided to citizens by nine banks, reporting their resultsto MRD, covering most of the market in individual years 2005-2017, number (pcs)Source: Mortgage banks.22

Chapter IIHousing support1 Housing policyHousingPolicyConcept ofthe CzechRepublictill 2020On 27th July 2016 the Government approved the Conceptof housing material of the Czech Republic until 2020(Revised) - (hereinafter "revised living concept"). Revisedliving concept respects the basic assumptions of housingpolicy formulated in the Concept housing Czech Republicin 2020 and its main principles and strategic objectives,and completely replaces the design part.Within individual visions in housing availability, stabilityand quality the state determines the following strategicobjectives:--Socialhousingensuring of the adequate availability of all formsof housing,creating a stable environment in the areas offinance, legislation and institutions for allparticipants in the housing market,reduction of investment debt of housing, includingimproving the quality of environmental residentialareas.A topical theme is how to tackle the issues of socialhousing.This area has also been a focus of housing policyinstruments in the past. From 1998 to 2017, with Stateinvestment support, some 22,507 housing units wereearmarked for the target group of variously definedhouseholds with social handicaps or for seniors andpersons with disabilities.23

State expenditure on housing (CZK mil.)2017MRD - total (construction, regeneration, subsidies for mortgage loans)2018skutečnost rozpočet336,50300,50SHDF - total (construction, modernization, repairing)1082,40MF - total (building savings material damage to banks)4033,124230,5010396,1011899,75MLSA - total (housing benefits)MI - total (Ensuring integration asylum seekers)ME - State Environmental Fund - total (increasing the energy efficiencyof residential buildings)MRD SHDF MF MLSA MI ME1958,703,5211,501634,861857,0017 486,50 20 257,95Expenditure share to GDP (%)0,39Source: MRD, SHDF, MF, MLSA, MI, ME.Social benefits per head of population by housing (consist of transfers,in cash or in kind, by social protection schemes to households andindividuals) in 2015 (in Purchasing Power Standards)United yIcelandNetherlandsSwedenCyprusBelgiumCzech 855,793,972,821,750,620,080100200Source: Eurostat.24300400

2 Support by the Ministry of Regional Development (realised in 2018)Housingappartmentswithoutbarriers(MRD)The aim of the program is to improve the housing stockthrough barrier-free access, which are designed especially forthe people with limited mobility or orientation, includingpersons with reduced autonomy, especially people withdisabilities, the elderly, pregnant women, personsaccompanying a child in a stroller, children under three yearsof age and persons temporarily restricted e.g. after an injuryor illness. Eligible applicants of the improvement is an ownerof the house with four or more floors, which is not equippedwith an elevator, or that does not allow wheelchair access tothe vertical communication (elevator), in which the removal ofbarriers in the form of construction work will allow wheelchairaccess to the building and a lift or for which we it can beginbuilding the new elevator.Support fortheconstructionof supportedhousing(MRD)The purpose of the support for the construction or acquisitionof social housing is to help people with difficult access tohousing due to special needs arising from their age, state ofhealth or existential social circumstance, where such personsare not in a position to influence such circumstances.The programme has three grant titles:1. Carer-home for persons with low incomes who have specialhousing needs for reasons of health or due to advanced age orhealth condition. The aim is to extend the self-sufficiency andindependence of persons from the target group and at the sameto provide social care field services effectively.2. Senior Community Home for persons with limited incomeaged over sixty. The aim is to provide rental housing for personsfrom the target group, in order to preserve and increase theirself-sufficiency and independence, and at the same time to allowa community way of life, drawing on neighbourliness principles.The emphasis is on interpersonal relationships and maintainingeach individual’s own independence. A Senior CommunityHome is a multi-dwelling building of at least 10 and at most25 dwellings, which also includes shared spaces to foster thecommunity life of the elderly.25

3 Support by the State Housing Development Fund (realised in 2018)Panel 2013 Dwelling stockrevitalizationprogramme(SHDF)PANEL 2013 offers low-interest loans for repairand modernizationoftheresidentialbuildings,emphasizes complex repairs, so the owners expendfinancial funds effectively. It is designed for all ownersof apartment buildings, regardless of constructiontechnology(panel,brick).Itisgovernedby the Government Decree no. 468/2012 Coll. It doesallowhomeownerstodohousingrepairsand modernization, leading to extend the service life,to increase the quality and to reduce the energy intensityof residential houses. The program can be takenby the advantage of the cooperatives, owners, individualsand legal entities as well as cities and municipalities,having owned apartment building. On 24. 7. 2014 waspublished in the Official Gazette the new governmentdecree no. 144/2014 Coll., which amends GovernmentRegulation no. 468/2012 Coll., and on 8. 8. 2014 a newregulation came into force. Since then, they are alsoaccepting applications according to the revisedgovernment regulation.Programmes formunicipalitiesRepair andmodernisation(SHDF)Loan program for covering the expenses associatedwith the repair and modernization of flats accordingto Government Decree no. 396/2001 Coll., in validwording. The municipality has an obligation to provideat least 20% of the borrowed funds to other ownersof housing in its territory, under the same conditions,i.e. at a rate of 3% p. a., with maturity of 10 yearsand the possibility of premature repayment of the loanor its part. The loan can be used for examplefor connecting to public networks of technical equipment(water supply, gas, sewer, electricity), windowsreplacement, roofing and roof replacement, repairof the outer shell (e.g. balcony), common areas(e.g. the elevator), etc.26

Programme 600Loans for youngpeople forhousingpurchaseacquisition(SHDF)Programme 150Loans for youngpeople forhousing qualityimprovement(SHDF)Program for thepurchase ormodernization ofdwellings foryoung peopleThis is about a loan program for the purchaseof dwellings by persons younger than 36 years, caringfor a child under 6 years of age, at the time of applyingfor the loan they are not owners or co-ownersof dwellings or tenant of the flat. The program isgoverned by the Government Decree no. 100/2016 Coll.The loan can be used for acquisition of dwelling (familyhouse or apartment, changing the building and part of theconstruction for housing, purchase, transfer of shares ina cooperative housing association). The loan amountranges from 50 000 to 600 000 CZK. The program willexpire on 15 August 2018 and will replace it with a newprogram for the acquisition or modernization of dwellingsfor young people.Implementation is provided in the form of the loanon the basis of Government Regulation no. 28/2006Coll., in the form of a loan, which is intendedto modernizetheexistingpropertyownedby the applicant, provided to the amount of 150 000 CZKwith a maturity of 10 years and an interest rateof 2% p. a. For the support may apply married or singleparents under 36 years of age, having ownership or coownership of real estate (house or flat). The financialfunds from the loan can be used for examplefor connecting to public networks (water supply, gas,electricity, canalisation), to the building envelope (walls,roofs, balconies, windows, gutters, shutters), extendingexisting dwelling for another room (but not rise housingunits), repairing or building a toilet or bathroom.The program expires on 15 August 2018 and is replacedby a new program for the acquisition or modernizationof dwellings for young people.Credit scheme under Government Decree No. 136/2018Coll., Is intended for persons under 36 who are livingin a marriage or a registered partnership or for a personup to the age of 36, who permanently cares for a childwho has not reached the date of application for the grantloan age 15 for modernization. The loan can be usedto build or buy a house whose floor area does not exceed140 m²; purchase of an apartment whose floor area does27

not exceed 75 m² and also the modernizationof the dwelling. At the time of applying for a loanfor purchase, the applicant may not be the owner or coowner of the dwelling or the tenant of the cooperativeapartment, nor shall his or her spouse or registeredpartner be the owner or co-owner of the dwellingor tenant of the cooperative apartment. The loan forupgrading is at least CZK 30,000 and not more than CZK300,000. A loan of up to CZK 2,000,000 may be obtainedfor the purchase or construction of a family house, fora purchase of up to CZK 1,200,000, up to 80% of theprice negotiated or the price determined under theProperty Valuation Act, if lower than the negotiated price.Interest is equal to the basic European Union referencerate for the Czech Republic (at least 1% p. A.),With fixation for a maximum of 5 years. The maturityof the loan for modernization is a maximum of 10 years.For construction and purchase, the maturity is up to 20years. The Fund may, at the request of the beneficiary,interrupt the repayment of the principal for a period of upto two years on account of the birth, adoption,guardianship, custody of the child or foster of the child,further to the loss of employment or the deathof a member of the household.ElementprogrammeReconstructionof dwellingsafter naturaldisasters(SHDF)Element Program, provided in accordance withGovernment Order no. 319/2004 is designed to repairhomes affected by the natural disaster, if it wasin accordance with the emergency law declared a stateof emergency or third degree of flood activity underthe Water Act. It focuses support, streamlines legislationsubsequent assistance into a single document. Updatesthe conditions for obtaining a loan for the

55.9% of the occupied dwellings (2,294,250) were occupied by their owners or owners of the houses, while 22.4% (920,405) were occupied by tenants. Co-operative dwellings, whose characteristics are similar to owned dwellings, occupied by households of members of co-

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