Abrasive Machining Processes - IIT Kanpur

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Abrasive Machining ProcessesN. Sinha, Mechanical EngineeringDepartment, IIT Kanpur

Introduction Abrasive machining involves material removal by the action ofhard, abrasive particles. The use of abrasives to shape parts is probably the oldest materialremoval process.They are important because They can be used on all types of materials ranging from softmetals to hardened steels and hard nonmetallic materials such asceramics and silicon. Extremely fine surface finishes (0.025 µm). For certain abrasive processes, dimensions can be held toextremely close tolerances.

Types of Abrasive Machining Processes Grinding Honing Lapping Superfinishing Polishing Buffing Abrasive water jet machining Ultrasonic machining

Difference between grinding and milling The abrasive grains in the wheel are much smaller and morenumerous than the teeth on a milling cutter. Cutting speeds in grinding are much higher than in milling. The abrasive grits in a grinding wheel are randomly oriented. A grinding wheel is self-sharpening.Particles on becoming dull either fracture to create newcutting edges or are pulled out of the surface of the wheelto expose new grains.

Surface GrindingHorizontal Surface GrindingVertical Surface Grinding

Surface GrindingHorizontal Grinding Machine

Cylindrical GrindingTwo types of cylindrical grinding:(a) external, and (b) internal

External Centerless Grinding

Grinding Wheel and Workpiece Interaction Grit-workpiece (forming chip) Chip-bond Chip-workpiece Bond-workpiece Except the grit-workpiece interaction, which is expected toproduce chip, the remaining three undesirably increase the totalgrinding force and power requirement. Therefore, efforts should always be made to maximize gritworkpiece interaction leading to chip formation and tominimize the rest for best utilization of the available power.

Grinding Wheel Parameters Type of Abrasive material Grain size Wheel grade Wheel structure Bonding material

Abrasive MaterialsGeneral PropertiesHardness, wear resistance, toughness, friability

Effective grit geometry due to material loading at tip Grit geometry may undergo substantial change due to mechanical orchemical attrition leading to rounding or flattening of the sharp cuttingpoints. This happens when the work material has hard or abrasive constituent. A chip material adhered to the tip of the grit because of some chemicalaffinity can also change the effective rake angle of the grit leading to highgrinding force, temperature and poor performance of the grinding wheel.

SiC and Ferrous Materials SiC abrasives are harder than friable Al2O3 but they are usuallyinferior for grinding most ferrous materials. This is due to the dissociation of SiC to react with and adhere toiron at elevated temperatures. (Affinity of silicon or carbon for theworkpiece) Therefore, SiC tends to work better than Al2O3 on some ferrousmetals with excess carbon. Superiority of SiC on some cast irons is due to the presence ofsmall amounts of SiC as a normal constituent in the iron, whichwould have a more drastic effect on the wear of the softer Al2O3.

Grain Size Grain size is expressed in terms of a SIEVE NUMBER, Sn whichcorresponds to the number of openings per linear inch. The diameter of an abrasive grain is given by The larger the size of grains, more will be material removal, butsurface finish will be worse.Sieve No.10-2430-6070-180220-600Type of GrainCoarseMediumFineVery Fine

Grinding Wheel Structure“Open” and “dense”In what conditionsthese structures beprovided?

Wheel GradeIndicates the strength of the binding material.When the work material is hard, the grains wear outeasily and the sharpness of the cutting edges isquickly lost. This is known as WHEEL GLAZING.To avoid this problem, a soft wheel should be used. A-H – Soft Wheel J-P – Medium Wheel Q-Z – Hard Wheel

Bonding MaterialsVitrified Bond (V) – Strong and Rigid, commonly used.Resinoid (B) – Provides shock absorption and elasticity.They are strong enough.Silicate (S) – Provides softness (grains dislodge quickly)Shellac (E) – Used for making thin but strong wheelspossessing some elasticity.Rubber Bonds (R) – For making flexible wheels.Metallic Bond (M) – For diamond wheels only.

Bonding MaterialsVitrified Bond (V) – Strong and Rigid, commonlyused.Resinoid (B) – Provides shock absorption andelasticity. They are strong enough.Silicate (S) – Provides softness (grains dislodgequickly)Shellac (E) – Used for making thin but strongwheels possessing some elasticity.Rubber Bonds (R) – For making flexible wheels.Metallic Bond (M) – For diamond wheels only.

Grinding Wheel Specification

Grinding ChipsFig: (a) Grinding chip being produced by a single abrasive grain. (A) chip, (B)workpiece, (C) abrasive grain. Note the large negative rake angle of the grain. Theinscribed circle is 0.065mm in diameter. (b) Chip formation by an abrasive grain with awear flat. Note the negative rake angle of the grain and the small shear angle

Chip Formation Chips in this process are formed by the same mechanism ofcompression and shear as other machining processes. As the grains or abrasives become dull, the cutting forcesincrease. The increase in the cutting force causes the grainsto plow and rub rather than cut. As the plowing and rubbingincreases, the grains fracture at the cutting edge to revile anew cutting edge.

Chip Formation The importance of the grit shape can be easily realized because it determinesthe grit geometry e.g. rake and clearance angle. The grits do not have definite geometry and the grit rake angle may vary from 45 to -60 or more. Grit with favorable geometry can produce chip in shear mode. However, gritshaving large negative rake angle or rounded cutting edge do not form chips butmay rub or make a groove by plowing leading to lateral flow of the workpiecematerial.

Effect of grinding velocity and rake angle on force A negative rake angle always leads to higher cutting force. The difference is narrowed at a high grinding velocity and thegrinding force becomes virtually independent of the rake angle.

Various Stages of Grinding with Grit Depth of CutAt a small grit penetration only sliding of the grit occurs against theworkpiece. In this zone, rise of force with increase of grit penetration isquite high.With further increase of the grit penetration, grit starts ploughing causingplastic flow of the material also associated with high grinding force.With further increase of penetration, the grit start cutting and the rate ofrise of force with increase of grit depth of cut is much less than what can beseen in the sliding and ploughing zone.

Variation of critical depth of cut with grinding velocityGrinding is a combination of rubbing, ploughing and cutting (actualchip formation) .A certain level of grit penetration into workpiece is required beforechip formation can start.Magnitude of critical grit depth of cut required to initiate cuttingbecomes less with the increase of grinding velocity.

Determination of the Density of Active GrainsBacker, Marshall and Shaw method: the grinding wheel is rolledover a glass plate covered with a layer of carbon black.Peklenik and Opitz method: employs a thermocouple located atthe surface of the workpiece. As each active grain passes, athermocouple junction is formed between the wire and theworkpiece and a pulse is obtained from the high temperaturedeveloped that can be counted using an oscilloscope.Grisbrook method: the surface of the grinding wheel is viewedon a projection microscope, and the number of cutting pointspassing a line on the projection screen is counted as the wheel isrotated a given amount.

Testing of Grinding WheelsStrength of a bond: pass a sintered metal carbide or diamondchisel over the wheel surface in such a way that it tears a layer ofgrains from the bond.The forces required to separate a layer of grains from the bond aretaken as a measure of the strength of the bond.Hardnessa) Drill the wheel with a hard spade-type drill with a constant force.The depth of penetration in a given time is a measure of wheelhardness.b) Use an air/abrasive jet to break the bond. The depth ofpenetration of the jet erosion in a standard period of time isused to determine equivalent wheel hardness.c) Measure the resonant frequency of an isolated wheel after asharp blow with a rubber hammer and relate it to hardness.

Grinding Wheel WearGrain fracture: a portion of the grain breaks off, but the rest ofthe grain remains bonded in the wheel.Attritious wear: dulling of the individual grains, resulting in flatspots and rounded edges.Bond fracture: the individual grains are pulled out of thebonding material.

Grinding Wheel WearG Volume of material removedVolume of wheel wearVary greatly (2-200 or higher) depending on thetype of wheel, grinding fluid, and processparametersHigher forces decrease the grinding ratio(1): the grains are initially sharp, and wear is accelerated due tograin fracture.(2): characterized by attritious wear, with some grain and bondfracture.(3): the grains become dull and the amount of ploughing andrubbing increases relative to cutting.

Abrasive water jet machining Ultrasonic machining. Difference between grinding and milling The abrasive grains in the wheel are much smaller and more numerous than the teeth on a milling cutter. Cutting speeds in grinding are much higher than in milling. The abrasive grits in a grinding wheel are randomly oriented . A grinding wheel is self-sharpening. Particles on becoming dull either .

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