Manual Testing Step By Step Tutorial - Software Testing

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G C Reddy Technologies ( Testing Step by StepTutorial1) Software Development Life Cycle and SDLC Modeli) Requirement Gatheringii) Analysisiii) Designiv) Coding / Developmentv) Testingvi) Deployment & MaintenanceSDLC Modelsi) Waterfall Modelii) V Model2) Software Test Levelsi) Unit Testingii) Integration Testingiii) System Testingiv) Acceptance Testing3) Software Test Typesi) Functional testingii) Non-functional testingiii) Structural testingiv) Change related testing4) Software Test Design Techniquesi) Static Test Design Techniquesa) Reviews (Manual Examination)1) Informal Review2) Walk through3) Technical Review4) Inspectionb) Static Analysis (Automated Analysis)G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Dynamic Test Design Techniquesa) Specification based or Black box Techniques1) Equivalence Partitioning (EP)2) Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)3) Decision Table Testing4) State Transition Testing5) Use Case Testing Etc b) Structure based or White box Techniques1) Statement Coverage2) Decision Coverage3) Condition Coverage4) Multi Condition Coverage5) LCSAJ etc c) Experience based Techniques1) Error Guessing2) Exploratory Testing Etc 5) Software Test Life Cyclei) Requirement Analysisii) Test Planningiii) Test Design & Developmentiv) Test Environment Setupv) Test Executionvi) Test Cycle ClosureManual Testing Step Step Videos1) Software Development Life Cycle and SDLC ModelSoftware Development Life Cycle Software Development Life Cycle is a systematic approach to developsoftware. It is a Process followed by Software Developers and SoftwareTesting is an integral part of Software Development, so it is also importantfor Software Testers. Software Development Life Cycle (SDLC) is a process used by the softwareindustry to design, develop and test software. The SDLC aims to produce ahigh-quality software that meets or exceeds customer expectations, reachescompletion within times and cost estimates.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( ISO/IEC 12207 is an international standard for software life-cycleprocesses. It defines all the tasks required for developing and maintainingsoftware.Phases of Software Development Life Cycle,These phases may vary form one organization to another, but purpose isalmost all same, that is "Develop and Maintain Quality Software",i) Requirement Gatheringii) Analysisiii) Designiv) Coding / Developmentv) Testingvi) Deployment & MaintenanceNote: It is General Software Development Life Cycle, we have various SDLCModels in the IT Industry, Waterfall Model, V Model, Spiral Model and AgileDevelopment Models etc.,Software Development process varies from one SDLC Model to another.i) Requirement Gathering Requirement Gathering is the most important phase in softwaredevelopment life cycle, Business Analyst collects the requirements from theCustomer/Client as per the clients business needs and documents therequirements in the Business Requirement Specification and provides thesame to Development Team.Note: Document name may vary from one Organization to another, Someexamples are Customer Requirement Specification (CRS), BusinessRequirement Document (BRD) etc Suppose Our Planned Software is not intended for a single customer andthe software product for multiple customers then Business Analyst orBusiness Team collects Requirements from the Market and also evaluateOther similar products in the Market Key Role in this phase is Business Analyst and Outcome of the phase is"Business Requirement Specification"G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Analysis Once the Requirement Gathering is done the next step is to define anddocument the product requirements and get them approved by thecustomer. This is done through SRS (Software Requirement Specification)document. SRS consists of all the product requirements to be designed anddeveloped during the project life cycle. Key people involved in this phase are Project Manager, Business Analystand Senior members of the Team. The outcome of this phase is SoftwareRequirement Specification.iii) Design In Design phase Senior Developers and Architects, they give thearchitecture of the software product to be developed. It has two steps one isHLD (High Level Design) or Global Design and another is LLD (Low LevelDesign) or Detailed Design, High Level Design (HLD) is the overall system design, covers the systemarchitecture and database design. It describes the relation between variousmodules and functions of the system. Low Level Design (LLD) is the detailed system design, covers how eachand every feature in the product should work and how every componentshould work. The outcome of this phase is High Level Document and Low LevelDocument which works as an input to the next phase Coding.iv) Coding / Development Developers (seniors, juniors and fresher) involved in this phase, this is thephase where we start building the software and start writing the code for theproduct. The outcome of this phase is Source Code Document (SCD) and thedeveloped product.v) Testing Once the software is complete then it is deployed in the testingenvironment. The testing team starts testing (either test the softwaremanually or using automated test tools depends on process defined in STLC)G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Testing is done to verify that the entire application works according to thecustomer requirement. During this phase, Testing team may find defects which they communicateto developers, the development team fixes the defect and send back toTesting for a re-test. This process continues until the software is Stable, andworking according to the business needs of that Deployment & Maintenance After successful testing, the product is delivered (deployed to thecustomer for their use), Deployment is done by theDeployment/Implementation engineers and Once when the customers startusing the developed system then the actual problems will come up andneeds to be solved from time to time. Fixing the issues found by the customer comes in the maintenance phase.100% testing is not possible – because, the way testers test the product isdifferent from the way customers use the product. Maintenance should bedone as per SLA (Service Level Agreement)Software Development Life Cycle Models There are various software development life cycle models defined anddesigned which are followed during the software development process.These models are also referred as Software Development Process Models".i) Waterfall Model Waterfall approach was first SDLC Model to be used widely in SoftwareEngineering to ensure success of the project. In "The Waterfall" approach,the whole process of software development is divided into separate phases.In this Waterfall model, typically, the outcome of one phase acts as the inputfor the next phase sequentially.Phases of Waterfall Model:a) Requirements Gathering: This first step is also the most important, because it involves gatheringinformation about what the customer needs and defining, in the clearestpossible terms, the problem that the product is expected to solve.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Software Requirements: In this phase Business Requirements are converted as SoftwareRequirements.c) Design: In this phase Global and Detailed design can be produced based onSoftware Requirements.d) Coding: This step consists of actually constructing the product as per the designspecification(s) developed in the previous step. Typically, this step isperformed by a development team consisting of programmers, interfacedesigners and other specialists, using tools such as compilers, debuggers,interpreters and media editors. The output of this step is one or moreproduct components, built according to a pre-defined coding standard anddebugged, tested and integrated to satisfy the system architecturerequirements.e) Testing: In this stage, System will be tested by testers, if the find any mismatchthey report defects. Developers /Programmers fix the defects and thentesters close defects by performing confirmation testing (RegressionTesting).f) Release & Maintenance: Release team (consists of a few developers, testers, and tech-supportpeople etc ) install software in Customer environment and they considerbelow factors;Correct & Complete installation, User Management, ServicesManagement, Coexistence with other software, Handling of Input & Outputdevices, and Handling of secondary storage devicesEtc Maintenance team process Customer issues based on service agreements.Advantages of Waterfall Model:a) Simple and easy to useG C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Easy to manage due to the rigidity of the model- each phase has specificdeliverables and a review process.c) Phases are processed and completed one at a time.d) Works well for smaller projects where requirements are very wellunderstood.Disadvantages of Waterfall Model:a) No working software is produced until late during the life cycleb) High amount of risk and uncertaintyc) Poor model for complex and object oriented projects.d) Poor model for Long and ongoing projectse) Poor Model where requirements are at a moderate to high risk ofchanging.ii) V Model It is Verification & Validation model, known as V Model, in this model alldevelopment phases can be integrated with Testing phases. The V-model illustrates how testing activities can be integrated into eachphase of the software development life cycle. V Model was inaugurated in order to avoid drawbacks in Waterfall modeland its main focus on multiple stages of testing. Multiple stages of Testing avoids defects multiplication.Development Phases Integration with Testing Phasesa) User Requirements Vs Acceptance Testing Business Analyst category people gather requirements and the documentthe requirements, after documentation Reviews, Meetings like verificationwill take place in order get correct & Complete Requirements.End Users conduct Acceptance Testing using Business / User Requirements.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Software Requirements Vs System Testing Development Manager/Tech Manager converts User Requirements asSoftware Requirements and Reviews, Meetings like verification methods willbe performed on Software Requirements, after Verification Project managerprovides Approval. Independent testers generate test cases from Software Requirements inorder to perform System Testingc) Global Design Vs Integration Testing System Architect / senior developer creates Global design, InformalReview/ Walk through / Technical Review / Inspection like Verificationmethods will be applied on Design documents. Developers perform Integration Testing based on Software Global Design.d) Detailed Design Vs Unit / Component Testing Developers perform Unit /Component Testing based on Software DetailedDesign.Advantages of V Model:a) Tester role will take place in the requirement phase it selfb) Multiple stages of Testing available so that Defects multiplication can bereduced.c) Can be used for any type of requirementsd) Due to Multiple stages of Testing and Multiple teams involvement Qualitycan be improved.e) The V Model Supports wide range of development methodologies such asStructured and Object oriented systems development.f) The V Model supports tailoring.Disadvantages of V Model:a) It an expensive model than Waterfall model, needs lot of resources,budget and time.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Co-ordination and Maintenance are difficult.c) Adoption of changes in Requirements and Adding New Requirements atmiddle of the process are difficult.d) It needs an established process for proper implementation.2) Software Test LevelsThere are mainly four testing levels are:i) Unit Testingii) Integration Testingiii) System Testingiv) Acceptance Testingi) Unit Testing In Unit Testing level individual units/ components of a software are tested.The purpose is to validate that each unit of the software works as designed. Unit Testing can be done Manually as well as automated Unit Test Tools – NUnit, JUnit, TestNG etc Developers conduct Unit Testing using White Box Test DesignTechniques ii) Integration Testing In Integration Testing Level, individual units are combined and tested as agroup. The purpose of this level of testing is to expose faults in theinteraction between integrated units.Popular Integration Test Tools:FitNesse, Rational Integration Tester, Protractor, TESSY and Jasmine etc Independent Testers conduct this level of Testing,G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( System Testing In System Testing level a complete and integrated software is tested. Thepurpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with the specifiedsoftware requirements. System Testing can be done manually and automated.Popular Testing Tools are:Selenium, UFT, RFT (Functional Testing)LoadRunner, JMeter, RPT (Performance Testing)SoapUI – Web Services TestingAppium – Mobile Testing etc Independent Testers conduct System Testing using Block Box Test DesignTechniques.iv) Acceptance Testing In Acceptance Testing level a software system is tested for acceptability.The purpose of this test is to evaluate the system’s compliance with thebusiness requirementsHere, Acceptance basically two types,1) Internal Acceptance Testing (Alpha Testing): It is conducted by membersof the development organization who are not directly involved in the project,Usually, it is the members of Product Management, Sales and/or CustomerSupport people.2) External Acceptance Testing / User Acceptance Testing (Beta Testing) isconducted by the end users of the software.Note: Acceptance Testing environment and System Testing environmentalmost all same, but Unit Test Environment and integration Testenvironment are different.3) Software Test Types A test type is a group of test activities aimed at testing specificcharacteristics of a software system, or a part of a system, based on specifictest objectives. Such objectives may include:G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Evaluating functional quality characteristics, such as completeness,correctness, and appropriateness Evaluating non-functional quality characteristics, such as reliability,performance efficiency, security, compatibility, and usability Evaluating whether the structure or architecture of the component orsystem is correct, complete, and as specified Evaluating the effects of changes, such as confirming that defects havebeen fixed (confirmation testing) and looking for unintended changes inbehavior resulting from software or environment changes (regressiontesting)i) Functional Testing Functional testing of a system involves tests that evaluate functions thatthe system should perform. Functional requirements may be described inwork products such as business requirements specifications, epics, userstories, use cases, or functional specifications, or they may beundocumented. The functions are “what” the system should do. Functional tests should be performed at all test levels. Functional testingconsiders the behavior of the softwareii) Non-functional Testing Non-functional testing of a system evaluates characteristics of systemsand software such as usability, performance efficiency or security. Nonfunctional testing is the testing of “how well” the system behaves. nonfunctional testing can and often should be performed at all test levels, anddone as early as possible. The late discovery of non-functional defects canbe extremely dangerous to the success of a project.iii) Structural Testing Structural Testing derives tests based on the system’s internal structureor implementation. Internal structure may include code, architecture, workflows, and/or data flows within the system.iv) Change-related Testing When changes are made to a system, either to correct a defect or becauseof new or changing functionality, testing should be done to confirm that theG C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( have corrected the defect or implemented the functionalitycorrectly, and have not caused any unforeseen adverse consequences. Confirmation Testing: After a defect is fixed, the software may be testedwith all test cases that failed due to the defect, which should be re-executedon the new software version. Regression Testing: It is possible that a change made in one part of thecode, whether a fix or another type of change, may accidentally affect thebehavior of other parts of the code, whether within the same component, inother components of the same system, or even in other systems. Changes may include changes to the environment, such as a new versionof an operating system or database management system. Such unintendedside-effects are called regressions. Regression testing involves running tests to detect such unintended sideeffects. Confirmation testing and regression testing are performed at all testlevels. Regression test suites are run many times and generally evolve slowly, soregression testing is a strong candidate for automation. Automation of thesetests should start early in the project.4) Software Test Design Techniques What is Technique?An Efficient way of doing or achieving something. What is Test Design Technique?A test design technique is used to select a good set of tests from the allpossible tests for a given system. Why we need to use Test Design Techniques?Exhaustive Testing is not possible, so we need to use Test DesignTechniques in order to reduce the size of the input.Exhaustive Testing is a Test approach in which the test suite comprises allcombination of input values and preconditions.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Testing is not recommendable due to Time and Budgetconsiderations.Categories of Test Design Techniques?There are two main categories of Test Design Techniques, They are:i) Static Techniquesii) Dynamic Techniquesi) Static Techniques Testing of the software documents manually or with a set of tools butwithout executing the Software.Two types of static testing techniquesa) Reviews (Manual Examination)b) Static Analysis (Automated Analysis)——————————a) ReviewsTypes of Reviews1)2)3)4)Informal ReviewWalkthroughTechnical ReviewInspectionb) Static AnalysisStatic analysis tools are typically used by developers, Compilers offer somesupport for Static analysis,ii) Dynamic Test Design Techniques The software is tested by executing it on computer.Categories of Dynamic Test Design Techniquesa) Specification based or Black box Techniques1) Equivalence Partitioning (EP)2) Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)3) Decision Table Testing4) State Transition Testing5) Use Case Testing Etc G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Structure based or White box Techniques1) Statement Testing and coverage2) Decision Testing and Coverage3) Condition Testing,4) Multi Condition Testing5) LCSAJ etc c) Experience based Techniquesa) Error Guessingb) Exploratory ��—–2a) Black box Test Design Techniques1) Equivalence Partitioning (EP)2) Boundary Value Analysis (BVA)3) Decision Table Testing4) State Transition Testing5) Use Case Testing Etc 1) Equivalence Partitioning (EP) It can be applied at any level of testing (Unit, Integration, System andAcceptance Testing) In Equivalence Partitioning, inputs to the Software are divided into groupsthat are expected to exhibit similar behavior. Equivalence Partitions/Classes can be found for both valid data and invaliddata.Example 1 (Data Range):Tickets field in a Reservation system accepts 1 to 10 Tickets only.Partition 1-Ne to 00(Invalid)Partition 20 1 to 10(Valid)Partition 311 to 99 or above(Invalid)Example 2 (Data Type):Customer Identification Number field in a CRM system accepts onlynumbers.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( 1 Partition 2 Partition 3 Partition 4Alpha bytes Numbers Special Characters Alpha-numeric(Invalid) (Valid) (Invalid) (Invalid)Example 3 (Data Size)Phone Number filed accepts 10 digits number onlyPartition 1 Partition 2 Partition 3Below 10 10 Above 10(Invalid) (Valid) (Invalid)Example 4 (Others)A Payment management system accepts credit card payments onlyPartition 1 Partition 2 Partition 3Credit card Net Banking Cash on Delivery(Valid) (Invalid) (Invalid)2) Boundary Value Analysis (BVA) The maximum and minimum values of a partition are its boundary values. Behavior at edge of each equivalence partition is more likely to beincorrect than behavior within the partition. Boundary value analysis can be applied at all Test levels(Unit, Integration,System and Acceptance Testing).Example 1:Partition 1 Partition 2 Partition 30 1 to 10 11 to 99 or above(Invalid) (Valid) (Invalid)Minimum/maximum 0Minimum 1Maximum 10Minimum 11Maximum 99————————————Example 3 (Data Size)Phone Number filed accepts 10 digits number onlyG C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( 1 Partition 2 Partition 3Below 10 10 Above 10(Invalid) (Valid) (Invalid)Minimum -9Minimum and Maximum – 10Maximum -11—————————————Example: User Id field accepts 10 to 20 charactersPartition 1 Partition 2 Partition 3Below 10 10 to 20 21 to 99Minimum -1Maximum – 9Minimum – 10Maximum – 20Minimum – 21Maximum -993) Decision Table Testing The decision tables are good way to capture system requirements thatcontain logical conditions. It may be applied for all situations when the action of the softwaredepends on logical decisions.BSRB (Govt) System Job eligibility criteria,Age should be in between 21 and 35Conditions:i) For SC or ST Candidates 5 Years age relaxationii) For BC Candidates 5 Years age relaxationiii) PHC Candidates 5 Years age relaxationCategory Age ��——OC 20 InvalidOC 21 ValidOC 35 ValidG C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( 36 ValidBC 36 ValidBC 39 InvalidSC 39 ValidPHC 39 ValidST 40 ——–Banking System interest rates For fixed deposits.1 to 2 years 7%2 to 3 Years 8%3 to 5 Years 10%Condition:For Senior citizens 0.5% extra for all rangesAge Period Interest Rate———————————–25 1year 7%35 2.5 8%56 4 10%66 4 10.5%4) State Transition Testing In State transition Testing Test cases are designed to execute valid andinvalid state transitions. A System (Application Under Test) may exhibit a different response oncurrent conditions or previous history.Example: Internet Banking System Fund Transfer operationInitial Balance: 45000Transaction Amount Transaction Result1 20000 Successful (Pass)2 20000 Successful (Pass)3 20000 Unsuccessful (Pass)5) Use Case Testing In Use Case Testing Test Cases are designed to execute User Scenarios orBusiness Scenarios.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( A Use Case describes interactions between actors, including users and thesystem. A Use case usually has a mainstream scenario and sometimes alternativescenarios.Example:Business Scenario: ATM Cash Withdrawal operationMainstream Scenario:1)User: Inserts ATM CardSystem: Asks for PIN2)User: Enters PINSystem: Validates PIN and asks to select language3)User: Selects LanguageSystem: Asks to select Account Type4)User: Selects Account TypeSystem: Asks to enter Amount5)User: Enters AmountSystem: Releases —–Alternatives2a) Suppose if user enters invalid PinSystem: Shows error message and asks to enter correct PINUser: Enters Correct PIN———————–4a) Suppose if user selects incorrect Account TypeG C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Shows error and asks to select correct Account TypeUser: Select correct account type5a) If User enters incorrect amount (More than the balance amount or morethan the day limit)System: Shows Error message and asks to enter correct amountUser: Enters correct amount5) Software Testing Life Cycle or Software Testing Process Software Testing Life Cycle (STLC) identifies what test activities to carryout and when to accomplish those test activities. Even though testing differsbetween Organizations, there is a testing life cycle. Just like Software Developers follow the Software Development Life Cycle(SDLC), Software Testers also follow the Software Testing Life Cycle. Software Test Process is not a single activity, it consists of many differentactivities which are executed to achieve a good quality product.There are different phases in STLC which are given below:i) Requirement Analysisii) Test Planningiii) Test Design & Developmentiv) Test Environment Setupv) Test Executionvi) Test Cycle ClosureWe have Entry and Exit Criteria for all levels in the Software Testing LifeCycle Entry Criteria: Entry Criteria gives the prerequisite items that must becompleted.Exit Criteria: Exit Criteria defines the items that must be completed.i) Requirement Analysis In Requirement Analysis phase, test team studies the requirements andidentify the testable requirements.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Criteria: Requirements Document available (both functional and nonfunctional), Application Architectural document or Product should beavailable Exit Criteria: RTM should be signed off and The customer should sign off onthe test automation feasibilityActivities in this phase:a) Identify types of tests to be performed.b) Risk Analysisc) Prepare Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM).d) Identify Test environment detailse) Automation feasibility analysis (if required).Deliverables:a) Requirement Traceability Matrix (RTM)b) Automation feasibility report(Optional)ii) Test Planning In this phase the Test Manager or Test Lead prepares the Test Plan andTest strategy documents.Entry Criteria: Requirements Document, Requirement Traceability Matrix(RTM) and Automation Feasibility ReportExit Criteria: Approved Test Plan document, Test Strategy document andEffort estimation documentActivities in this phase:a) Selection of Testing Approachb) Test Estimationc) Team Formationd) Preparation of Test Plan, Test strategy documentse) Configuration Management Planningf) Resource planningg) Test Tool Selection (if required)h) Training RequirementDeliverables:a) Test Plan, Test Strategy document.b) Test estimation document.Etc.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Test Design & Development In Test design phase, testers prepare test scenarios, test cases/testscripts and test data based on the Requirement Document/s and Test Plan.Entry Criteria: Requirements Document/s, RTM and Test Plan, Automationanalysis reportExit Criteria: Reviews Test cases, Test Scripts (if automation) and Test data.Activities in this phase:a) Derive Test Scenariosb) Test Case Documentationc) Review Test Casesd) Update RTM – Map Test Cases to Requirements in RTMe) Creation of Test Scripts if requiredf) Collect Test DataEtc Deliverables:a) Test casesb) Test scripts (for automation if required)c) Test Dataiv) Test Environment Setup It is a combination of hardware and software environment on which thetests will be executed. Test Environment supports test execution with software, hardware andnetwork configured. Test environment configuration must mimic theproduction environment. Readiness of the test environment can be validated by smoke testingperformed by the Testing team.Entry Criteria: System design document/s, Architectural document of theapplication and Environment set-up checklist. Provision of Test Plan,readiness of Smoke Test cases and preparation of test data.Exit criteria: Test environment should be ready and smoke testing should beperformed successfully.G C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Setup Test Environment and Test Datab) Verify Test Environment by Conducting Smoke TestsDeliverables:a) Test Environment ready with test data set upb) Smoke Test Results.v) Test Execution In Test Execution phase the test cases are executed in the testingenvironment, while execution of the test cases the Testing team may findbugs which will be reported, bugs are fixed by the developer and they areretested by the Testing Team.Entry Criteria: Test Plan document, Test cases, Test data, Test EnvironmentExit Criteria: Test case execution report. Defect report, RTMActivities:a) Execution of Test Casesb) Document test results, and log defects for failed casesc) Update RTM – Map defects to test cases in RTMd) Retest the Defect fixese) Track the Defects to ClosureDeliverables:a) Test execution Reportb) Updated test cases with resultsc) Completed RTM with execution statusd) Opened and Closed Bug Report/svi) Test Cycle Closure Testing team will meet, discuss and analyze testing artifacts and evaluateTest cycle completion criteria. Identify strategies that have to beimplemented in future and taking lessons from the current test cycle.Entry Criteria: Test case Execution report and Opened and closed DefectReportsExit Criteria: Test Closure Report signed off by client, Test MetricsActivities:a) Evaluate Test Cycle completion criteriaG C Reddy Technologies (

G C Reddy Technologies ( Prepare test metricsc) Documentation of the learning from the projectd) Prepare Test closure reportDeliverables:a) Test Closure reportb) Test -------------------------Note: This Softw

1) Software Development Life Cycle and SDLC Model Software Development Life Cycle Software Development Life Cycle is a systematic approach to develop software. It is a Process followed by Software Developers and Software Testing is an integral part of Software Development, so it i

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