HindawiBioMed Research InternationalVolume 2021, Article ID 8875023, 10 pageshttps://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8875023Review ArticleEffects of Aging on the Color and Translucency of MonolithicTranslucent Y-TZP Ceramics: A Systematic Review andMeta-Analysis of In Vitro StudiesChang-yuan Zhang,1 Check Agingu,1 James Kit Hon Tsoi ,2 and Hao Yu1,31Fujian Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases & Fujian Provincial Engineering Research Center of Oral Biomaterial & Stomatological KeyLaboratory of Fujian College and University, School and Hospital of Stomatology, Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350002, China2Faculty of Dentistry, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong SAR, China3Department of Applied Prosthodontics, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University, Nagasaki, JapanCorrespondence should be addressed to Hao Yu; [email protected] 14 September 2020; Revised 8 December 2020; Accepted 11 January 2021; Published 27 January 2021Academic Editor: Fernanda FaotCopyright 2021 Chang-yuan Zhang et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons AttributionLicense, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Background. Monolithic restorations made of translucent yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) have becomepopular over the past few decades. However, whether aging aﬀects the color and translucency of monolithic translucent Y-TZPis unclear. Objective. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis of in vitro studies was to evaluate the eﬀects of agingon the color and translucency of monolithic translucent Y-TZP ceramics. Materials and Methods. This systematic review/meta-analysis was reported according to the PRISMA statement and registered in the OSF registries (https://osf.io/5qjmu).Four databases including Medline via the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases and the Cochrane Library weresearched using no publication year and language limits. The last search was executed on November 20, 2020. In vitrostudies comparing the translucency and/or color of monolithic translucent Y-TZP ceramics before and after simulatedaging were selected. Meta-analyses were performed using Review Manager software (version 5.3, Cochrane Collaboration,Oxford, UK) with random-eﬀects models at a signiﬁcance level of 0.05. A risk-of-bias assessment was also performed forthe included studies. Results. Of the 188 potentially relevant studies, 13 were included in the systematic review. Thehydrothermal aging duration ranged from 1 to 100 h at relatively similar temperatures ( 134 C). In the general metaanalyses, the aged Y-TZP ceramics exhibited similar translucency parameter (TP), L , and b values compared with thenonaged controls (P :73, P :49, and P :62, respectively). Moreover, there was a signiﬁcant diﬀerence between the aged andnonaged Y-TZP ceramics in the a value (P :03; MD 0:26; 95% CI 0:51 to 0:02), favoring the nonaged Y-TZPceramics. The subgroup analyses showed that the duration of aging contributed to changes in the translucency and color of theY-TZP ceramics. Conclusions. The optical properties of monolithic translucent Y-TZP ceramics were stable after hydrothermalaging at 134 C and 0.2 MPa for 20 h. Moreover, clinically unacceptable changes in the translucency and color of monolithictranslucent Y-TZP ceramics were found after hydrothermal aging for 20 h.1. IntroductionThe popularity of dental zirconia has increased in recentdecades because of its excellent mechanical characteristics,biocompatibility, and acceptable esthetic properties [1, 2]. Aquestionnaire-based survey regarding the selection of dentalceramic materials reported that dental zirconia was one ofthe top choices for both anterior (layered) and posterior(monolithic) restorations .At ambient pressure, zirconia can exhibit 3 allotropiccrystal phase structures: a monoclinic phase (m) from roomtemperature to 1170 C, a tetragonal phase (t) from 1170 Cto 2370 C, and a cubic phase (c) above 2370 C to its meltingpoint at 2715 C and boiling point of 4300 C [4, 5]. To stabilize the t and c phases of zirconia at room temperature, theaddition of diﬀerent amount of stabilizing oxides, such asyttria (Y2O3), to pure zirconia crystals is essential and wellstudied [2, 4, 6]. In particular, t phase zirconia is useful in
2dentistry because of its strength [2, 6]. Therefore, yttriastabilized zirconia polycrystal (Y-TZP) has been widely usedas a framework for ﬁxed dental prostheses (FDPs) andmonolithic restorations . To date, there are three generations of Y-TZP ceramics (1st, 2nd, and 3rd generations) indentistry . First-generation Y-TZP ceramics are 3 mol%(5.2 wt%) Y-TZP (3Y-TZP) containing 0.25 wt% alumina,which are highly opaque. Second-generation Y-TZP ceramicsare reﬁned by reducing the concentration of alumina( 0.05 wt%) and sintering at a higher temperature ( 1450 C)of 3Y-TZP . To further reduce opacity, 3rd generation YTZP ceramics are reﬁned by increasing the yttria content to4 and 5 mol% (4Y-TZP and 5Y-TZP) to stabilize the c phasecontent ( 25%) . Both 2nd and 3rd generations of Y-TZPceramics are considered translucent and are indicated for posterior and/or anterior monolithic crowns and FDPs [2, 8].Although c phase zirconia does not undergo stressinduced transformation , the 2nd and 3rd generations YTZP still have t phase so that t -to-m phase transformationwill eventually be activated and accelerated when the YTZP ceramic is subjected to a humid environment with constant temperature changes, which is usually referred to asaging or low-temperature degradation (LTD) [9–13]. Evidence of aging has been observed in zirconia used in hipimplants . In fact, the mechanism of aging has beendescribed using diﬀerent theories and speculations [15, 16].For example, water vapor has been proposed to attack theZr–O bond and be incorporated into zirconia grains by ﬁllingoxygen vacancies; then, aging proceeds into the bulk materialand jeopardizes the molecular and mechanical properties ofY-TZP ceramics [17, 18]. On the other hand, Lange et al. proposed that water reacts with Y2O3 to form clustersrich in Y(OH)3, which leads to the depletion of the stabilizerin the surrounding zirconia grains and induces aging. Thismechanism has also been supported by a recent study .Despite the fact that various aging mechanisms have beenproposed, the eﬀects of aging on Y-TZP ceramics are stillbeing studied and reported in the literature [13, 21–23].The simulated aging of Y-TZP ceramics has commonly beenperformed by steam autoclave at 120 C to 140 C [16, 24–27].A recent systematic review concluded that hydrothermalaging promoted LTD, as shown by the t -to-m phase transformation, and it negatively inﬂuenced the ﬂexural strengthof Y-TZP ceramics . Moreover, the inﬂuences of agingon the surface roughness, surface microhardness, and fracture toughness of Y-TZP ceramics have been previouslyreported [9, 28–33].Apart from mechanical properties, optical properties,including color and translucency, are critical for the longterm success of ceramic restorations, especially monolithicrestorations [27, 34–36]. However, very limited informationconcerning the eﬀects of aging on the optical properties ofmonolithic translucent Y-TZP ceramics (2nd and 3rd generations) is available. Han et al.  reported that autoclavingY-TZP did not change its color, whereas other treatmentssuch as ultraviolet and gamma irradiation changed the colorof Y-TZP. Rafael et al.  reported signiﬁcant diﬀerences inthe lightness, chroma, and hue of Y-TZP ceramics in allgroups after aging. In contrast, other studies have reportedBioMed Research Internationalthat Y-TZP ceramics can be considered color stable after astimulated aging process [38, 39]. In addition to the color,eﬀorts have also been made to investigate the eﬀects of agingon the translucency of monolithic translucent Y-TZPceramics. Current studies in the literature have shown thatthe translucency of Y-TZP ceramics is reduced [25, 40] orremains unchanged  after aging.Theoretically, Y-TZP ceramic aging may lead to increasedsurface roughness and pigment breakdown, jeopardizing theesthetic outcome and stability of ceramic restorations .The eﬀects of aging on the color and translucency of monolithic zirconia were reviewed by Papageorgiou-Kyrana et al.. However, no systematic review or meta-analysis has beenperformed in this ﬁeld. Therefore, this systematic review andmeta-analysis aimed to evaluate the eﬀects of aging on thetranslucency and color of monolithic translucent Y-TZPceramics.2. Material and MethodsThis systematic review and meta-analysis was performedaccording to the Preferred Reporting Items for SystematicReviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement  andregistered in the OSF registries (https://osf.io/5qjmu). A systematic electronic literature search was conducted in Medlinevia PubMed, Embase, Web of Science (ISI—Web of Knowledge), and Cochrane Library with no publication year andlanguage limits. The search terms and their combinationsused in the literature search are listed in SupplementalTable 1. The last search was executed on November 20,2020. The PICO questions were deﬁned as follows: P:population—monolithic translucent Y-TZP ceramics; I:intervention—Y-TZP ceramics subjected to aging; C:control—Y-TZP ceramics not subjected to aging; O:outcome—an evaluation of color and translucency changesof Y-TZP ceramics; and S: study designs—in vitro studies.The primary evaluated outcome was the translucency ofmonolithic translucent zirconia, and the secondary evaluatedoutcome was the color of monolithic translucent zirconia.Articles that met the following inclusion criteria wereincluded: (1) studies that evaluated the eﬀect of aging onthe translucency and/or color of monolithic translucent YTZP ceramics and (2) studies that used translucency and/orcolor measurements according to ISO/TR 28642:2016 .Articles meeting one or more of the following criteria wereexcluded: (1) study materials other than monolithic translucent Y-TZP ceramics; (2) reviews, protocols, clinical guidelines, and editorial letters; and (3) studies not usinghydrothermal aging . Two reviewers (C.Z. and A.C.)independently performed the literature searches and thestudy selection. Any disagreements were resolved by discussion or by consultation with another reviewer (H.Y.) .The reference lists of all the selected articles were manuallyreviewed, and the full texts of potentially related studies wereexamined . Lastly, manual searches were conducted inthe following principal periodicals speciﬁc to the area ofstudy: Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry, Journal of DentalResearch, Journal of Dentistry, Operative Dentistry, Clinical Oral Investigations, Journal of Oral Rehabilitation,
BioMed Research International3ScreeningIdentification188 potentially relevant studiesidentified from electronic databases:MEDLINE via PubMed: 88Embase: 27Web of Science: 47Cochrane Library: 2673 records excluded:(i) 61 no optical properties(ii) 5 no zirconia(iii) 2 case report(iv) 5 review104 studies afterremoval of duplicatesEligibilityKappa 0.818 records excluded:(i) 5 no proper control(ii) 8 no hydrothermal aging(iii) 5 no translucent Y-TZP31 full-text articlesassessed for eligibilityIncludedKappa 0.913 studies included in thequalitative analysis and 11 studies inthe quantitative synthesis(meta-analysis)Figure 1: Flow diagram of study selection according to the PRISMA statement. PRISMA: Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviewsand Meta-Analyses.International Journal of Prosthodontics, Journal of Prosthodontic Research, Dental Materials Journal, and Journalof Prosthodontics.A protocol for data extraction was deﬁned and evaluatedby 2 reviewers (C.Z. and A.C.) . The following data wereextracted from the included studies: demographic information (e.g., authors, publication year, and publication journaland title), the materials tested, the aging protocol, the meanand standard deviation of translucency and/or color, thesample size, and the evaluation methods.The risk-of-bias assessment was based on a protocoladapted from previous systematic reviews [46, 47]. Brieﬂy,the following parameters were used for the quality assessment: clearly speciﬁed aging protocol, sample size calculation, specimen randomization, adequate statistical analysis,ceramic sintering followed the manufacturers’ instructions,and tests executed by a single-blinded operator . If aparameter is reported, the study received a “Y”; if the information was missing, the study received an “N.” Studies thatincluded 1 or 2 “Y” items were classiﬁed as having a high riskof bias, 3 or 4 “Y” items as a medium risk of bias, and 5 to 6“Y” items as a low risk of bias .For the meta-analysis, studies that did not present dataon the translucency parameter (TP) and/or CommissionInternationale de L’Éclairage (CIE) L , a , and b values wereexcluded. Studies containing the color diﬀerence, contrastratio, and percentage of total transmittance of light werenot considered because of insuﬃcient data. For studies thatevaluated more than 1 type of ceramic material or 1 agingduration, all the relevant experimental (aged) groups werecombined into a single group, and all the relevant controlgroups were combined into a single control group accordingto the Cochrane Statistical Guidelines . All analyses wereconducted using Review Manager software (version 5.3;Cochrane Collaboration, Oxford, UK) by employing arandom-eﬀects model at a signiﬁcance level of 0.05. Themean diﬀerence (MD) and 95% conﬁdence interval (CI) werecalculated for the included studies. Subgroup analyses wereperformed to explore the potential causes of heterogeneity,including the type of monolithic translucent Y-TZP material(3Y-TZP vs. 5Y-TZP) and the steam autoclave duration( 20 h vs. 20 h). For the studies included in the subgroupanalyses, all the relevant groups were combined into a singlesubgroup (e.g., 3Y-TZP or 5Y-TZP for the material type)within a given study .3. ResultsThirteen studies were included in the systematic review, and11 studies were included in the meta-analysis (Figure 1). Thecharacteristics of the included studies are presented inTable 1. The majority of the included studies (9 studies) presented a medium risk of bias, while 2 studies presented a highrisk of bias and 2 presented a low risk of bias (Table 2).The included articles were all in English and were published between 2014 and 2020. Of the 13 studies includedin the systematic review, 1 study performed color measurements , 8 studies performed translucency evaluations[13, 39–41, 49–52], and 4 studies performed both types ofinvestigations [22, 25, 53, 54]. All included studies werelaboratory studies measuring the color and/or translucencywith a spectrophotometer. All studies included in the meta-
kamura et al.Alghazzawi TFPutra et al.Rafeal et al.Kim and KimWalczak et al.Kou et al.Shen et al.Benalcazar Jalkh et al.de Araújo-Júnior et al.Cokic et al.Lopes et al.3Y-TZP: Incoris TZi (Dentsply Sirona)2nd generation2nd generation2nd and 3rdgenerations2nd generation2nd generation2nd and 3rdgenerations3rd generation2nd generation2nd generation2nd generation2nd and 3rdgenerations2nd and 3rdgenerations3Y-TZP: Prettau (Zirkonzahn GmbH)2nd generation134 C and 0.2 MPafor 15 h134 C and 0.2 MPa for 5,10, 20, and 40 hAging protocolTPTP and CR—Translucencymeasurements—Color measurements3Y-TZP: Zenostar T (Ivoclar Vivadent), Zirlux(Henry Schein), Katana HT (Kuraray NoritakeDental), Bruxzir (Glidewell Laboratories), DD-BioZX 134 C and 0.2 MPa for CIE L a b coordinates andTP and CR20, 40, 60, 80, and 100 hcolor diﬀerence (ΔE) (Dental Direkt GmbH), NexxZr(Sagemax Bioceramics)5Y-TZP: DD-cubeX2 (Dental Direkt GmbH)3Y-TZP: Lava Plus (3M ESPE)Percentage of total134 C and 0.2 MPa for 5,5Y-TZP: Bruxzir Anterior (Glidewell Laboratories),—transmittance of50, and 100 hKatana UT (Kuraray Noritake Dental)light (Tt%)134 C and 0.3 MPaColor diﬀerences (ΔE00 )3Y-TZP: Prettau (Zirkonzahn GmbH)—for 1 h134 C and 0.2 MPa for 1, CIE L a b coordinates andTP3Y-TZP: Katana ML (Kuraray Noritake Dental)3, 5, and 10 hcolor diﬀerences (ΔE00 )3Y-TZP: Cercon ht (Degudent GmbH), Bruxzir134 C and 0.2 MPa(Glidewell Laboratories), Zenostar T (Ivoclar—TP and CRfor 5 hVivadent), Lava Plus (3M ESPE)5Y-TZP: DD-cubeX2 (Dental Direkt GmbH), Bruxzir134 C and 0.2 MPaVisible—Anterior (Glidewell Laboratories)for 10 htransmittance3Y-TZP: Lava Plus (3M ESPE)134 C and 0.2 MPa—TPfor 20 h5Y-TZP: Katana UTML (Kuraray Noritake Dental) 134 C and 0.2 MPa3Y-TZP: Zpex (Tosoh)—TP and CRfor 20 h134 C and 0.2 MPa3Y-TZP: Zirconn translucent (VIPI)Color diﬀerence (ΔE)TP and CRfor 20 h3Y-TZP: CEREC Zirconia medi S (Dentsply Sirona),134 C and 0.2 MPaIncoris TZi (Dentsply Sirona)—TP and CRfor 60 h5Y-TZP: Katana STML (Kuraray Noritake Dental)134 C and 0.2 MPa3Y-TZP: Zpex (Tosoh)Color diﬀerence ( E)TP and CRfor 20 hMaterial testedGeneration ofY-TZP testedTP: translucency parameter; CR: contrast ratio.2015PublicationyearFathy et al.AuthorTable 1: Characteristics of included studies.4BioMed Research International
BioMed Research International5Table 2: Risk of bias in included studies.AuthorFathy et al.Nakamura et al.Alghazzawi TFPutra et al.Rafeal et al.Kim and KimWalczak et al.Kou et al.Shen et al.Benalcazar Jalkh et al.de Araújo-Júnior et al.Cokic et al.Lopes et al.PublicationyearSample alanalysisCeramicsinteringBlindedexaminerRisk diumStudy or subgroupNonagedAgedWeightMean SD Total Mean SD TotalAlaghazzawi et al. 2017Benalcazar Jalkh et al. 2020Cokic et al. 2020de Araújo-Júnior et al. 2020Fathy et al. 2015Kim and Kim. 2019Lopes et al. 2020Shen et al. 2020Walczak et al. 184.108.40.2060.220.20.591.24Total (95% 2%11.2%11.2%11.2%Mean differenceMean differenceIV, Random, 95% CIIV, Random, 95% CI6.20 [5.98, 6.42]–5.28 [5.55, –5.01]3.90 [2.61, –5.19]–0.64 [–1.82, 0.54]3.05 [1.96, 4.14]–0.14 [–0.27, –0.01]–5.30 [–5.56, –5.04]1.21 [0.98, 1.44]1.21 [0.98, 1.56]724 100.0% 0.46 [–2.12, 3.05]Heterogeneity: tau2 15.50; chi2 6329.66, df 8 (P 0.00001); I2 100%Test for overall effect: Z 0.35 (P 0.73)–4–2024Favours (aged) Favours (nonaged)Figure 2: Forest plot summarizing the TP values of aged and nonaged Y-TZP ceramics. CI: conﬁdence interval; SD: standard deviation.analysis adopted hydrothermal aging according to the ISO13356:2015 . The simulated aging time ranged from 1to 100 h at relatively similar temperatures ( 134 C).The results of the general meta-analysis on translucency(Figure 2) showed no signiﬁcant diﬀerence in the TP valuebetween the nonaged and aged Y-TZP (P :73; meandifference ðMDÞ 0:46; 95% conﬁdence interval ðCIÞ 2:12 to 3.05).The results of the general meta-analysis on the L valuesshowed no signiﬁcant diﬀerence in the L value between thenonaged and aged Y-TZP (P :49; MD 1:75; 95%CI 3:25 to 6.75) (Figure 3). In the general meta-analysis ofa values, the results showed a signiﬁcant diﬀerence inthe a value between the nonaged and aged Y-TZP(P :03; MD 0:26; 95%CI 0:51 to 0:02), favoringthe nonaged Y-TZP (Figure 4). In the general metaanalysis of b values (Figure 5), no signiﬁcant diﬀerencein the b value between the nonaged and aged Y-TZPwas found (P :62; MD 0:40; 95%CI 1:17 to 1.97).Subgroup analyses considering the steam autoclave durat
control—Y-TZP ceramics not subjected to aging; O: outcome—an evaluation of color and translucency changes of Y-TZP ceramics; and S: study designs—in vitro studies. The primary evaluated outcome was the translucency of monolithic translucent zirconia, and the secondary evaluated outcome was the color of monolithic translucent zirconia.