Out Of The Woods: Tsimshian Women And Forestry Work

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Anthropology of Work ReviewOut of the Woods: Tsimshian Women and Forestry WorkCaroline F. Butler, University of British ColumbiaCharles R. Menzies, University of British ColumbiaIntroductionThe story of work on the west coast of Canada hastraditionally been one of rugged (white) men in fish-boats,mines and forests. The experiences of Aboriginal peoples aslaborers and producers in resource industries have rarelybeen the focus of mainstream historical accounts (Knight1996: 5). While such gaps in historical and ethographicrecords are being tackled by contemporary scholars, many ofthe less conspicuous stories of resource work in BritishColumbia remain untold. Recent research has tended tofocus on Native men's experiences as fishers (Menzies 1992,Stevens 1992) and on Native women's wage labor in salmoncanneries (Newell 1993, Muszynski 1992). Aboriginalwomen's long and complex history of involvement with theforest industry in British Columbia remains largely unexplored. In this article we will discuss some of the key socialand economic processes at work during the colonization andindustrialization of western Canada that have affectedAboriginal women's involvement in the forestry industry.The experiences of women of the Tsimshian Nation on thenorth coast of British Columbia offer a case study that spansover a century and a half of involvement in forestry work. Inthis case study we describe an alternative, gendered historyof forestry and also highlight the forces working to dispossessAboriginal peoples and, specifically, to disadvantage Aboriginal women. Tsimshian women's early involvement aslaborers and producers, and their subsequent exclusion fromboth wage work and independent harvesting, illuminates theway that colonialism and capitalism have cooperated in theeconomic marginalization of Aboriginal women.Drawing from archival sources and life history interviews,1Tsimshian women's involvement with commercial forestry istraced from the establishment of a Hudson Bay trading postin Tsimshian territory in 1834 until the present time. Theexclusion of women from forestry, coincident with the shiftfrom an Aboriginal economy to industrial resource extraction,will be related to the social and economic changes encouraged by church and state and dictated by the needs of capital.The shifting position of Aboriginal women in the resourceCaroline Butler is a PhD student in anthropology at theUniversity of British Columbia. Her MA thesis (UBC 1998)examined the impacts of fishing regulations on the salmonfisheries of the Sto.lo First Nation. She is currently engagedin a research project exploring the experiences of resourceworkers on the north coast of British Columbia.Charles R. Menzies is an assistant professor of anthropologyat the University of British Columbia. His current workexplores the development of the industrial economy innorthern British Columbia and it's implications for theconstruction of race, gender, and social class.01economy throughout the last century illuminates the instability of their status as women and as workers during the periodof colonial and capitalist expansion.Background: Tsimshian Territories and CommunitiesThe traditional territories of the Tsimshian peoples stretchfrom the Nass River in the north to Douglas Channel in thesouth, and from the coastal islands several hundred kilometers inland. This broad territory includes the linguisticsubdivisions of Nishga, Gitksan, Coast Tsimshian and Southern Tsimshian (Seguin 1983: ix); the current political divisionsare reflected in the separate treaty negotiations of the Nisga'a,Gitxsan and Tsimshian Nations. Here we focus on communities traditionally identified as Coast Tsimshian, whose treatyrights are currently being negotiated by the Tsimshian TribalCouncil, based in Prince Rupert.Human habitation of the Tsimshian lands dates backapproximately thirteen thousand years, and the culturesencountered by European colonizers were developed byabout 2,500 years ago (Marsden et al 1996: 99). Europeansfirst visited the Tsimshian people at the village of Kitkatla in1 787 by the trading vessel Princess Royal (Halpin and Seguin1977: 281). During the next half-century, a few villagesbecame the main settlements for the Tsimshian tribes,marking a shift from the frequent moves required by theAboriginal subsistence cycle. Today the 10,000 TsimshianNation members reside in the Native communities of LaxKw'Alaams, Metlakatla, Kitkatla, Kitasoo, Kitselas, Hartley Bayand Kitsumkalum, and the towns of Prince Rupert, PortEdward and Terrace, as well as various other parts of theprovince.Commercial Forestry in Tsimshian TerritoryWhile lumber may have been an occasional trade itembefore European settlement, commercial forestry as a sourceof income and regular employment in Tsimshian territorybegan with the establishment of Fort Simpson in 1834 by theHudson Bay Company (Marsden and Galois 1995). TheHudson Bay Company (HBC) needed a great deal of bothbuilding lumber and firewood for the development of the furtrading post. The HBC journals from 1834-64 indicate thesignificance of Tsimshian labor in procuring wood for the fort.Tsimshian men were hired for logging expeditions and to cutfirewood; Tsimshian families also independently harvested andsold wooden pickets and shingles used in fort construction.The Hudson Bay Company ceased to be a significantemployer of Native labor by the latter part of the nineteenthcentury and was replaced by the many sawmills establishedthrough the encouragement of local missionaries. Evangelismwas closely related to the development of the forestryindustry in Tsimshian territory prior to 1900. Anglicanmissionary William Duncan founded a mission at Metlakatlain 1867 and immediately built a sawmill to encourage theVolume XXI, Number 2 \

Anthropology of Work Reviewcommunity's economic independence. Duncan also considered the traditional large houses of the Tsimshian antitheticalto Christian living and insisted on the construction of singlefamily dwellings. This mill was a significant employer of localmen and a buyer of independently logged lumber. Similarly,Thomas Crosby, the Methodist missionary at Fort Simpson,encouraged the construction of Georgetown sawmill (nearFort Simpson) in 1875 to provide lumber for new, "Christian"houses and to encourage Aboriginal industrial participation(Bolt 1992: 66). Georgetown mill employed Tsimshiansawyers and loggers until 1967.As well as running their own logging camps, local millspurchased logs from independent handloggers. Handloggersworked alone or in small teams, usually using their fishingboats to reach the logging claims and to transport the logbooms to the mill. Tsimshian families registered loggingtracts on their traditional family territories as well as workingclaims owned by the mills. Although handlogging ceased tobe a common activity for non-Natives in the early part of thetwentieth century, Native families continued this practicemuch later. McDonald suggests that Aboriginal loggers'integration of logging with subsistence activities helped themto persist in independent production, while those totallydependent on market commodities could not (1984: 358).Until the middle of the century the Tsimshian were engagedin a seasonal round, which included several months of wagelabor, various independent harvesting enterprises (fishing,logging, beachcombing), and non-market subsistence foodgathering.The growing monopolization of timber resources by a fewlarge companies throughout the twentieth century inhibitedthis economic mix and initiated a shift to wage labor. Sincethe 1950s men from the Tsimshian communities of LaxKw'Alaams and Kitsumkalum have been heavily involved inindustrial logging, both on reserve lands and elsewhere.Consolidation of the industry has resulted in the closure ofthe smaller, local logging operations; increasingly, the largecompanies based in the south have brought their own crewsup to the Prince Rupert region. Employment opportunities forlocal loggers have been significantly curtailed.Currently, the treaty process and the growing recognitionof Aboriginal rights are transforming the nature of loggingoperations in Tsimshian territories. Bands of Aboriginal menare establishing their own development corporations toorganize resource use and are also entering into joint ventures with large logging companies. The real benefits of theseshifts are as yet uncertain.Tsimshian Women and the Forest ResourcesTsimshian women have perhaps been less prevalentparticipants in the forest industry than their husbands, fathersand brothers; however, they have been involved in forestryin various ways since contact. The nature and extent of theirinvolvement have changed throughout the course of the lastcentury and a half, and it is these changes that are importantto understanding the significance of colonialism in transforming the relationship between Aboriginal women and theresource base.Volume XXI, Number 2When Fort Simpson was relocated to Tsimshian territory in1834, the fort residents were fearful of the Native communitycamped outside the fort walls. The Hudson Bay Companyhired Tsimshian men to cut wood for them, even though themen were not allowed to bring the wood inside. Instead,Native women were hired to carry the firewood and lumberinside the walls of the fort. Women were also hired to cutfirewood when there was a shortage of male labor duringfishing season.Tsimshian women's wage work in forestry declined withthe shift to lumber production in mills during the latterdecades of the nineteenth century. There is no indication thatwomen were employed in any of the local mills at the turn ofthe century; however, the proliferation of mills did expandthe opportunities for handlogging, and Tsimshian womenwere part of the kin-based production of saw logs. While theactual felling of the trees was predominantly, if not always,done by men, the female kin of these loggers were involvedin the process of handlogging: trimming the logs, making theboom, driving the boat, gathering and preparing food for theloggers. Aboriginal involvement in primary production in theform of handlogging for mills continued into the 1940s.While we do not have life history material for the first part ofthe century, Tsimshian Elders have shared with us theirexperiences handlogging in the 1930s and 1940s.Mabel Baxter's family continued to follow the traditionalseasonal round of temporary subsistence camps until the1950s, and she recalls the details of food gathering andtimber production with her parents and grandmothers.When I was in grade four I figured I knew all I needed toknow in school. So we moved with [father] wherever heneeded to go, all year round. He did handlogging, and loggingto the Native people and all the old people, Native and nonNative, having a logging claim was just like having money inthe bank. They get what they need and leave the otherstanding.We would pack wood, saw wood. Do all the otherhousehold things. We never go right out to the bush, we go tothe camp. Every so often he would bring a long round and wewould chop the limbs off. I remember one time he had a greatbig log and my mother was sitting on the top chopping thelimbs off—she was about six months pregnant.Mabel's family used the money from selling their timber tosupplement the food they gathered throughout the year andto buy supplies and gas for fishing and hunting. During thecourse of the year, the Baxters visited seven different camps,which they shared with their extended family. Their subsistence round included the harvesting of salmon, halibut,mountain goats, crabapples, cranberries, clams, crabs, seal,deer, mussels, sea cucumber, herring eggs, seaweed, abalone,and octopus. This continued into the 1950s, when the largelogging companies began to monopolize timber claims in theregion; this disrupted handlogging and its monetary supportof subsistence and also impacted Tsimshian ability to gatherother resources.At the end of his logging season, he'll boom it up and take it in.Get a little bit of money, pay off the winter bills, stock up onmore groceries. We never worried about bank accounts. Hisbank account is in the goods. But when they brought in the big13

Anthropology of Work Reviewcompanies, that did away with the bank account. Someoneelse took it. So they lost all their logging claims.Mabel's brother Andrew suggests that industrial logging haslimited the availability of bush food: "We followed the cycleof food. So we find that the circle is broken by logging. Thetrees are missing. So much of our food is in them."After losing their handlogging claims the Baxters beachcombed for a few years but found it hard to make a living.The eventual licensing and territorialization of beachcombingfurther inhibited their ability to obtain the necessary cashincome to supply their subsistence activities. Mabel startedwork at the cannery in Port Essington at the age of twelve.Her sons are all industrial loggers, and her daughters aremarried to loggers.The end of kin-based timber production meant the end ofany significant female involvement in the forest industry forseveral decades. Women were not hired as loggers bylogging companies and were not employed in the localsawmills. However, one momentary exception occurredduring World War II, when male labor was suddenly lessavailable.Wanda Lester was born in 1918 in Kitselas and married aKitsumkalum man, Jake Walton in 1934. Jake started workingat Brown's mill in 1935 as a slabman and later as an edgerman. Wanda lived at Brown's mill with him and, by theoutbreak of the war, had four small children. In 1942, theinternment of the Japanese workers caused a critical laborshortage. The owner of the mill asked Wanda to work as aplaner. Wanda was one of the few women living at the millsite (3 hours by boat from the village), because her childrenwere not yet school-aged. She worked at the mill until theend of the war when the servicemen returned home. Wandamade 35 cents an hour, as did her husband, which was 10cents more than the Japanese workers had been paid. Therewere two other women working in the mill during the war.After the war Wanda moved back to the village for herchildren to attend school, and she babysat to make money;her husband took a job with an industrial logging company.After the war women found little employment in the localforest industry until Columbia Cellulose built a large sulfitepulp mill in Port Edward, just outside of Prince Rupert. Thefirst mill was built there in 1951, but a large, automatedfacility was built in 1967 (Marchak 1983: 104). The mill hasemployed a small number of women over the past threedecades.The shift to industrial production led to fewer jobs forTsimshian women; major companies do not hire women ingreat numbers as loggers. The large automated mills offeronly limited employment. The more recent shift in control oflogging operations on reserve lands back to First Nations doesoffer some potential opportunities for Aboriginal women.Hartley Bay band member Debby Stout works part-time onthe administration of a joint-venture logging project, and fulltime for the Lax Kw'Alaams fish processing plant. Local andAboriginally-controlled resource enterprises may thus offersome opportunities for women outside of the actual production process. Whether they will provide more direct forestryemployment is unclear.14The Paradox of Women's LaborThe pattern of participation for Tsimshian women in theforest industry is in some ways not surprising—a steadydecline of involvement in forestry related to the shift fromprimary production to wage labor, reflecting an exclusion ofAboriginal women from the industrial workforce. Morerecent openings in the pulp mills can be related both toautomation reducing the association of millwork with physicalstrength, and to the liberalization of views regarding womenand work. This pattern of employment is extremely similar tothat experienced by women in mining in the United States(see Moore 1996), including the temporary opening of theindustries to women during World War II.This pattern is, however, complicated by the fact thatTsimshian women were highly involved in wage labor inanother sector of the resource economy. Native womenprovided the bulk of the labor force for salmon canneries onthe north coast of British Columbia from the 1880s until themid-twentieth century. Native women were wageworkers inthe resource economy, just not in forestry.The differential integration of female Native labor into thefishing and forestry industries reflects the complex interactionof material and ideological forces in the construction of theeconomy of British Columbia. More specifically, this paradoxof Aboriginal women's experience as resource workersilluminates the inconsistent and unstable position that Nativewomen held in the social structure of the province throughout the last century and a half. Their status as women andworkers was significantly impacted by the forces of colonialism, industrialization, European gender ideology, and thevarying collisions of these forces over time.The Marginalization of Native Women WorkersTsimshian women's experience as workers reflects thelarger transformation of Aboriginal economic and socialstructures by the forces of colonialism and capitalism.Colonization and capitalist expansion both demanded thetransformation of independent Native producers into wagelaborers. Both required the alienation of land and resourcesfrom Aboriginal control. Both benefited from the assimilationof Native peoples to European values and economic structures. These goals were achieved through the inhibition ofNative subsistence activities involving large territories, theestablishment of male-headed single family households, andthe segregation of male and female labor.The subsistence cycle of the Tsimshian encouraged aflexible gender division of labor in which women and menworked cooperatively and performed complementary labor toproduce food and trade goods. Mabel Baxter's stories ofhandlogging reflect this complementarity; women and menwere involved in different aspects of the production process.McDonald suggests that this flexible and complementarygender division of labor creates a situation where members ofone gender labor with and for the other gender, promotingsocial unification (1984: 87).However, by the 1980s McDonald noted an ethic thatdictated that married women should not need to work outsidethe home (1984: 66). During the twentieth century, the malebreadwinner ethic had become internalized within a commu-Volume XXI, Number 2

Anthropologynity that had formerly valued both male and female labor ascrucial to family production and reproduction. Furthermore,this ideology reflected an eclipse of Tsimshian women'ssignificant role as wage laborers in canneries for severaldecades at the turn of the century. During the last fivedecades, Tsimshian women became dislocated from theiridentity as wageworkers. This shift is related to both thedecline of the Aboriginal economy brought about by colonialand capitalist efforts and a changing gender ideology withinindigenous communities.Nineteenth-Century Economic and Social ChangeThe colonial state and missionaries worked together asboth proponents of patriarchal ideology and initiators ofeconomic change to shift women's social and economicpositions at the end of the nineteenth century. During the1880s missionaries began to discourage seasonal migrationand to demand permanent settlements centered aroundchurch, school and industry. Simultaneously, the governmentreserve system began to concentrate indigenous populationson small pockets of land, alienating the bulk of Nativeterritory to industrial interests. State education policies,although lax until the mid-twentieth century, gradually began tolimit families' seasonal migrations. McDonald relates residentialschools directly to the decline of the Aboriginal economy;Tsimshian children who attended these schools never returnedto the forest as independent producers (1984: 353).These economic and social changes were accompanied bycooperative efforts by state and church to assimilate indigenous peoples to European gender ideology. Fiske relatesTsimshian women's gradual exclusion from property ownership and resource control to missionization (1989: 523).Missionary efforts to eradicate multi-family dwellings encouraged the male-headed nuclear family as the primary socialand economic unit; reserve allotments also worked to reifythe patriarchal household and male property control (Garfield1939: 279). The school system sought to instill Victorianvalues and European ideals of "civilized" occupations for menand women. Girls learned to become homemakers and boyslearned farming and other manual skills (Barman 1996: 161,Knight 1996: 103). Barman asserts that European uneasinesswith Aboriginal women's agency and independence was amajor reason for the development of the residential schoolssystem (Barman 1997: 240).By the turn of the century, shifts in Native social structuresand the economic system had laid the foundation forwomen's exclusion from forestry work. A rigid division ofproductive and domestic spheres began to replace the flexibledivision of labor based on the subsistence round. Nativefamilies became separated into male-headed households,gradually experiencing a growing dependence on a malewage. These changes in the economy and social structurewere supported and reinforced by the ideological efforts ofchurch and state to establish European values. Capitalistdevelopment in British Columbia necessitated the reorganization of Aboriginal communities around European idealsregarding male and female economic contributions. The rigidseparation of the sites of production and reproduction wasimposed upon the more flexible and integrated economicVolume XXI, Number 2of Work He viewsystem of the Tsimshian in order to create a male work forceand to channel female labor into supportive domestic work.Twentieth Century TransitionsA complete shift to dependence on male wage work,however, was not immediate. The Aboriginal economycontinued to articulate with commodity production and wagework until the middle of the twentieth century. Tsimshianfamilies combined various resource use and income-earningactivities to make a living. Thus, while women were excluded from forestry wage work, they continued to participatein the independent production of timber. The co-existence ofmale wage work in sawmills and kin-based production oftimber for these mills highlights the conflicting genderrelations and ideologies of the capitalist and Aboriginaleconomies. The first half of the twentieth century can thus beconsidered an era of transition, of the Aboriginal economyand of indigenous gender relations.This transitional period continued until Aboriginal handlogging ceased in the late 1940s and early 1950s. Handlogging was only profitable to Tsimshian families because itwas combined with, and supported by, their subsistenceactivities. After World War II, Native families found itincreasingly difficult to maintain this integration of differentmodes of production. Large companies gained control ofmost of Tsimshian traditional territories, undermining bothsubsistence and handlogging activities. Local sawmills beganto close, reducing the viability of small-scale logging.Mandatory schooling reduced the ability of families to migrateyear-round; often, families became split when mothers locatednear schools and fathers worked at mills many miles away.This reinforced the separation of productive and domesticspheres encouraged by missionaries and the state and workedto shrink women's direct economic contributions.The post-WWII decline of handlogging and subsistencecoincided with the development of industrial logging andsawmilling, which opened up employment opportunities forTsimshian men displaced from subsistence activities. Particularly, many Kitsumkalum and Lax Kw'Alaams men wereemployed in logging territories close to or on their reservesand worked in the newer mills nearby. Aboriginal womenwere not incorporated into the new industrial forestry labor force.Logging and sawmilling have been relatively high-payingwork since the 1950s, due primarily to union efforts. Sincethe 1950s there has been a steady decline in employmentdue to mechanization, thus shrinking the pool of availablejobs. It is increasingly difficult for Aboriginal men to findlocal work, and there is a high degree of competition forlogging jobs. The literature on job segregation indicates thatwomen are traditionally excluded from high-paying jobs andare often excluded during times of industrial crisis (seeKessler-Harris 1983, Reskin 1984). Male-dominance inforestry employment in British Columbia is congruent withemployment patterns in other resource industries (see Moore1996, Knight 1996). The resource economy in Tsimshianterritory by the latter half of the twentieth century thus beganto mirror the work patterns and social structures favored anddemanded by Western industrial capitalism.15

Anthropology of Work ReviewSimultaneous with processes making forestry employmenthighly competitive and increasingly skilled, conditions thatfavor exclusion of female labor (Kemp 1992: 1 5), ideologicalshifts have altered Tsimshian ideas about male and femaleeconomic contributions. As noted above, the contemporaryethic is one that tends towards household dependence on amale wage and female domestic work. A century of missionary efforts and state assimilation policies have worked towardthe establishment of a patriarchal nuclear family structure inNative communities and the ideology of the male breadwinner. By the time industrial logging and milling opportunitiesdeveloped, this system was fully developed and was reinforced by the emphasis on women's domestic responsibilitiesthat dominated 1950s North American culture.The reversals in the 1970s also relate to both economicand ideological shifts. More recent employment in pulpmillsreflects a shift in the needs of capital for a cheaper, lesserskilled workforce, a shift generally associated with increasedfemale employment (see Braverman 1974). This coincideswith both decreasing male employment opportunities andliberalized ideas regarding women working outside the home.Native women are thus returning to forestry work afterdecades of exclusion. They do so, however, at lower wagesthan men and in low-status jobs.Solving the ParadoxOver the course of the twentieth century, one can see aprogressive shift in Tsimshian communities towards the familywage structure and ideology. The process was gradual,starting in the 1860s and culminating in the 1940s with thedominance of the capitalist economy over the Aboriginaleconomy.This shift was encouraged by colonial andcapitalist interests. Colonial processes encouraged maleheaded single family households, male wage labor andfemale domestic work, permanent settlement and the alienation of Native lands and resources. Industrial capitalism inthe form of forestry corporations also worked to curtail Nativesubsistence activities, to limit female employment, to alienateNative land, and to establish a socio-economic structuredependent on the male forestry wage.Native women's exclusion from forestry appeared assomething of a paradox when compared to their widespreademployment in salmon canneries. However, an analysis ofthe forces transforming the Tsimshian way of life reveals thatdifferential use of female labor in the resource economy fitsinto the general pattern of change.The canning industry required a large, cheap, unskilledlabor force primarily in the four decades surrounding the turnof the century (1880-1920). The forestry industry required asmaller, skilled labor force after WWII. The labor requirements of the two industries were extremely different. Furthermore, there are several decades separating the widespreademployment of Native women in industrial wage labor incanning and the exclusion of Native women from industrialwage labor in forestry. This half-century was the period ofcrucial social and economic change in Tsimshian communities.Salmon canning was a high-risk venture, with low rates ofprofit (Newell 1993, Muszynski 1992). The industry waslabor intensive and therefore required a large, seasonal labor16force hired at extremely low wages.2 During the late nineteenth century, the remote location of North Coast canneries,the seasonal nature of the work, and the low wages limitedthe labor force to Asian immigrants and Aboriginal people.Muszynski emphasizes that the payment of low wages tocannery workers relied upon the continuation of subsistenceactivities to supplement these wages (1992: 89). Aboriginalwomen provided a cheap labor force because of theirassociation with a male producer and their access to nonmonetary resources. Their attractiveness to industrial capitallay in the persistence of their subsistence activities.By the time the forestry industry had developed the needfor a large wage labor force, Aboriginal women did notrepresent such a labor bargain. The diminishing significanceof bush food in the diet of the Tsimshian and the availabilityof government transfer payments meant that Aboriginalwomen could not and would not work for pennies afterWWII. Furthermore, forestry capital was in a very differentposition from that of cannery operators. Where canneriesboth paid for the harvesting and processing of fish, forestrycompanies primarily exported raw timber, so their labor costsrepresented a much smaller portion of their investment.When capital is not under serious pressure to limit wages,men tend to be preferentially hired (Kemp 1992: 26).The diminished significance of the Aboriginal economybetween the eras of cannery and forestry wage labor is amajor aspect of their differentiation. The contribution ofsubsistence to Native households was a precondition forNative women's employment as cheap labor. This precondition

Hudson Bay Company (Marsden and Galois 1995). The Hudson Bay Company (HBC) needed a great deal of both building lumber and firewood for the development of the fur trading post. The HBC journals from 1834-64 indicate the significance of Tsimshian labor in procuring wood for the fort. Ts

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7 Shade 50% of the whole figure. 8 Shade 75% of the whole figure. Fill in each blank. 9 43 out of 100 % 10 out of 100 1% 11 5 out of 100 % 12 out of 100 10% 13 90 out of 100 % 14 out of 100 87% 15 21 out of 100 % 16 out of 100 2% 17 8 out of 100 % 18 out of 100 3% 19 4 out of 100 % 20 out of 100 9% 21 35 out of 100

Director of Army Safety Background A rmy motorcycle mishaps are on the rise. Motorcycle mishaps resulted in 155 Soldier fatalities from FY02 through FY06. Collected accident data revealed that over half of motorcycle fatalities were the result of single vehicle accidents that involved riders exercising poor risk decisions and judgment. Males between the ages of 18 and 25 years are historically .