Heredity Test Key- SSSS 2018(Focus on DNA, RNA, andproteins)Answers are bolded and underlined.Starred problems (*) are worth 2 points and double starred problems(**) are worth 4 points!Team Name:Team Number:Competitor Names:
1. What is the purpose of DNA ligase?A. To replicate the strand and move it to the needed locationB. To assist in DNA unwindingC. To connect Okazaki fragmentsD. To attract RNA primers2. What is the purpose of histones?For DNA strands to wrap around so they can activate and deactivate genes.3. * Draw the structure of one nucleotide and label it. ** Bonus: Draw the individual moleculesShould be similar to:Bonus (note that the base shown is an example):4. Describe what a nucleoside is.The base and sugar in DNA. Can be thought of as a column of nucleotides without thephosphate backbone. For clarification:
5. * What are linked genes and how are they affected by the law of independent assortment?Sample: linked genes are genes on the same chromosome. The law of independentassortment states that the chance of getting a certain gene will not affect the chance ofgetting another gene on another chromosome. However, this does not hold true for linkedgenes as they are on the same chromosome and will come together or not at all.6. In protein synthesis, what is the difference between translation and transcription?Transcription is the creation of mRNA while translation is the creation of proteins from themRNA.7. * What is the difference between a polypeptide and a protein? Include the levels of proteinstructure in your answer.Sample: A polypeptide is many peptides strung together. A protein is one or morepolypeptides folded into a shape such that it has certain emergent properties and certaineffects on its surroundings. They share the first 3 structures of protein structure, but onlyproteins with multiple subunits will have quaternary structure.8. * What is the difference between a ribose and a deoxyribose sugar? Be specific.A ribose sugar has an oxygen molecule on it’s 2 carbon, while deoxyribose does not.9. Describe how the karyotypes appear in the following disorders:9.a. Patau SyndromeThere is a trisomy of the 13 chromosomes.9.b. Klinefelter’s SyndromeThere is a trisomy of the sex chromosomes with it becoming XXY.9.c. Down SyndromeThere is a trisomy of the 21 chromosomes.10. How do epigenetic factors affect gene accessibility and activation? Be specific.Sample: They change the accessibility of genes by making DNA wrap more or less aroundhistones, making some genes appear or disappear.
11. How many hydrogen bonds exist when adenine and thymine bond?A. 24B. 2C. 6D. 312. How are DNA strands separated? Be specific.Topoisomerase unwinds the backbone, helicase breaks hydrogen bonds between base pairs,and single- strand binding proteins prevent rewinding.13. Where does tRNA go through in ribosomes? Include the site passage in your response.Sample: It enters in the A site where it waits for a tiny bit of time while the next tRNA leavesits amino acid and leaves. The new tRNA then enters the P site, where it will match its basepairs with the codons found on the mRNA being read. It will then move to the E site, leavingthe amino acid behind while more tRNA comes from behind.14. * Draw a diagram of translation, labeled. Be specific.Should be something like this:15. If Bob examined a sperm cell’s nucleus, how many chromosomes would he find? Also, howmany alleles for each trait would he find?He would find 23 chromosomes and 1 allele for each trait.16. What is the difference between DNA polymerase I and III?Polymerase III adds on to RNA primers while Polymerase I replaces primers.17. List 3 differences between DNA and RNA.Sample:1. DNA has thymine2. RNA has uracil3. RNA is single stranded18. How long was the Human Genome Project, when was it, and what was it?Sample: 13 years, from 1990 to 2003. It was a project to map all of the human genes, knownas the genome.19. Whose innovation helped discover the structure of DNA but did not receive the Nobel Prizealongside Watson and Crick?Rosalind Franklin20. What is the function of RNA primers?
Sample: Because DNA Polymerase III can only replicate if RNA primers are present, thesetemporarily exist to start replication and are replaced by DNA Polymerase I later.21. ** Draw a nucleosome and label activated and inactivated genes.Should look like this:Accessible genesInaccessible genes188.8.131.52.27.28.22. If an evil scientist created a cell that would remove other cell’s DNA, list3 structures they could give the cell. Be creative!Sample: Ability to infiltrate cell membrane, ability to infiltrate nuclear membrane, and somewrapping or engulfing structure to take the DNA.How do viruses and their lytic and lysogenic cycles affect cells (specifically the nuclear DNA)?Sample: They inject their DNA into the cell, which merges with the cell’s DNA and becomesthe prophage. This may continue to form more prophage-containing cells (lysogenic cycle) orcreate more viruses, causing the cells to release the viruses, thus causing the cycle to repeat.Which 2 people created the Punnett square, and why is it so useful?Sample: Reginald Punnett and William Bateson, and the Punnett square is useful because itallows you to see all the possible outcomes of the children’s traits.What is helicase and why is it vital to DNA replication?Helicase is an enzyme that breaks hydrogen bonds between base pairs. It is vital becausewithout it, you could not separate the strands to replicate them.What is the purpose of single-strand binding proteins?A. To catalyze the replicationB. To support the fragile replication forkC. To break hydrogen bonds between base pairsD. To prevent rewindingWhat functional group does the backbone of DNA and RNA contain?It contains Phosphate groups.List the structural levels of protein:1st: (Primary): amino acid sequence2nd: (Secondary): local shape3rd: (Tertiary): polypeptide shape
4th: (Quaternary): this is only in the case of multiple polypeptides- how the polypeptides arelinked with each other29. List a way that proteins can denature, and why?Sample: Heat, because it would disrupt hydrogen bonds within the protein and non-polarhydrophobic interactions.30. * List 3 common types of proteins and describe them.Sample:Fibrous: an elongated protein that provides support, like collagenMembrane: proteins in membranes; serve a variety of purposes like transporting ionsGlobular: sphere shaped proteins that have a wide range of functions, like acting as enzymes31. * List 3 proteins and describe them.Sample:Collagen: a fibrous protein that is very common and helps in support.Keratin: a fibrous protein that makes up har, nails, and many other external features.Myoglobin: a red protein in muscle cells that stores oxygen.32. Let’s say I have protein A. Let’s say it was misfolded and became a dangerous prion- what harmcould this do to the body, and how?Sample: This protein would spread and soon many proteins would be misfolded. This occurs inthe brain, and holes would appear and cause diseases such as kuru and mad cow disease.33. * If 2 lizards had a baby, the mother giving green scales (G) and scaly scales (S) and the fathergave brown scales (g) and smooth scales (s), create a Punnett square for all the possibleoutcomes. Also say whether this is a monohybrid or a dihybrid cross (circle SGgSSGgSsggSSggSsgsGGSsGgssggSsggss34. ** Describe all the steps of protein synthesis. Be very specific.Sample: First is transcription, where mRNA is formed. Here, RNA Polymerase addscomplementary RNA nucleotides to the opposite side of unwound DNA strands, creatingmobile mRNA.Then is translation, where mRNA, tRNA, and ribosomes work together to form proteins. Thishappens when the newly formed mRNA goes through the lower subunit of the ribosome whilecorresponding tRNA goes through the top. As they match, each tRNA releases an amino acidas it leaves that forms a chain.35. Give an example of a stop codon and how this works.Sample: An example is UAA, and when these come in translation, it ends the proteinsynthesis.36. Give the name of the start codon in eukaryotes, the base pairs that code for it, and how thisworks.Sample: Methionine and AUG. The moment that an AUG sequence is there in a ribosome,complementary tRNA will arrive and the cycle will begin until a stop codon comes along.37. Describe the effects of hemophilia and the chromosomes it is found on.
Hemophilia is a disease that prevents blood clotting. It is found on the sex chromosomes.38. ** Draw, label, and describe the stages of meiosis.
39. ** Draw a pie chart showing the time length of interphase and its stages with the other stagesof mitosis. Be sure to label the stages of interphase and describe what happens in each of them.
40. Give the gender of the person based off the karyotype. In your response include the name of thedisorder this person has and the effects on their body and behavior.The person’s gender is male and they have Klinefelter’s Syndrome, meaning they have andextra X chromosome. Some effects of this disorder include female secondary sexual features,such as breast enlargement.41. Which base pairs are pyrimidines and which base pairs are purines, and what do each of theseterms mean (include uracil in your response).Sample:Pyrimidines: Cytosine, Uracil, and Thymine. These have 2 heterocyclic rings.Purines: Adenine and Guanine. These have 1 heterocyclic ring.42. Name 4 epigenetic influences and what these do to your genes.Sample: Diet, drugs, exercise, and disease exposure. These change the accessibility of certaingenes.43. Break the levels of organization in chromosomes down write from the closest to chromosomesto the farthest.1. Chromatin2. DNA3. Genes44. Describe cystic fibrosis and some of its symptoms and treatments.Sample: Cells that produce fluids produce more sticky and viscous fluids that clogpassageways. Symptoms include lung infections, coughing, and fatty stools. Treatmentsinclude dietary supplements, Antibiotics, Penicillin antibiotics, and Cough medicine.
45. Describe Huntington’s Disease and some of its symptoms and treatments.Sample: This is where the nerve cells in the brain break down over time. Symptoms includeamnesia, depression, and anxiety. Treatments include counseling, though no cure exists.46. Draw a simple chromosome tetrad. This does not need to be detailed.Sample:47.-57. ** Label the following, and for a ** bonus give all of the functions.184.108.40.206.220.127.116.11.18.104.22.168. Lagging strand- purpose is to help create more DNA and code for proteins along with leadingstrand48. DNA Polymerase I- it’s purpose is to replace RNA primers49. DNA ligase- fill gaps between Okazaki fragments50. RNA primer- begin the new replicated DNA strand51. DNA primase- places RNA primers52. Leading strand- helps to create more DNA and conde for proteins along with lagging strand
53. Okazaki fragment- purpose is to allow the start of the lagging strand replication54. DNA Polymerase III- purpose is to add onto RNA primers with the actual DNA nucleotides55. Helicase- separates hydrogen bonds between nucleotides to form replication fork56. Single strand binding proteins- prevents rewinding of DNA57. Topoisomerase- Unwinds and prevents supercoiling of DNA58. Give the translated RNA strand from the following DNA C-U-G-C-A-G-C-C-U-U-U-C-G-A-3Total Score: /75
Lagging strand- purpose is to help create more DNA and code for proteins along with leading strand 48. DNA Polymerase I- it’s purpose is to replace RNA primers 49. DNA ligase- fill gaps between Okazaki fragments 50. RNA primer- begin the new replicated DNA strand 51. DNA primase-
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Role of Chromosomes & Genes in Heredity Heredity is the transmission of characteristics from parents to offspring. Both heredity and environment shape an individual’s personal traits. Kinship studies allow researchers to determine the influence of heredity and environment on individuals
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7/13/2021 Test Science Olympiad — AnotherPenguin's SSSS Codebusters Test This is meant as a test for all levels. There are
Test Name Score Report Date March 5, 2018 thru April 1, 2018 April 20, 2018 April 2, 2018 thru April 29, 2018 May 18, 2018 April 30, 2018 thru May 27, 2018 June 15, 2018 May 28, 2018 thru June 24, 2018 July 13, 2018 June 25, 2018 thru July 22, 2018 August 10, 2018 July 23, 2018 thru August 19, 2018 September 7, 2018 August 20, 2018 thru September 1
ohwell’s Anatomy and Physiology Test SSSS 2019 . 1. Acetylcholine receptors on the sarcolemma of muscle cells are _ a. G-Proteins b. Voltage-Independent Ion Channels c. Voltage-Dependent Ion Channels d. Ligand-Regulated Ion Ch
Human Heredity Chapter 14 . Human Karyotype . 14-1 Quiz Answers 1. Autosomes and sex chromosomes 2. True 3. One X, and one Y 4. One 5. 50% 6. Two 7. Pedigrees 8. False 9. B 10. B . Chapter 14 Quiz II 1. If a person has PKU which parent did they have to inherit the . Human Heredity .