The Loudness Wars and ITU-R BS.1770Thomas LundTC Electronic A/SDenmarkKBS Seoul June 17, 2015
Peak Level MeteringBad for BroadcastBad for Music
LoudnessModelsLeq(K) is simpleand performs well
BS.1770 LoudnessPowerGainLeftPre FilterRLB FilterMeanSquare0.0 dBRightPre FilterRLB FilterMeanSquare0.0 dBCenterPre FilterRLB FilterMeanSquare0.0 dBL SrndPre FilterRLB FilterMeanSquare 1.5 dBR SrndPre FilterRLB FilterMeanSquare 1.5 dBLFECurrently not used in Loudness CalculationsWorks for mono, stereo and 5.1Sum
Words: LUFS, LKFS and LULUFS LKFSUnit for absolute loudness levelCompare with [dBFS] for peak level-23.0 LUFS is the same as -23.0 LKFSOnly the spelling is diﬀerentLUUnit for relative loudness levelCompare with [dB] for peak levelLoudness at Target Level 0 LU
LUFS and LU0 LU denotes Target LevelIn this exampleTarget Level is -23 LUFSRemember: LUFS is the same as LKFS
Meter Example: LUFS and LUTarget at -23 LUFS
0Program LoudnessLUFS-4-8-12-16Use to normalize programsto a Target Level-20Target: -23 LUFS-24Measure: -28 LUFS-30-36-42-48-54-60IngestCorrected
0Program LoudnessLUFS-4-8-12-16Use to normalize programsto a Target Level-20A simple gain oﬀsetbrings the programon Target-24-30-36-42-48-54-60IngestCorrected
Loudness on three time-scales400 m LoudnessEnd
True-peak LevelAES 23 Nielsen & Lund, 2003Part of BS.1770 alsoEven in a linear audio system, analogand digital level is not the same1Analog Level:Black LineDigital (sample) Level:Red DotsTrue-peak Level:Grey Lines2
Use Loudness meterto set levelsOnly use True-peak meterto avoid overload
Audio TerminologyPLRLRAPeak to Loudness RatioLoudness RangePeak level of a program or trackrelative to its Loudness, [dB]Typical Loudness variationinside a program or track, [LU]program or music tracksystemHeadroomDynamic RangePeak handling capability of a systemrelative to Target Level, [dB]Max/min signal ratio of a system, [dB]Not a relevant term in this context
Audio TerminologyPLR HeightHeadroom Clearance
Audio QualityPLR [dB]7.400 most popular music tracksGermany, UK, ak to Loudness Ratio 1963 - 2011Productions below the dotted line rarely sound good on fine speakers02050811YearOrtner, 2012
Mark KnopflerBritish Grove, London
Japan Loudness Status: TR-B32All programs: BS.1770-3Target Level: -24 LUFSTrue-Peak Max: -2 dBTPITU-R WPC6: Extension of BS.1770 to 22.2
US Loudness Status: ATSC A/85Commercials: BS.1770-3Programs: Speech levelTarget Level: -24 LUFSTrue-Peak Max: -2 dBTPUncertainty when measuring programs.
Results: Cumulative urement0LoudnessSpeech
[LU] 864ATSC A/85 246-8ProgramInterstitialDramaInterstitialFilm
1.2.Count Basie:Imagine Dragons:“Mean Old World”“Demons”Secret stereo recordingby Bruce Swedien1959From albumNight Visions2012Each track loudness-normalized to -18 LKFS/LUFS
ReferencesMore InfoKarl Küpfmüller (1962).Edit by K. Steinbuch ,Springer, BerlinNachrichtenverarbeitung im MenschenBenjamin Libet et al. (1979). PubMed id#427530. Bethesda, MDSubjective Referral of the Timing for a Conscious Sensory ExperienceRudolf Ortner (2012). Donau Universität, KremsJe lauter desto bumm! - The Evolution of LoudNielsen & Lund. (1999 - 2006). AES 23, 107, 109, 111, 121Stop Counting Samples and 0 dBFS LevelSkovenborg & Lund. (2007 - 2014). AES 123, 125, 127, 132, 135, 137Loudness Descriptors to Characterize Programs and Music TracksATSC A/85, EBU R128, ITU-R BS.1770, TR-B32AES 58 June 30 11:00 Prevention of Hearing Loss from the use ofPersonal Music PlayersEnd
The Loudness Wars and ITU-R BS.1770 Thomas Lund TC Electronic A/S Denmark KBS Seoul June 17, 2015. e BS.1770. Peak Level Metering Bad for Broadcast Bad for Music. e BS.1770. Loudness Models Leq(K) is simple and performs well. BS.1770 Loudness Left Pre Filter Mean
defined in ITU-R BS.1770 , introducing the measures LU (Loudness Unit) and LUFS (Loudness Units, referenced to Full Scale)1; f) and that the level-gated measurement of Programme Loudness defined in ITU-R BS.1770 Equation (7) (which hence measures foreground loudness) is advantageous to improve the loudness matching of programmes with a wide .
ITU-R standard BS.1770: –BS.1770 defines a standardized loudness meter that permits the integrated loudness of a given program segment to be measured. –The goal for each program segments is to make its BS.1770 integrated loudness equal to the target loudness. –Because the loudness is integrated over the entire duration of a
For international broadcasting, the ITU-R9 BS.1770-2 standard for loudness measurement has recently been developed.10 It defines the equivalent loudness of an audio signal as its LUFS level, meaning Loudness Units relative to Full Scale.11 BS.1770-2 does a very good job in predicting subjective loudness.12 Loudness normalization based upon BS.1770-
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which standard is used for metering. Targets, units, and metering algorithms change depending on the selected preset. At the top of the metering section you can ﬁnd the reading for Integrated Loudness, the overall loudness in LUFS/ LKFS of the whole programme / track. At the bottom left of the Integrated Loudness section is a Target
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