Essential Spanish in 2 hours with Paul NobleHarperCollins PublishersWesterhill RoadBishopbriggsGlasgowG64 2QTwww.collinsdictionary.comFirst published 2013This edition 201710 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Paul Noble 2013ISBN 978-0-00-821157-8ISBN 978-0-00-752600-0All rights reserved.Typeset by AptaraOther languages in the series:French and Italian
Essential Spanish in 2 hoursWelcome to your Essential Spanish in 2 hours course supporting guide!This guide is your companion to, and extension of, the recorded part of yourEssential Spanish course. And it is probably best if we begin by explaininghow these two parts work together to make up Essential Spanish.Your Essential Spanish course has been designed so that once you haveworked through it, you should be able to take a trip to Spain and chat withthe locals when you are confronted by various situations that we allencounter when travelling.Many of us, at some point in our lives, have picked up a phrasebook in orderto try to do this exact thing. We might have used one to order a meal, to booka taxi or to buy some tickets. One drawback of using such a phrasebook,however, is that you always need to carry it around with you wherever yougo. You then also have to take it out each time you want to use it, ﬁnd theright page and then try to pronounce what it says correctly. Not only this,but if the phrase you ﬁnd isn’t exactly what you’re looking for, what are yougoing to do then? If you can’t alter it, then it probably won’t be of much useto you.These drawbacks, which affect phrasebooks, will not apply to this course.Instead, Essential Spanish will teach you how to construct the languageby yourself, independently. You’ll learn how to put sentences together yourselfand the language will be introduced to you in such a way that you’ll be ableto remember it without even trying.So, once you’ve ﬁnished listening to the course, and then later readingthrough this guide, you will no longer need to carry a phrasebook aroundat all. Instead, it will be in your head! And you’ll be able to adapt the phrasesand sentences you have learnt so that you will have far more ﬂexibility, interms of what you can say, than you would ever have had with a normalphrasebook. And, more than that, you will actually understand what it isyou’re saying!3
How to use this guideThis guide has been designed to provide you with a quick and easy way toreview, reinforce and extend the key vocabulary, structures and contentthat you’ll learn through listening to the recorded part of your EssentialSpanish course.The ﬁrst part of your learning will involve listening to the accompanyingaudio. Then, once you have listened to the audio tracks, this guide will makeit possible for you to extend your knowledge of Spanish further, by allowingyou to acquire additional words and components.It is worth noting, however, that this guide should be used after you havebegun working through the accompanying audio tracks. It will serve asexcellent review and extension material but it is not designed to start youoff in the language. This is what the audio will do – and very rapidly too.Easy reference scriptThe best way to use this part of the guide is to start by reading through asection of the easy reference script, looking at both English and Spanish.Then go back to the beginning of that section and, while covering theSpanish side of the text, translate the English into Spanish – just as you didwhen you listened to the audio.Once you can get 90% of a section’s content correct, move on to the nextpart and follow the process again. Doing this, you will quickly recall andreview what you learnt with the audio.(Note: Track numbers have been included in the script. This will allow you toknow exactly where you can locate anything you might wish to review fromthe easy reference script.)4
Track 3I havehevisitedvisitadoI have visitedHe visitadoMadridMadridI have visited Madrid.He visitado Madrid.BarcelonaBarcelonaI have visited Barcelona.He visitado Barcelona.You haveHaYou have visited Barcelona.Ha visitado Barcelona.You have visited Madrid.Ha visitado Madrid.Have you visited Madrid?¿Ha visitado Madrid?Have you visited Barcelona?¿Ha visitado Barcelona?Yes.Sí.Yes, I have visited Barcelona.Sí, he visitado Barcelona.Yes, I have visited Madrid.Sí, he visitado Madrid.Yes, I have visited Barcelona. Haveyou visited Madrid?Sí, he visitado Barcelona.¿Ha visitado Madrid?Yes, I have visited Madrid. Have youvisited Barcelona?Sí, he visitado Madrid. ¿Ha visitadoBarcelona?Track 4reservedreservadoI have reservedHe reservadoYou have reservedHa reservadoa roomuna habitaciónYou have reserved a room.Ha reservado una habitación.Have you reserved a room?¿Ha reservado una habitación?Yes, I have reserved a room.Sí, he reservado una habitación.I have notNo heI have not reserved a room.No he reservado una habitación.You have notNo haYou have not reserved a room.No ha reservado una habitación.5
I have not visitedNo he visitadoI have not / I haven’t visited Madrid.No he visitado Madrid.You haven’t visited Madrid.No ha visitado Madrid.Haven’t you visited Madrid?¿No ha visitado Madrid?Haven’t you visited Barcelona?¿No ha visitado Barcelona?You haven’t reserved a room.No ha reservado una habitación.Haven’t you reserved a room?¿No ha reservado una habitación?Track 5a tableuna mesaI have reserved a table.He reservado una mesa.You have reserved a table.Ha reservado una mesa.Have you reserved a table?¿Ha reservado una mesa?Yes, I have reserved a table.Sí, he reservado una mesa.I haven’t reserved a table.No he reservado una mesa.Yes, I’ve reserved a room. Have youreserved a table?Sí, he reservado una habitación.¿Ha reservado una mesa?Track 66butperoI haven’t visited Madrid but I havevisited Barcelona.No he visitado Madrid pero hevisitado Barcelona.I haven’t visited Barcelona but I havevisited Madrid.No he visitado Barcelona pero hevisitado Madrid.the museumel museoI have visited the museum.He visitado el museo.I haven’t visited the museum.No he visitado el museo.I have visited Barcelona but I haven’tvisited the museum.He visitado Barcelona pero no hevisitado el museo.I have reserved a room but I haven’treserved a table.He reservado una habitación perono he reservado una mesa.
Track 7orderedordenadoI have orderedHe ordenadoYou have orderedHa ordenadoa tortillauna tortillaYou have ordered a tortilla.Ha ordenado una tortilla.I have ordered a tortilla.He ordenado una tortilla.paellapaellaa paellauna paellaI have ordered a paella.He ordenado una paella.You have ordered a paella.Ha ordenado una paella.Have you ordered a paella?¿Ha ordenado una paella?Yes, I’ve ordered a paella.Sí, he ordenado una paella.I haven’t ordered a paella.No he ordenado una paella.I have ordered a tortilla but I haven’tordered a paella.He ordenado una tortilla pero nohe ordenado una paella.I have reserved a table but I haven’tordered.He reservado una mesa pero no heordenado.Track 8I would likeQuisieraI would like a table.Quisiera una mesa.pleasepor favorI would like a table, please.Quisiera una mesa, por favor.I would like a room, please.Quisiera una habitación, por favor.withconbathbañowith bathcon bañoI would like a room with bath,please.Quisiera una habitación con baño,por favor.I would like a tortilla, please.Quisiera una tortilla, por favor.I would like a paella, please.Quisiera una paella, por favor.andy7
a paella and a tortillauna paella y una tortillaI would like a paella and a tortilla,please.Quisiera una paella y una tortilla,por favor.a coffeeun caféI would like a coffee.Quisiera un café.two coffeesdos cafésI would like two coffees.Quisiera dos cafés.two coffees and a tortillados cafés y una tortillaI would like two coffees and atortilla, please.Quisiera dos cafés y una tortilla,por favor.I wouldn’t likeNo quisieraI wouldn’t like a tortilla.No quisiera una tortilla.I wouldn’t like a coffee.No quisiera un café.I wouldn’t like a tortilla but I wouldlike a coffee.No quisiera una tortilla peroquisiera un café.Track 98to visitvisitarto visit Madridvisitar Madridto visit Barcelonavisitar BarcelonaI would like to visit Barcelona.Quisiera visitar Barcelona.I would like to visit Madrid.Quisiera visitar Madrid.I would like to visit the museum.Quisiera visitar el museo.to reservereservarI would like to reserveQuisiera reservarI would like to reserve a room.Quisiera reservar una habitación.I would like to reserve a table.Quisiera reservar una mesa.I would like to reserve a table,please.Quisiera reservar una mesa,por favor.I would like to reserve a room,please.Quisiera reservar una habitación,por favor.forportwo nightsdos nochesfor two nightspor dos noches
I would like to reserve a room fortwo nights.Quisiera reservar una habitaciónpor dos noches.I would like to reserve a room withbath.Quisiera reservar una habitacióncon baño.I would like to reserve a room withbath for two nights.Quisiera reservar una habitacióncon baño por dos noches.Track 10Words ending in “-ic” and “-ical” in English end in “-ico” in ticoIt isEsIt is typical!¡Es típico!It is exotic!¡Es exótico!It is political!¡Es político!romanticrománticoIt’s romantic!¡Es romántico!dramaticdramáticoIt’s dramatic!¡Es dramático!fantasticfantásticoIt’s fantastic!¡Es fantástico!democraticdemocráticoIt‘s democratic!¡Es democrático!problematicproblemáticoIt’s problematic!¡Es problemático!to knowsaberI would like to knowQuisiera saberifsiI would like to know ifQuisiera saber siI would like to know if it’s romantic.Quisiera saber si es romántico.I would like to know if it’s exotic.Quisiera saber si es exótico.9
I would like to know if it’sproblematic.Quisiera saber si es problemático.It isn’t / It’s notNo esIt isn’t romantic.No es romántico.I would like to know if it isn’tromantic.Quisiera saber si no es romántico.Why?¿Por qué?I would like to know why.Quisiera saber por qué.I would like to know why it’s notromantic.Quisiera saber por qué no esromántico.Track 1110I would like to know why youhaven’t reserved a room.Quisiera saber por qué no hareservado una habitación.I would like to know why youhaven’t reserved a table.Quisiera saber por qué no hareservado una mesa.I have ordered a tortilla and a paella.He ordenado una tortilla y unapaella.I have ordered a coffee and a tortilla.He ordenado un café y una tortilla.I have ordered two coffees and atortilla.He ordenado dos cafés y una tortilla.You haven’t ordered a coffee.No ha ordenado un café.You haven’t ordered two coffees.No ha ordenado dos cafés.I would like to know why youhaven’t ordered two coffees.Quisiera saber por qué no haordenado dos cafés.a taxiun taxiI would like to know why youhaven’t ordered a taxi.Quisiera saber por qué no haordenado un taxi.I have reservedHe reservadoI have bookedHe reservadoI have booked a table.He reservado una mesa.I have booked a taxi.He reservado un taxi.I haven’t booked a taxi.No he reservado un taxi.
You haven’t booked a taxi.No ha reservado un taxi.I would like to know why youhaven’t booked a taxi.Quisiera saber por qué no hareservado un taxi.Track 12to reservereservarto bookreservarI would like to book a table, please.Quisiera reservar una mesa,por favor.I would like to book a taxi, please.Quisiera reservar un taxi, por favor.I would like to book a room, please.Quisiera reservar una habitación,por favor.three nightstres nochesI would like to book a room withbath for three nights.Quisiera reservar una habitacióncon baño por tres noches.for Paulpara PaulIt’s for Paul.Es para Paul.one personuna personafor one personpara una personaIt is for one person.Es para una persona.two people / two personsdos personasIt’s for two people.Es para dos personas.I would like to book a table for twopeople.Quisiera reservar una mesa parados personas.I would like to book a room for twopeople.Quisiera reservar una habitaciónpara dos personas.I would like to book a room for twopeople for two nights.Quisiera reservar una habitaciónpara dos personas por dos noches.I would like to book a room withbath for two people for two nights.Quisiera reservar una habitacióncon baño para dos personas pordos noches.I would like to book a room withbath for two people for three nights.Quisiera reservar una habitacióncon baño para dos personas portres noches.11
Track 13to paypagarI would like to pay.Quisiera pagar.I would like to pay, please.Quisiera pagar, por favor.I have booked a room and I wouldlike to pay, please.He reservado una habitación yquisiera pagar, por favor.I have ordered two coffees and Iwould like to pay, please.He ordenado dos cafés y quisierapagar, por favor.I have ordered two coffees and apaella and I would like to pay,please.He ordenado dos cafés y una paella yquisiera pagar, por favor.creditcréditocredit card / card of credittarjeta de créditoby credit card / with card of creditcon tarjeta de créditoI would like to pay by credit card.Quisiera pagar con tarjeta decrédito.I have ordered two paellas and Iwould like to pay by credit card.He ordenado dos paellas y quisierapagar con tarjeta de crédito.Track 1612I would like to know if it’s typical.Quisiera saber si es típico.Is it?¿Es?How much?¿Cuánto?How much is it?¿Cuánto es?For two nights. How much is it?Por dos noches. ¿Cuánto es?For two nights, one hundred euros,please.Por dos noches, cien euros, porfavor.I would like a tortilla. How muchis it?Quisiera una tortilla. ¿Cuánto es?Five euros, please.Cinco euros, por favor.Thank you.Gracias.I would like a coffee and a paella.How much is it?Quisiera un café y una paella.¿Cuánto es?Eight euros, please.Ocho euros, por favor.
Track 17I would like a room with bath fortwo people for two nights. Howmuch is it?Quisiera una habitación con bañopara dos personas por dos noches.¿Cuánto es?A room with bath for two people fortwo nights one hundred euros.Una habitación con baño parados personas por dos noches cien euros.Track 18The hotel scenarioTravellerI would like a room withbath for two people fortwo nights. How muchis it?Quisiera una habitacióncon baño para dospersonas por dos noches.¿Cuánto es?ReceptionistA room with bath for twopeople for two nights one hundred euros,please.Una habitación con bañopara dos personas por dosnoches. cien euros, porfavor.TravellerI would like to pay by(with) credit card.Quisiera pagar con tarjetade crédito.The receptionist then takes your card, you enter your PIN and she handsit back to you.TravellerThank you.Gracias.ReceptionistThank you.Gracias.13
Track 20The café scenario14TravellerI would like a tablefor two people,please.Quisiera una mesa parados personas, por favor.TravellerTwo coffees and apaella, please.Dos cafés y una paella,por favor.TravellerHow much is it?¿Cuánto es?WaiterTen euros.Diez euros.TravellerI would like to pay bycredit card, please.Quisiera pagar contarjeta de crédito,por favor.
Building on what you’ve learnedIn a similar way to how you have used the easy reference script, the bestway to use this part of your guide is to start by reading through a section,looking at both the English and Spanish. This time, however, make sureyou also pay attention to the pronunciation guidance provided next tonew words.Once you have read through a section in this way, go back to thebeginning of the same section and, while covering the Spanish side of thetext, try to translate the English into Spanish. If you have forgotten someof the words, don’t worry – this is not about memorising! Instead, simplywork your way through the rest of the section and then start the samesection over again.Once you can get 90% of a section’s content correct, move on to the nextsection and follow the process until you have completed each and everysection.Finally, once you have done all of this, take a break for a day and then repeatthe entire process a second time. Doing this, you will ﬁnd that you very quicklyand thoroughly absorb the new vocabulary and components that havebeen introduced without ever trying to memorise them. You will insteadsimply “pick them up” by working through them. Now, get going with it!15
I have ordered 16I have ordered He ordenado I have ordered a paella.He ordenado una paella.I have ordered a tortilla.He ordenado una tortilla.I have ordered a coffee.He ordenado un café.sandwichsándwich (pronounced: san-wich)a sandwichun sándwichI have ordered a sandwich.He ordenado un sándwich.a sandwich and a coffeeun sándwich y un caféI have ordered a sandwich and acoffee.He ordenado un sándwich y un café.saladensalada (pronounced: en-sa-la-da)a saladuna ensaladaI have ordered a salad.He ordenado una ensalada.a sandwich and a saladun sándwich y una ensaladaI have ordered a sandwich and asalad.He ordenado un sándwich y unaensalada.I have ordered a paella and a salad.He ordenado una paella y unaensalada.winevino (pronounced: bee-no)redtinto (pronounced: tin-toe)red wine (literally: wine red)vino tintoa red wineun vino tintoI have ordered a red wine.He ordenado un vino tinto.I have ordered a red wine and atortilla.He ordenado un vino tinto y unatortilla.I have ordered a red wine, a tortillaand a salad.He ordenado un vino tinto,una tortilla y una ensalada.I have ordered a red wine and asandwich.He ordenado un vino tinto y unsándwich.whiteblanco (pronounced: blan-koh)white wine (literally: wine white)vino blancoa white wineun vino blancoI have ordered a white wine.He ordenado un vino blanco.
I have ordered a white wine and asandwich.He ordenado un vino blanco yun sándwich.I have ordered a white wine, asandwich and a salad.He ordenado un vino blanco,un sándwich y una ensalada.bottlebotella (pronounced: bo-tay-ah)a bottleuna botellaofde (pronounced: day)a bottle ofuna botella dea bottle of white wineuna botella de vino blancoI have ordered a bottle of whitewine.He ordenado una botella de vinoblanco.I have ordered a bottle of whitewine, a sandwich and a salad.He ordenado una botella de vinoblanco, un sándwich y unaensalada.a bottle of red wineuna botella de vino tintoI have ordered a bottle of red wine.He ordenado una botella de vinotinto.I have ordered a bottle of red wine, apaella and a salad.He ordenado una botella de vinotinto, una paella y una ensalada.I would like to know if you haveordered a salad.Quisiera saber si ha ordenado unaensalada.I would like to know why you haveordered a salad.Quisiera saber por qué ha ordenadouna ensalada.I would like to know why youhaven’t ordered a salad.Quisiera saber por qué no haordenado una ensalada.I would like to know why you haveordered a paella but you haven’tordered a salad.Quisiera saber por qué ha ordenadouna paella pero no ha ordenado unaensalada.I would like to know why you haveordered a bottle of red wine but youhaven’t ordered a taxi.Quisiera saber por qué ha ordenadouna botella de vino tinto pero no haordenado un taxi.17
I would like to order 18to orderordenar (pronounced: or-den-are)I would like to order Quisiera ordenar I would like to order a paella.Quisiera ordenar una paella.I would like to order a tortilla.Quisiera ordenar una tortilla.I would like to order a coffee.Quisiera ordenar un café.I would like to order a sandwich.Quisiera ordenar un sándwich.I would like to order a sandwich anda coffee.Quisiera ordenar un sándwich yun café.I would like to order a salad.Quisiera ordenar una ensalada.a sandwich and a saladun sándwich y una ensaladaI would like to order a sandwich anda salad.Quisiera ordenar un sándwich yuna ensalada.I would like to order a paella and asalad.Quisiera ordenar una paella y unaensalada.I would like to order a red wine.Quisiera ordenar un vino tinto.I would like to order a red wine anda tortilla.Quisiera ordenar un vino tinto yuna tortilla.I would like to order a red wine,a tortilla and a salad.Quisiera ordenar un vino tinto,una tortilla y una ensalada.I would like to order a red wine anda sandwich.Quisiera ordenar un vino tinto yun sándwich.I would like to order a white wine.Quisiera ordenar un vino blanco.I would like to order a white wineand a sandwich.Quisiera ordenar un vino blanco yun sándwich.I would like to order a white wine,a sandwich and a salad.Quisiera ordenar un vino blanco,un sándwich y una ensalada.I would like to order a bottle ofwhite wine.Quisiera ordenar una botella de vinoblanco.I would like to order a bottle ofwhite wine, a sandwich and a salad.Quisiera ordenar una botella de vinoblanco, un sándwich y unaensalada.I would like to order a bottle of redwine.Quisiera ordenar una botella de vinotinto.I would like to order a bottle of redwine, a paella and a salad.Quisiera ordenar una botella de vinotinto, una paella y una ensalada.
I / We have invited invitedinvitado a (pronounced:een-bee-tar-do ah)I have invited He invitado a I have invited Carmen.He invitado a Carmen.I have invited Paul.He invitado a Paul.the museumel museoto the museumal museo (pronounced:al moo-say-oh)I have invited Paul to the museum.He invitado a Paul al museo.the cinemael cine (pronounced: el thin-ay)to the cinemaal cine (pronounced: al thin-ay)I have invited Paul to the cinema.He invitado a Paul al cine.we havehemos (pronounced: ay-moss)We have invited hemos invitado a We have invited Paul to the cinema.Hemos invitado a Paul al cine.We have invited Paul to the museum.Hemos invitado a Paul al museo.theatreteatro (pronounced: tay-art-roh)the theatreel teatroto the theatreal teatroWe have invited Paul to the theatre.Hemos invitado a Paul al teatro.I have invited Paul to the theatre.He invitado a Paul al teatro.restaurantrestaurante (pronounced:rest-ow-ran-tay)the restaurantel restauranteto the restaurantal restauranteI have invited Paul to the restaurant.He invitado a Paul al restaurante.I haven’t invited Paul to therestaurant.No he invitado a Paul al restaurante.I have invited two people to therestaurant.He invitado a dos personas alrestaurante.We have invited two people to therestaurant.Hemos invitado a dos personas alrestaurante.We have invited two people to thetheatre.Hemos invitado a dos personas alteatro.19
I would like to go to 20to goir (pronounced: ear)I would like to go Quisiera ir I would like to go to the restaurant.Quisiera ir al restaurante.I would like to go to the cinema.Quisiera ir al cine.thisesta (pronounced: es-ta)eveningnoche (pronounced: no-chay)this eveningesta nocheI would like to go to the cinema thisevening.Quisiera ir al cine esta noche.I would like to go to the museumthis evening.Quisiera ir al museo esta noche.I would like to go to the theatre thisevening.Quisiera ir al teatro esta noche.I would like to go to the theatre andto the cinema this evening.Quisiera ir al teatro y al cine estanoche.concertconcierto (pronounced :kon-thee-air-toe)the concertel conciertoto the concertal conciertoI would like to go to the concert thisevening.Quisiera ir al concierto esta noche.parkparque (pronounced: par-kay)the parkel parqueto the parkal parqueI would like to go to the park.Quisiera ir al parque.marketmercado (pronounced:mair-card-oh)the marketel mercadoto the marketal mercadoI would like to go to the market.Quisiera ir al mercado.supermarketsupermercado (pronounced:soo-pair-mair-card-oh)the supermarketel supermercado
to the supermarketal supermercadoI would like to go to thesupermarket.Quisiera ir al supermercado.21
NumbersYou can listen to all of these numbers on track 21 for eintatreinta y unotreinta y dostreinta y trestreinta y cuatrotreinta y 859606162636465666768697071treinta y seistreinta y sietetreinta y ochotreinta y nuevecuarentacuarenta y unocuarenta y doscuarenta y trescuarenta y cuatrocuarenta y cincocuarenta y seiscuarenta y sietecuarenta y ochocuarenta y nuevecincuentacincuenta y unocincuenta y doscincuenta y trescincuenta y cuatrocincuenta y cincocincuenta y seiscincuenta y sietecincuenta y ochocincuenta y nuevesesentasesenta y unosesenta y dossesenta y tressesenta y cuatrosesenta y cincosesenta y seissesenta y sietesesenta y ochosesenta y nuevesetentasetenta y uno
979899100101setenta y dossetenta y tressetenta y cuatrosetenta y cincosetenta y seissetenta y sietesetenta y ochosetenta y nueveochentaochenta y unoochenta y dosochenta y tresochenta y cuatroochenta y cincoochenta y seisochenta y sieteochenta y ochoochenta y nuevenoventanoventa y unonoventa y dosnoventa y tresnoventa y cuatronoventa y cinconoventa y seisnoventa y sietenoventa y ochonoventa y nuevecienciento uno102103104105ciento dosciento tresciento cuatrociento 121ciento seisciento sieteciento ochociento nueveciento diezciento onceciento doceciento trececiento catorceciento quinceciento dieciséisciento diecisieteciento dieciochociento diecinueveciento veinteciento veintiunoand so 050,0001,000,000doscientosdoscientos unodoscientos tecientosochocientosnovecientosmilmil unodos mildiez milcincuenta milun millión23
The alphabetYou can listen to the entire Spanish alphabet on track 22 for correctpronunciation.24LetterPronounced in Spanish aySay-sayTtayUooVoo-vayWdob-lay oo-vayXek-eessYee gree-ay-gahZthay-tah
Jun 23, 2020 · Essential Spanish in 2 hours Welcome to your Essential Spanish in 2 hours course supporting guide! This guide is your companion to, and extension of, the recorded part of your Essential Spanish course. And it is probably best if we begin by explaining how these two parts wor
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So, in Spanish the infinitive vivir is expressed in English as “to live” comer in Spanish is “to eat” in English caminar in Spanish is “to walk” in English. One thing that makes English easy to learn is that the Spanish verbs ser and estar are both covered by the one English verb “to be.”
Instant Spanish VocabularyŒ uncovered 579 Spanish words you can use starting today. And you thought we had uncovered all the instant Spanish vocabulary formulas in Shortcut to Spanish level 1. Not by a long shot. There is still water in the well; there are 100 s more instant
Even my Spanish 2 students retained a lot of basic grammar from Spanish 1. With respect to my learners’ current levels of proficiency based on the ACTFL Proficiency Guidelines, overall I would classify Spanish 5AP students as intermediate low-mid, Spanish 4 students as novice high-intermediate low, a
Objective 1: Understands the linguistic features of Spanish and how to compare Spanish to English . The beginning Spanish Language teacher: A. Understands the rules of the sound system of Spanish, such as recognizing phonemes and allophones B. Recognizes and employs linguistic devices used
Shortcut to Spanish Level 1 Lección uno Listen to the pronunciation of, crisis, in Spanish. Crisis. There are many words in Spanish that are written exactly the same as English. You just need to learn to pronounce them with correct Spanish pronunciation. Listen again to, crisis. Crisis. Say
Abrasive water jet machining experiments conducted on carbon fibre composites. This work reported that standoff distance was the significant parameter which - reduced the surface roughness and the minimum of 1.53 µm surface roughness was obtained . Garnet abrasive particles was used for machining prepreg laminates reinforced with carbon fiber using the epoxy polymer resin matrix (120 .