1EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNDesign Example 9Appendix AExample 9: Seismic Zone 1 Design ExampleProblem StatementMost bridges in Colorado fall into the Seismic Zone 1 category. Per AASHTO, noseismic analysis is required for structures in Zone 1. However, seismic criteria must beaddressed in this case. This example illustrates the seismic-specific code requirementsassociated with bridges in Zone 1, including: Determination of seismic zone Horizontal connection forces Minimum support length requirements Substructure transverse reinforcement requirementsAASHTO4.7.4This example bridge is a skewed, 2-span, steel I-girder bridge supported by semiintegral abutments and a multi-column pier, with a drop style pier cap and each columnsupported by a single caisson (see Figures 1 and 2). The caisson reinforcing clearcover allows the same reinforcing cage diameter to be used for both column andcaisson.Fixed Type 1 bearings are used at the pier while expansion Type 1 bearings are used atthe abutments. Anchor bolts projecting through a sole plate are assumed as the restraintmechanism at the bearings, with the holes in the sole plate slotted in the longitudinaldirection at the abutments. Note that integral abutments would typically be specified for abridge with this span arrangement, but expansion abutments are included for illustrativepurposes.Figure 1 - Bridge Layout and Longitudinal FixityFigure 2 - Pier 2 ElevationCDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2018
2EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNGivensTotal Bridge Length, L Pier 2 Column Height, H Bridge Skew, S Abutment Support Length Extreme Event I LL Factor, γEQ Earthquake Load Factor, γ Permanent Vertical Reaction at Abut. 1, R 11 Permanent Vertical Reaction at Pier 2, R 21 Permanent Vertical Reaction at Abut. 3, R 31 Column Diameter, D Column Clear Cover Caisson Diameter, Dc Caisson Clear Cover Assumed Depth to Moment Fixity2 f'c, Column f'c, Caisson fy 5.0010.004.504.0060.00ft.ft.degreesin.kip per Abutmentkip per Pierkip per Abutmentin.in.in.in.ft.ksiksiksiSee Figure 2AASHTO 3.4.1AASHTO 3.4.1-1See Figure 2Seismic Design Parameters: 3Site Class DPGA 0.103 gSS 0.212 gS1 0.053 g1AS 0.165 gSDS 0.338 gSD1 0.127 gThese values are the unfactored total for the support.2Assumed for this example, Designers should determine analytically for each project.Provided by Geotechnical Engineer for an event with a 7% probability of exceedance in75 years.3Determination of Seismic ZoneBridges are assigned to seismic zones based on the SD1 parameter andTable 3.10.6-1 in AASHTO, re-created here:Acceleration Coefficient, SD1Seismic ZoneSD1 0.1510.15 SD1 0.3020.30 SD1 0.5030.50 SD14Since SD1 0.127 0.15, the bridge is located in Seismic Zone 1.CDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2019
3EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNHorizontal Connection Force:AASHTO 126.96.36.199For bridges in Zone 1, the horizontal design connection force is a function of theacceleration coefficient, AS.Since AS 0.165 0.05, the minimum horizontal design connection force is 0.25 timesthe vertical reaction due to tributary permanent load and the tributary live loads assumedto exist during an earthquake. For this example, the tributary live load is assumed to bezero. See BDM Section 3.12 for guidance on the value of γEQ to use when performing aseismic analysis for bridges in other seismic zones.This calculation is performed for both longitudinal and transverse directions.Longitudinal DirectionSince the abutment bearings allow expansion in the longitudinal direction, thesuperstructure is restrained only by the 8 fixed bearings at Pier 2. Any passive soilresistance that may develop behind the abutments is ignored. The design connectionforce in the longitudinal direction at Pier 2 is 0.25 times the sum of the permanentvertical reactions at all supports.Tributary reaction at Pier 20.25 times reaction R1 R2 R3 2814 kip 704 kipThe factored horizontal design connection force for each bearing: 1.0*704/8 88.0 kipTransverse DirectionThe superstructure is restrained in the transverse direction at all three supports.Therefore, the design connection forces in the transverse directions are a function of thepermanent vertical reactions at each support. Each support has 8 bearings.Tributary reaction for Abutment 1, R1 494kip0.25 times reaction 124 kipThe factored horizontal design connection force for each bearing at Abutment 1: 1.0*124/8 15.5 kipTributary reaction for Pier 2, R20.25 times reaction 1759 kip 440kipThe factored horizontal design connection force for each bearing at Pier 2: 1.0*440/8 55.0 kipTributary reaction for Abutment 3, R3 561kip0.25 times reaction 140kipThe factored horizontal design connection force for each bearing at Abutment 3: 1.0*140/8 17.5 kipCDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2018
4EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNResolution of Horizontal Connection ForcesBecause the bearing devices provide horizontal restraint for the bridge, Designersshould verify the capacity of the following items with respect to the connection force: thegirder to sole plate connection, the sole plate to anchor bolt connection, the anchor bolt,and anchor bolt anchorage into concrete.The transverse and longitudinal connection forces determined above are simplifiedapproximations AASHTO allows for Zone 1, in lieu of performing a refined seismicanalyis using stiffness based force distribution. As such, the horizontal and longitudinalconnection forces need not be combined as described in AASHTO 3.10.8, the provisionsof which are predicated on a perpendicular seismic analyis.Adequate resistance of the connection force shall be verified at any connection (notnecessarily just bearing devices) whose failure could cause loss of support or structureinstability, as described in AASHTO C188.8.131.52. Previous versions of AASHTO requiredthat the connection force be addressed from the point of application through thesubstructure and into the foundation elements. However, the 2015 Interim Revisions toAASHTO removed this requirement.Minimum Support Length RequirementsAASHTO 184.108.40.206Because no longitudinal restraint is provided at Abutment 1 or 3, the support lengthsmust meet the requirements of AASHTO 220.127.116.11. Note that bearings with anchors inslotted holes are not considered restrained in the direction of the slots.The minimum support length, N, measured normal to the centerline of bearing is: ൌ ͺ ͲǤͲʹ ܮ ͲǤͲͺ ͳ ܪ ͲǤͲͲͲͳʹͷ ܵ כ ଶAASHTO18.104.22.168-1where:L Length of bridge deck to the adjacent expansion joint or to the end ofthe bridge deckH Average height of columns supporting the bridge deck from theabutment to the next expansion joint (definition for abutments only)S Skew of support measured from line normal to span (degrees) ൌ ͺ ͲǤͲʹ ʹ כ ͷᇱ ͲǤͲͺ ͳ כ ͺԢ ͳ ͲǤͲͲͲͳʹͷ כ ͷଶN 14.2 in.The percentage of N required for a given seismic zone and AS is shown in AASHTOTable 22.214.171.124-1. For Seismic Zone 1 and with AS 0.165, 100% of N (14.2 inches) isrequired. The support length provided is 36 in., thus the minimum support requirementsare satisfied.CDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2018
5EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNFigure 3 - Abutment Support LengthSubstructure Transverse Reinforcement RequirementsAASHTO 5.10.11In addition to connection force requirements, for bridges in the high end of Seismic Zone1 where the response acceleration coefficient SD1 is greater than 0.10, transverseconfinement reinforcement is required in the expected plastic hinge regions. AASHTO126.96.36.199 assumes the plastic hinges zones to be located at the top and bottom ofcolumns. However, the actual locations of plastic hinges depend on support geometryand boundary conditions and must be determined on a project-specific basis.Transverse confinement reinforcement need only be provided in the expected plastichinge regions.AASHTO188.8.131.52Since SD1 0.127, confinement reinforcement as specified in AASHTO 184.108.40.206.1d and220.127.116.11.1e must be provided.Transverse Reinforcement for Confinement at Plastic HingesSeismic hoop or spiral transverse reinforcement is required in the expected plastic hingeregions. Per BDM Section 5.4.9, CDOT prefers spirals for confinement reinforcement ofround elements.AASHTO18.104.22.168.1dFor a circular member, the volumetric ratio, ρ s, of spiral reinforcement shall satisfy eitherof the following:ߩ௦ ͲǤͶͷ כ where:ߩ௦ ͲǤͳʹ݂Ԣ ݂௬ ܣ ݂Ԣ െͳ ܣ ݂௬AASHTO 22.214.171.124-1AASHTO 126.96.36.199.1d-1f'c specified 28-day compressive strength of concrete (ksi)fy minimum yield strength of reinforcing (ksi) 75.0 ksiAg gross area of concrete section (in.2)Ac area of the core measured to the outside diameter of the spiral (in.2)CDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2019
6EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNRecall that:Column Diameter, D Column Clear Height, H Column Clear Cover Caisson Diameter, Dc 42.018.02.0048.05.00Caisson Clear Cover in.ft.in.in.in.Column Spiral:Core diameter, Dcore D - 2*(clear cover)DcoreAgAgAcAc 38.0 in. 2 1385 in.2 2 1134 in.2 The volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement, ρ s, must satisfy either of the following: 4 ρs 0 4 4 60 0.00754 60 0.0090ρs 0 2ρs, minAASHTO188.8.131.52-1AASHTO184.108.40.206.1d-1 0.0075AASHTO 220.127.116.11.1e limits the spacing of confinement reinforcement to 1/4th themember diameter, D, or 4.0 in. The 4.0 in. maximum spacing controls.Try #5 spirals at pitch, s 4.00 in.#5 diameter 0.625 in.Spiral diameter, ds Dcore - 0.625"ds 37.38 inThe required area of one leg of the spiral, Asp: 4 4 0.29 in.2Asp AspCDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2019
7EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNAs a #5 bar has a cross-sectional area of 0.31 in.2, using #5 spirals at a 4.0 in. pitchsatisfies the confinement requirements.Lap splices of the confinement reinforcement in the hinge zone are not permitted;rather, splices shall be made by full-welded splices or by full-mechanical connections.AASHTO C18.104.22.168.1d also recommends spacing longitudinal bars a maximum of 8 in.to help confinement (see Figure 4).AASHTO22.214.171.124.1dFigure 4 - Column Confinement ReinforcementCaisson Spiral:Core diameter, Dcore Dc - 2*(clear cover)DcoreAgAgAcAc 38.0 in. 2 1810 in.2 2 1134 in.2 The volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement, ρ s, must satisfy either of the following:1 10 . 4.0 ρs 0.4 1 1134 .60 0.01794.0 60 0.0080ρs 0.12ρs, minAASHTO126.96.36.199-1AASHTO188.8.131.52.1d-1 0.008Try #5 spirals at pitch, s 4.00 in.#5 diameter 0.625 in.Spiral diameter, ds Dcore - 0.625"ds 37.38 in.The required area of one leg of the spiral, Asp: 4 4Asp 0.31 in2A #5 spiral at a 4.0 in. pitch satisfies the confinement requirements (see Figure 5).Asp CDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2019
8EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGNFigure 5 - Caisson Confinement ReinforcementSpacing of Transverse Reinforcement for ConfinementAASHTO 184.108.40.206.1e gives guidance on the required lengths where confinementreinforcement is required. As the example column and caisson have similar flexuralstiffnesses and capacities, their seismic behavior, including location of plastic hinges, isexpected to be similar to that of a pile bent. Therefore, the provisions of AASHTO220.127.116.11.1e that pertain to pile bents are followed. Further, the column clear heightparameter is increased by the assumed depth to fixity to more accurately reflect thebending height of the column/caisson element.AASHTO18.104.22.168.1eAt the top of the column, confinement reinforcement must be provided over a length notless than: the maximum cross-sectional column dimension,Column Diameter, D 3.50ft. 1/6th of the bending height of the column/caisson, or 18 in.1/6*(H 10') 4.67ft.18.0 in. 1.50ft. ControlsAnd extend into the adjoining pier cap for a distance not less than: one-half the maximum column dimension or 15 in.D/2 1.75ft15.0 in. 1.25ftAASHTO22.214.171.124.3 ControlsIn accordance with the provisions for pile bents, confinement reinforcement must beprovided in the caisson over a length extending from 3.0 times the diameter below thepoint of moment fixity in the caisson to a height of one diameter, but not less than 18 in.,above the mud line.Figure 6 shows the resulting hinge zones and reinforcement.CDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2019
EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGN9Figure 6 - Hinge Zone ReinforcementCDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2018
EXAMPLE 9 - SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGN10ConclusionHorizontal design connection forces and minimum seat lengths are typically critical forbridges that use bearing devices, which the example bridge highlighted. Guidelines forother common CDOT situations with respect to horizontal connection forces are asfollows: Standard CDOT integral abutments that are designed and detailed per BDMSection 11.3.1 are considered restrained in all directions and may beassumed to meet horizontal design connection force requirements byinspection. The typical CDOT “pinned” piers where the girders are embedded in concretepier diaphragms that are connected to the pier cap with a single line ofdowels, require Designers to check the doweled connection to the diaphragmfor the horizontal connection force. Shear friction at the pier diaphragm to piercap interface should be used as the resistance.The example also showed the transverse confinement reinforcement requirements(applicable when 0.10 SD1 0.15) for the common CDOT configuration of a singlecaisson supporting each column of a multi-column pier, and where the caisson andcolumn are of similar size. The following guidelines are applicable to other commonCDOT substructure configurations, when 0.10 SD1 0.15: Transverse confinement reinforcement for hinging need not be specified atthe tops of columns that exhibit cantilever behavior in both horizontaldirections, regardless of the SD1 magnitude. This is because a plastic hingecannot form where there is no significant moment development possible. For the situation where a significantly larger caisson is used under eachcolumn and the column bars are embedded into the caisson, the lower hingeduring an earthquake is likely to occur at the bottom of column, not within thecaisson. In this case, the hinge zone for the column may use the actual clearcolumn height to establish the upper and lower column hinge zone limits. Thecaisson is then considered an adjoining member, and the column’sconfinement reinforcement should be extended into the caisson as required inAASHTO 126.96.36.199.3. The caisson’s transverse reinforcement need not meetthe special requirements for confinement at plastic hinges. For the situation where a caisson is significantly smaller than the column thatis used, and the caisson bars project into the column, the lower hinge duringan earthquake is likely to occur in the caisson. The “pile bent” criteria shownin the example should be used to establish the top and bottom hinge zonelimits, except that confinement reinforcement need not be provided for thebottom of column as no plastic hinge is expected there. The caissontransverse confinement reinforcement should be extended into the column asrequired in AASHTO 188.8.131.52.3 for adjoining members.Example 9 followed AASHTO LRFD provisions for Seismic Zone 1. As an alternative,Designers may follow the AASHTO Guide Specifications for LRFD Seismic BridgeDesign. Note that the equivalent to AASHTO LRFD Seismic Zone 1 is Seismic Zone Ain the guide specifications.CDOT Bridge Design ManualJanuary 2019
EXAMPLE 9 SEISMIC ZONE 1 DESIGN 1 2018 Design Example 9 Example 9: Seismic Zone 1 Design Example Problem Statement Most bridges in Colorado fall into the Seismic Zone 1 category. Per AASHTO, no seismic analysis is required for structures in Zone 1. However, seismic criteria must be addressed in this case.
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