Scope Of Anatomy And Physiology Definition Of Various .

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NOTESKARTSScope of Anatomy and Physiology Definition ofvarious terminologiesHuman Anatomy & PhysiologyChapter-1In this Notes we provide you Human Anatomy & Physiology Notes Chapter – 1 Topic : Scope of Anatomyand Physiology Definition of various terminologies

NoteskartsSubscribe Our YouTube Channel for Video ClassesHUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGYAnatomy:Anatomy is a branch of science in which deals with the internal organstructure is called Anatomy. The word “Anatomy” comes from the Greek word“ana” meaning “up” and “tome” meaning “acutting”. Father of Anatomy is referred as “Andreas Vesalius”.Physiology: In the physiology we deals with theworking principle of different body systems andinteraction between each other.In the physiology we will discuss about metabolicpathway of body system and their activities.Scope of Anatomy and Physiology–(A) Branch of Anatomy: Development biology/Embryology—In this branch of Anatomy we deals with the, structural changesand structural development of sexual gametes and embryo development.Sequential development of embryo is.Gamete formation—Fertilisation—Fallopiandevelopment of fertilise egg—Implantation—Embryoformation—Foetus development.(2) Cell biology In the cell biology we will studyabout structural changes and structural development ofcell during cell division or cell development.Cell is the fundamental structural and functional unitof living things.(3) Histology Histology is the study of structural changes and structural developmentof Tissues.www.noteskarts.com

NoteskartsSubscribe Our YouTube Channel for Video Classes A group of cell having similar structure and act together to perform specificperson isCalled tissue. It is four types.o Epithelial tissue.o Connective tissue.o Muscular tissue.o Nervous tissue.(4) Gross Anatomy In the gross anatomy we deals with the structure of the body that are visible tonaked eye.so it is also called Macroscopic Anatomy.(5) Topographic Anatomy In this branch we discuss about layering structure of body part, projection presenton skin, andinterconnecting structure of muscle, nerves and Arteries. It is also called as surfaceAnatomy.(6) Radiographic Anatomy Study of Anatomical structural by using radiographic technique is known asradiographic Anatomy.In this procedure x-ray are used for the structural representation of threedimensional object in two dimensional image.(7) Systemic AnatomyIn the systemic Anatomy we deals with Eleven different body system of ourbody. Integumentary/Exocrine systemEndocrine systemNervous systemLymphatic/Immune systemMuscular systemSkeletal systemRespiratory systemCirculatory systemDigestive systemUrinary systemReproductive system(B) Branch of physiology—www.noteskarts.com

NoteskartsSubscribe Our YouTube Channel for Video Classes(1) Cell physiology: Study of cells functions, working principle and interaction of cells with each otheris called cell physiology.(2) Endocrinology: Study of hormonal substances and their functions, how to control our body isknown as Endocrinology.(3) Neurophysiology Study of nerve cell and their functions is called Neurophysiology. It is also knownas messenger physiology.(4) Immunology Study of defensive mechanism in our body against disease causing agent or duringdisease conditions is called Immunology.(5) Cardiovascular physiology Study of working principle/ functions of heart and blood vascular system is knownas cardiovascular physiology.(6) Respiratory physiology Study of working principle/functions of lungs and air passageway is knownas Respiratory physiology.(7) Pathophysiology Study of functions change during the disease conditions and aging iscalled pathophysiology.Definition of various terms used in Anatomy— Anterior/ventral—Direction towards front of the body. Posterior/Dorsal—Direction towards back of the body. Superior/Cranial— Towards the head or upper/highest most point of the body ofthe body proper. Example – Head, Neck. Inferior/Caudal—Away from head or lower/lowest most point of the body of thebody proper. Example- feet Proximal end—Starting end of the joint or attachments. Distal end—Ending end of the joint or attachments and most distant region ofproximal end.Symmetry related terms used in Anatomy—www.noteskarts.com

NoteskartsSubscribe Our YouTube Channel for Video Classes Asymmetrical—When the body parts not divided into equal half by cutting anyplane. Radial symmetry—When the body parts divided into two equal half by cuttingany radial plane. Bilateral symmetry—When the body parts divided into two equal half by cuttingany one radial plane otherwise not.Abdominal quadrants and including organs in Anatomy— Right Upper Quadrants(RUQ)—Gall bladder, major parts of liver, minor parts ofstomach, small intestine, parts of pancreas. Left Upper Quadrants(LUQ)—Tip of liver, Spleen, major parts of stomach, partsof pancreas. Right Lower Quadrants(RLQ)—Ascending colon, caecum, appendix, rightovary, small intestine, uterus. Left Lower Quadrants(LLQ)– Descending colon, sigmoid colon, left ovary,small intestine, urinary bladder, anus.Abdominal region and including organs in Anatomy— Right Hypochondriac Region—some part of liver, right kidney, gall bladder,parts of large/small intestine. Epigastric Region—major parts of liver, stomach ,adrenal gland, some parts ofpancreas, spleen, duodenum. Left Hypochondriac Region—liver tips, stomach, spleen, pancreas, some part ofleft kidney, large/small intestine. Right Lumber Region—gall bladder, ascending colon, small intestine, rightkidney. Umbilical Region—transverse colon, small intestine (duodenum), umbilicus(navel). Left Lumber Region—descending colon, left kidney. Right Iliac Region—appendix, caecum, starting of ascending colon. Hypogastric Region—urinary bladder, sigmoid colon, reproductive organs,rectum, anus. Left Iliac Region—descending colon.Different positions in Anatomy— Anatomical position—The body is erect the head facing forwards arms by the sideand palms of the hand facing forward is kncalled Anatomical position. Supine position—when a person laying on his/her back arms by the side palmfacing upwards and feet put together is known as supine position. Prone position—when a person laying on his/her face and chest arms by the sidepalm facing upwards and feet put together is known as prone position. Lithomy position—When a person laying on his/her back and legs are temporarilyfit supported by stripe is known as lithotomy.These position mostly used indelivering of baby.www.noteskarts.com

NoteskartsSubscribe Our YouTube Channel for Video ClassesDifferent plane in Anatomy— Mid sagittal plane—this plane divide our body in left and right parts. Coronal plane—Coronal plane divide our body into front and back. Transverse plane—It is a horizontal imaginary plane which divide our bodysuperior and inferior parts.www.noteskarts.com

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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY Anatomy: Anatomy is a branch of science in which deals with the internal organ structure is called Anatomy. The word “Anatomy” comes from the Greek word “ana” meaning “up” and “tome” meaning “a cutting”. Father of Anatomy is referred as “Andreas Vesalius”. Ph

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