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THE HANDBOOK OFJOURNALISM STUDIESThis handbook charts the growing area of journalism studies, exploring the current state of theoryand setting an agenda for future research in an international context. The volume is structuredaround theoretical and empirical approaches, and covers scholarship on news production andorganizations; news content; journalism and society; and journalism in a global context. Emphasizing comparative and global perspectives, each chapter explores: Key elements, thinkers, and textsHistorical contextCurrent state-of-the-artMethodological issuesMerits and advantages of the approach/area of studiesLimitations and critical issues of the approach/area of studiesDirections for future researchOffering broad international coverage from top-tier contributors, this volume ranks among thefirst publications to serve as a comprehensive resource addressing theory and scholarship injournalism studies. As such, The Handbook of Journalism Studies is a must-have resource forscholars and graduate students working in journalism, media studies, and communication aroundthe globe.A Volume in the International Communication Association Handbook Series.Karin Wahl-Jorgensen is Reader in the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media, and Cultural Studies, Cardiff University, Wales. Her work on media, democracy, and citizenship has been published in more than 20 international journals as well as in numerous books.Thomas Hanitzsch is Assistant Professor in the Institute of Mass Communication and MediaResearch at the University of Zurich. He founded the ICA’s Journalism Studies Division and haspublished four books and more than 50 articles and chapters on journalism, comparative communication research, online media, and war coverage.

INTERNATIONAL COMMUNICATION ASSOCIATION (ICA)HANDBOOK SERIESRobert T. Craig, Series EditorStrömbäck/ Kaid – The Handbook of Election News Coverage Around the WorldWahl-Jorgensen/Hanitzsch – The Handbook of Journalism Studies

THE HANDBOOK OFJOURNALISM STUDIESEdited byKarin Wahl-JorgensenThomas Hanitzsch

First published 2009by Routledge270 Madison Ave, New York, NY 10016Simultaneously published in the UKby Routledge2 Park Square, Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon OX14 4RNRoutledge is an imprint of the Taylor & Francis Group, an informa businessThis edition published in the Taylor & Francis e-Library, 2008.“To purchase your own copy of this or any of Taylor & Francis or Routledge’scollection of thousands of eBooks please go to” 2009 Taylor & FrancisAll rights reserved. No part of this book may be reprinted or reproduced or utilised in any form or byany electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without permission in writingfrom the publishers.Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, andare used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.Library of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataThe handbook of journalism studies / [edited] by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch.p. cm. — (ICA handbook series)Includes index.1. Journalism. I. Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin. II. Hanitzsch, Thomas, 1969PN4724.H36 2008070.4—dc222008024854ISBN 0-203-87768-3 Master e-book ISBNISBN10 HB: 0-8058-6342-7ISBN10 PB: 0-8058-6343-5ISBN10 EB: 1-4106-1806-4ISBN13 HB: 978-0-8058-6342-0ISBN13 PB: 978-0-8058-6343-7ISBN13 EB: 978-1-4106-1806-1

ContentsSeries Editor’s ForewordRobert T. CraigixPrefacexiContributorsxiiiI. INTRODUCING JOURNALISM STUDIES1 Introduction: On Why and How We Should Do Journalism StudiesKarin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch32 Journalism HistoryKevin G. Barnhurst and John Nerone173 Journalism and the AcademyBarbie Zelizer294 Journalism EducationBeate Josephi42II. NEWS PRODUCTION5 News Organizations and RoutinesLee B. Becker and Tudor Vlad596 Journalists as GatekeepersPamela J. Shoemaker, Tim P. Vos, and Stephen D. Reese737 Objectivity, Professionalism, and Truth Seeking in JournalismMichael Schudson and Chris Anderson888 Reporters and Their SourcesDaniel A. Berkowitz1029 Gender in the NewsroomLinda Steiner116v

viCONTENTS10 Convergence and Cross-Platform Content ProductionThorsten Quandt and Jane B. Singer130III. NEWS CONTENT11 Agenda SettingRenita Coleman, Maxwell McCombs, Donald Shaw, and David Weaver14712 News Values and SelectivityDeirdre O’Neill and Tony Harcup16113 Nature, Sources, and Effects of News FramingRobert M. Entman, Jörg Matthes, and Lynn Pellicano17514 News, Discourse, and IdeologyTeun A. van Dijk19115 Rethinking News and Myth as StorytellingS. Elizabeth Bird and Robert W. Dardenne20516 The Commercialization of NewsJohn H. McManus218IV. JOURNALISM AND SOCIETY17 Journalism and DemocracyBrian McNair23718 Journalism, Public Relations, and SpinWilliam Dinan and David Miller25019 Alternative and Citizen JournalismChris Atton26520 Journalism Law and RegulationKyu Ho Youm27921 Journalism EthicsStephen J. A. Ward29522 Journalism and Popular CultureJohn Hartley31023 Audience Reception and News in Everyday LifeMirca Madianou325

CONTENTSviiV. JOURNALISM STUDIES IN A GLOBAL CONTEXT24 Journalism and GlobalizationSimon Cottle34125 Development JournalismXu Xiaoge35726 Advocacy Journalism in a Global ContextSilvio Waisbord37127 Covering War and PeaceHoward Tumber38628 Researching Public Service BroadcastingHallvard Moe and Trine Syvertsen39829 Comparative Journalism StudiesThomas Hanitzsch41330 Towards De-Westernizing Journalism StudiesHerman Wasserman and Arnold S. de Beer428Author Index439Subject Index443

Series Editor’s ForewordRobert T. CraigAlthough the origins of academic research on journalism can be traced to mid-nineteenth centuryEurope and work on this topic developed in several disciplines through the twentieth century,especially in U.S. schools of Journalism and Mass Communication during the century’s last several decades, in the perspective of the present moment journalism seems to have emerged rathersuddenly on the international scene of communication research as a vibrant new interdisciplinaryfield. The Journalism Studies interest group of the International Communication Association,formed as recently as 2004 with 50 initial members, at this writing is one of the largest, fastestgrowing. and most broadly international ICA divisions with over 500 members as of mid-2008.The Handbook of Journalism Studies, edited by Karin Wahl-Jorgensen and Thomas Hanitzsch, isthus a timely contribution that provides a benchmark assessment and sets the agenda for futureresearch in this burgeoning area.The editors’ introduction notes other signs of growth including several new journals andmajor books on Journalism Studies published in recent years. It must be acknowledged that muchof what is here called Journalism Studies continues lines of research that have gone on for manyyears under the rubric of Mass Communication, but the shift to Journalism Studies representsmore than just a new label for old work or the familiar process of a maturing sub-specialty spinning off from an overpopulated division. Rather, it marks a significant shift of focus away fromthe functionalist tradition in which journalism has been studied primarily with regard to abstractfunctions of the mass communication process like gatekeeping and agenda setting. While theseand other similar lines of empirical research, as represented by excellent chapters in this volume,continue to flourish and hold an important place, the frame shift from Mass Communicationto Journalism Studies inverts figure and ground. As the central focus shifts away from abstractfunctions of mass communication and toward journalism as, in the editors’ words, “one of themost important social, cultural and political institutions,” then the normative, historical, cultural,sociological, and political aspects of journalism that were formerly overshadowed emerge as primary concerns and redefine the intellectual context in which empirical studies are conducted.The editors and authors contributing to this volume hail from 11 countries around the worldand include leading scholars representing a range of disciplines. Thirty chapters review bodiesof literature on diverse aspects of Journalism Studies as an academic field, practices of newsproduction, analyses of news content, the complex relations of journalism to society, and theglobal context of journalism research. Internationalizing the field and developing a global perspective on journalism institutions, extending research in traditionally marginalized institutionsand practices, and connecting scholarship with journalism education and professional practiceare appropriately emphasized by the editors as goals for the future.ix

THE ICA HANDBOOK SERIESThe ICA Handbook series is a joint venture between the International Communication Association and Routledge. It will be a series of scholarly handbooks that represent the interests of ICAmembers and help to further the Association’s goals of promoting theory and research across thediscipline. These handbooks will provide benchmark assessments of current scholarship and setthe agenda for future work. The series will include handbooks that focus on content areas, methodological approaches, and theoretical lenses for communication research.We seek proposals from prospective editors of handbooks. We especially seek proposals thatcross the boundaries of established disciplines and fields to address timely problems of international scope, not just representing different specialties but bringing them together collaborativelyto address intersecting interests and research problems of broad interest. For example, such problems might be formulated as topical concerns (e.g., globalization, virtual environments), theoretical approaches (e.g., social cognition, critical studies), or matters pertaining to communicationor communication research in general (e.g., methodological innovations, communication theoryacross cultures).For more information about this series, contact:Robert T. CraigICA Handbook Series EditorDepartment of CommunicationUniversity of Colorado at Boulder270 UCBBoulder, CO 80309-0270303-492-6498 voice303-492-8411 [email protected] BathgateSenior Editor, Communication StudiesRoutledge270 Madison AvenueNew York, NY 10016212-216-7854 phone212-643-1430 [email protected]

PrefaceThe book that you now have before you is a product of the conviction that we should care aboutjournalism and its study. We should care about journalism because it’s central to democracy,citizenship, and everyday life, and we should care about journalism studies because it helpsus understand this key social institution. We are not alone in holding this conviction: Journalism studies is one of the fastest growing areas within the larger discipline of communicationresearch and media studies. As indicated by a serious, though not altogether coherent body ofacademic literature and ongoing scholarly work, the study of journalism has matured to becomean academic field of its own right. We felt that the arrival of journalism studies ought to be bothcelebrated and solidified, and to honor this ambition, The Handbook of Journalism Studies wasconceived as a gathering place for the varied lasting and emerging preoccupations of scholars inthe field. This handbook therefore bears witness to the rapid and exciting developments withinthis important area of research, as well as its complexity, richness and promise in terms of theoryand research. We hope the book can boost the intellectual foundations of journalism studies,providing the reader with an overview of journalism as a dynamic field of study across its diverseepistemological, theoretical and methodological traditions.The Handbook of Journalism Studies sets out to comprehensively chart the field and definethe agenda for future research in an international context. It is our hope that the handbook, whentaken as a whole, provides a sense of journalism research on a global scale, covering not justthe dominant Anglo-American traditions but also looking beyond this context, to Africa, LatinAmerica, continental Europe, and Asia. Although we have sought to make journalism studies abroad church in including 30 different chapters, each covering an impressive breadth of subjectmatter, we do not claim to survey every key area and tradition of scholarship in journalism studies. We had to make tough choices about what we were able to include and, regrettably, what toleave out. Needless to say, it would be impossible to do complete justice to a rich, dynamic andever-emerging field of research in only one volume, however bulky, and we are reassured thatjournalism studies continues to be a productive scholarly community where the debates that echoin this book and those we have been unable to reflect continue with unabated fervor. What wedo hope is that The Handbook of Journalism Studies will be a useful compendium resource foranyone trying to get a sense of an academic field of inquiry and its past, present and future. Weintend for the book to provide the starting point for further discussion and debate among scholarsand students in communication and journalism studies.The book is structured around a critical engagement with key theoretical and empirical traditions, fields of inquiry and scholarly debates in journalism studies, laid out by the foremostexperts in each area. Beginning with four introductory chapters which outline more general issues in the field, the organization of the book reflects the aim of covering the broad contours ofjournalism studies. The volume contains four thematic sections, covering scholarship on newsproduction and organizations, news content, journalism and society, and journalism in a globalcontext. Within these sections, each chapter provides a systematic and accessible overview of thexi

xiiPREFACEstate of scholarship and defines key problems, but also advances theory-building and problemsolving, and identifies areas for further research.Editing this book and working with some of the most renowned scholars of our field hasbeen a pleasure and a privilege, but it would not have been possible without the help and dedication of many committed people. We would therefore like to express our gratitude to all contributors for their excellent chapters. We would also like to thank Linda Bathgate from Routledge andthe series editor Robert T. Craig for their helpful comments on the first draft of the proposal andtheir help during the editing process. We are especially indebted to Hong Nga Nguyen “Angie”Vu who did an exceptional job in proofreading all chapters. Karin would like to thank colleaguesin the Cardiff School of Journalism, Media and Cultural Studies for their support and advice, andJacob Wahl-Byde for his arrival in the middle of this project, adding both endless joy and chaos.Thomas would like to thank colleagues in the Institute for Mass Communication and Media Research at the University of Zurich for their patience and support during the editing stage of thebook.

ContributorsChris Anderson is completing his doctoral studies in communication at the Columbia UniversityGraduate School of Journalism, New York. His research focuses on new media technologies,journalistic authority and the position of journalism within the sociology of the professions. Hehas contributed chapters to a number of books, including The Media and Social Theory (Routledge, 2008), The International Encyclopedia of Communication (Blackwell, 2008) and MakingOur Media (Hampton Press, 2008).Chris Atton is Reader in Journalism at the School of Creative Industries, Napier University,Edinburgh. His research into alternative media is interdisciplinary, drawing on sociology, journalism, cultural studies, popular music studies and politics. His books include Alternative Journalism (Sage, 2008, with James Hamilton), An Alternative Internet (Edinburgh University Press,2004), Alternative Media (Sage, 2002) and Alternative Literature (Gower, 1996). He is currentlyresearching the nature of distributed creativity in avant-garde and experimental music; the cultural politics of post-punk fanzines; and audiences for community media in Scotland.Kevin G. Barnhurst is Professor, Department of Communication, University of Illinois at Chicago. His studies of news consumption and critical analyses of journalism include The Form ofNews: A History (Guilford Press, 2001), with John Nerone, Seeing the Newspaper (St. Martin’sPress, 1994), and many other articles and book chapters. He has been LSU Reilly Visiting Fellow; Distinguished Fulbright Chair, Italy; Shorenstein Fellow at Harvard; Visiting Scholar atColumbia University; and Senior Fulbright Scholar, Peru.Lee B. Becker is a professor and Director of the James M. Cox Jr. Center for International MassCommunication Training and Research at the University of Georgia, Athens. His research focuses on a variety of topics, including news work, the interface between the journalism labor marketand educational and training institutions, and the evaluation of media performance. His most recent book is The Evolution of Key Mass Communication Concepts (Hampton Press, 2005), editedwith Sharon Dunwoody, Douglas M. McLeod, and Gerald M. Kosicki.Daniel A. Berkowitz is Professor of Journalism and Mass Communication at the University ofIowa. His main areas of research are in sociology of news, and media and terrorism. He is theeditor of Social Meanings of News: A Text-Reader (Sage, 1997) and has published articles inJournalism, Journalism Studies, International Communication Gazette, Journalism & MassCommunication Quarterly, Journal of Communication, as well as chapters in Media and Political Violence (Hampton Press, 2007) and in Media Anthropology (Sage, 2005).S. Elizabeth Bird is Professor and Chair, Department of Anthropology, University of SouthFlorida. Her books include For Enquiring Minds: A Cultural Study of Supermarket Tabloidsxiii

xivCONTRIBUTORS(University of Tennessee Press, 1992), Dressing in Feathers: The Construction of the Indian inAmerican Popular Culture (Westview, 1996) and The Audience in Everyday Life: Living in aMedia World (Routledge, 2003). She has published over 50 articles and chapters; she is currentlyediting a book on the anthropology of news and journalism.Renita Coleman is Assistant Professor at the University of Texas in Austin. Her research focuses on visual communication and ethics. She is co-author of the book The Moral Media: HowJournalists Reason About Ethics (Erlbaum, 2004, with Lee Wilkins), and has published articlesin numerous journals including Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, Journal of Communication, and Journalism Studies. She is associate editor of the Journal of Mass Media Ethics.She was a newspaper journalist for 15 years.Simon Cottle is Professor of Media and Communications and Deputy Head of the School ofJournalism, Media and Cultural Studies at Cardiff University, Wales. His latest book is Global Crisis Reporting: Journalism in the Global Age (Open University Press, 2009) and recentbooks include Mediatized Conflict: Developments in Media and Conflict Studies (Open University Press, 2006) and The Racist Murder of Stephen Lawrence: Media Performance and PublicTransformation (Praeger, 2004). He is the editor of the international Peter Lang series GlobalCrises and Media.Robert W. Dardenne is Associate Professor of Journalism and Media Studies at University ofSouth Florida, St. Petersburg. He co-authored The Conversation of Journalism (Praeger, 1996)and authored A Free and Responsible Student Press (Poynter Institute for Media Studies, 1996).His articles, book chapters, and newspaper op-ed pieces center on various aspects of news content, practice, and history. As a Fulbright Lecturer, he spent 1999–2000 teach

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