N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 2008System Information andMethod StatementCorporate ConstructionBasement waterproofing with membranesScope:Installation ofSikaplan WP 1100 – 15HL, -20HL, -30HL(Sikaplan - 9.6, -14.6, -24.6)Sikaplan WP 1100 - 15HL2, - 20HL2, 30HL2The information, and, in particular, the recommendations relating to the application and end-use of Sika products, are givenin good faith based on Sika’s current knowledge and experience of the products when properly stored, handled and appliedunder normal conditions. In practice, the differences in materials, substrates and actual site conditions are such that nowarranty in respect of merchantability or of fitness for a particular purpose, nor any liability arising out of any legalrelationship whatsoever, can be inferred either from this information, or from any written recommendations, or from any otheradvice offered. The proprietary rights of third parties must be observed. All orders are accepted subject to our current terms ofsale and delivery. Users must always refer to the most recent issue of the Technical Data Sheet for the product concerned,copies of which will be supplied upon request.Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: email@example.comPage 1 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 2008Table of Contents:1.Introduction188.8.131.52General informationConstruction requirementsWaterproofing system3452.Products62.12.2Product characteristicsAncillary .9General information for installationSubstrate preparationProtective layerGeneral membrane installation recommendationsWaterproofing termination detailsFixings on vertical areasWaterproofing details in horizontal and vertical areasInstallation of waterproofing membranesCompartment waterproofing with waterstops89111113151619204.Welding methods235.Quality control246.Cleaning and inspection of completed waterproofing267.Protection of completed waterproofing268.Proposal for bills of quantities289.Standard details41Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPage 2 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 20081. INTRODUCTION1.1 General background informationBuilding structures with basements below ground usually need to be watertight.Waterproofing works dependant on the basement’s structure are required to preventleaks into the structure and to protect the structure against the harmful influences ofaggressive ground- or seawater.Highly flexible single layer, or if required double layer Sikaplan WP waterproofingmembranes can protect a structure against water from damp soil contact, percolatingwater and groundwater under hydrostatic pressure.In situations with leaking waterproofing membranes caused by mechanical damage tothe membranes, whether a loose laid and single, or double layer systems, infiltratingwater might underflow and spread uncontrolled between the installed membrane andthe structure.A compartment system with waterstops and specially welded single or double layermembranes, combined with injectable hoses provides the possibility of control andrepair by injection if required during service life.Additional advantages are fast installation procedures, the high crack bridging ability ofthe installed membranes, plus minimal requirements for substrate preparation.This Method Statement describes the installation procedure and details with theSikaplan WP waterproofing membranes based on plasticised PVC.Limitations of membrane installations:A successful waterproofing system requires detailed design and specification bythe engineer prior to the membrane installation works being carried out onsite.The structure must be designed and built in such a way that the Sikaplan WPwaterproofing membrane system can adequately fulfil its function during its longservice life.Installation procedures must only be performed by skilled and experiencedmembrane waterproofing contractors. The site personnel must be trained in correctlywelding of the Sikaplan WP sheet membranes.Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: email@example.comPage 3 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 20081.2 Construction requirementsThe main criteria for the correct design and execution of the Sikaplan WP flexiblesheet membrane waterproofing system against groundwater ingress in undergroundstructures are: type and purpose of structure waterproofing of structures in open cut excavation, or shafting between secant pileor diaphragm walls circumference of the waterproofing (the level of waterproofing and its terminations) type and design of the retaining walls piled foundations and the pile cap location lowering of groundwater level during construction (sump pumping methods) condition of the substrate to be waterproofed thermal insulation details and requirements dimensions of the structure (length, width, depth) groundwater levels (max., min., average, immersion depth of structure) condition of groundwater (aggressive water, salt water, polluted water) expansion joint details and design construction phases construction/day work jointing of structure(construction schedule) requirements for single, or double-layer waterproofing system with vacuum controlAll elements protruding from or through the waterproofing membrane and cast intothe concrete, i.e. well shafts, service pipes, anchors, etc. must be made ofcorrosion-free steel quality (i.e. stainless V2A or V4A steel), or other non corrodingmaterials. The elements must be designed with flanges in order to allow watertightsealing of the membranes around them.In order to avoid any kind of damage to the installed waterproofing membrane and toensure their performance the following requirements from the substrate must be met: the structure must be designed to minimise movement due to temperature,settlement and concrete shrinkage contraction etc. reinforcement bars in the concrete must be min. 30mm below surface all steel elements must be stainless, or anticorrosive materials (i.e. cast iron,V2A, V4A steel quality, aluminium) the surface of the substrate being waterproofed must be smooth to avoidpuncturing the membrane under the future influence of hydrostatic pressureSika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPage 4 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 20081.3 Waterproofing systemThe installation procedure for waterproofing membranes depends on the: chosen excavation system i.e. open with free access to external walls, orinternally with retaining walls project design damp soil contact, percolating water, or water under hydraulic pressure immersion depth below groundwater level chosen membrane type and its fixing methods chosen waterproofing system, i.e. drainage system, waterstop system, active controlsystemDrainage systemWaterstop systemActive control systemWaterproofing against damp soil contact andpercolating water using with single layer membraneswithout compartment. This system is not resistantagainst water under hydrostatic pressure.Waterproofing against water under hydrostaticpressure, combining single layer membranes andWaterstops – forming compartments (the mostcommon standard waterproofing solution).Waterproofing against water under hydrostaticpressure, combined with double layer membranesand waterstops – compartments (allows highestsecurity of water tightness – continual monitoringand vacuum testing).The following installation instructions are divided into single operations, applicableaccording to each kind of project. The operational sequences must then be definedaccording to the project design and the specification requirements.Membrane installation sequences:Single layer or double layer membrane systemInstallation sequence of theOpen with free access to external walls:membrane is in two phases: without retaining walls1. lining below the basement slab with retaining walls cast in place concrete structures(apart from the structure)(slab, walls, roof)2. lining of walls and roofInternally without access to externalInstallation sequences of membrane inwalls:one, or two phases: diaphragm walls lining below basement and at driven or cast pile wallsretaining walls cast in place basement, wall- androof structureSika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: email@example.comPage 5 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 2008Subject to other local requirements, the specification of the membrane thickness isaccording to estimated immersion depth and consequent potential water pressure.membrane thickness1.5 mmMoisture and water ingress(to be combined with a drainage system)Hydrostatic pressure 0m - 10mHydrostatic pressure 10m - 20mHydrostatic pressure exceeding 20m1.5 mm2.0 mm3.0 mm2. PRODUCTS2.1 Product characteristicsSikaplan WP 1100 -15HLSikaplan WP 1100 -30HL(with signal layer 0.6mm)(Sikaplan 9.6)Sikaplan WP 1100 -20HLStandardproductSikaplan WP 1100 -15HL2Sikaplan WP 1100 -20HL2Sikaplan WP 1100 -30HL2Standardproduct(with signal layer0.2 mm, available oninquiry)ColoursSpecials(Sikaplan 14.6)(Sikaplan 24.6)top layer: yellow / reverse layer: dark greySikaplan WP 1100 -20H transparent (Trocal T 2.00mm)(transparent acc. toFrench Standard, onrequest)MaterialUsePVC-p membrane, homogeneous, not bitumen resistantWaterproofing of all types of structures, situated below groundagainst groundwater ingressMembranethicknessand roll sizesaccording to the respective product data sheetsSuitable against ageing or weathering during installation worksagainst aggressive influences occurring naturally in groundwateragainst salt wateragainst accidental puncturingagainst algae and micro-organismsagainst hydrostatic pressureto be resistant against root penetrationsto remain flexible at low temperaturesSika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPage 6 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 20082.2 Ancillary products Sikaplan WP laminated metal strip F 100Colour of top layerlight greySize and thickness of strip100mm x 2000mmUselinear fixing of Sikaplan WP 1100waterproofing sheets. Metal strip to becut and preformed to profiles withsuitable tools in metal workshops Sikaplan WP Disc 80/10mmColourSizeUseyellow, black80mm dia. x 10mm thicknessspot fixing of Sikaplan WP 1100waterproofing sheets in vertical areas Sika Waterbar, type AR / DR / AR InjectColoursgrey, yellowSizeaccording to the product data sheetUseCompartments and linear fixings of Sikaplan WP 1100waterproofing sheets exposed to groundwater underhydrostatic pressure Sika Dilatec, type E / ER joint sealing stripsColourgrey (white fleece edge strips)Sizeaccording to the product data sheetUsejoint sealing strips, bonded with Sikadur -31 epoxyadhesive on concrete for compartments and linearfixings of Sikaplan WP 1100 waterproofing sheetsexposed to groundwater under hydrostatic pressure Sika Control - and Injection FlangeSikaplan WP TrumpetSikaplan WP ControlFlangeSocketColourblackyellowSizeaccording to the product data sheetUseaccess pipe for control of water-tightness and injectionof compartment waterproofing system, incl. controltubes, connecting pipes, etc. Sikaplan WP protection sheetsSikaplan WP ProtectionSikaplan WP Protectionsheet-20Hsheet-20HEMaterialPVC-p membrane, homogeneous, not bitumen resistantUseProtection of installed waterproofing membranesagainst mechanical damageColoursgreygrey, surface embossedSheet thickness and rollaccording to the respective PDSdimensionsSika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: email@example.comPage 7 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 2008 Sikadur - 31 EP adhesive, normal and rapidnormalrapidMaterialtwo part epoxy adhesiveUseat ambient temperature of at ambient temperature of 10 C until 30 C 5 C until 15 CColourgreyApplicationaccording to the respective PDS and MSDSMembrane CleanerMaterialUseColourApplicationSarna CleanerSika-Trocal Cleaner 2000solvent containingsolvent-freecleaning of contaminated membrane surfacesclear liquidaccording to the respective PDS and MSDS3. INSTALLATION3.1 General background information for installationInstallation of Sikaplan WP waterproofing sheets must only be performedby skilled and experienced waterproofing contractors, trained in Sikaplan WPmembrane welding and installation.In finalising their tender submissions the waterproofing contractor must have thepossibility to inspect the site conditions beforehand.Installation works can be performed in dry weather conditions and ambienttemperature at least min 5 C.Membrane rolls, geotextile rolls, etc. must be stored in horizontal positions in dryareas and protected against exposure to weathering on site.In order to prevent damage of the installed waterproofing membranes, unauthorisedindividuals must be prevented from having access to the installation site during andfollowing the waterproofing works.Waterproofing contractor's personnel must only wear suitable shoes with rubber soles,when walking on installed membranes. Smoking and open fires must not bepermitted on site. Heat welding machine operators must be trained and instructed onthe safety of electrical equipment for site welding procedures.In order to prevent mechanical damage by third parties, the installed membranesmust be temporarily protected and/or must be kept under surveillance until theirfinal covering with protective layers.Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPage 8 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 20083.2 Substrate preparationSubstrates of blinding, or concrete surfaces below foundation slabs:The surface of the concrete or mortar must be smooth (steel trowel finish) andedges / corners must be rounded with min. radius 5cm. Any projections in thecementitious substrate must be removed by chiselling and grinding; nails and wiresor loose stones must be removed. Any protective mortar layer thickness must bemin. 5cm, if necessary with light reinforcement, to be covered min. 3cm. Themaximum aggregate diameter of mortar screeds must not exceed 4mm. The wholesurface must be thoroughly cleaned using high pressure water. Ponding watermust be removed and the whole surface must be dried using compressed air.Substrate surfaces for refurbished concrete structures:Old linings, as well as any debonded rendering and screeds must be removed.Larger cracks and honeycombing must be broken out and reprofiled withrepair mortars. Water infiltration must be sealed, either with waterproofing mortars, orby injection with acrylic resin, or micro-fine cement grout. New rendering and screedsmust be applied on blast clean substrates, its maximum aggregate diameter must notexceed 4mm and its surface must be steel-trowel finished. Edges must be chamfered.The whole surface must be thoroughly cleaned using high pressure water.Ponding water must be removed and the whole surface dried using compressed air.Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: email@example.comPage 9 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 2008Substrate surfaces for new concrete structures:The surface of the concrete must be smooth (steel trowel finish, resp. first classformwork quality) and edges must be chamfered. Reinforcement steel bars mustbe covered min. 3cm.Any projections in the cementitious substrate must be removed by chiselling andgrinding; nails and wires must be removed. Honeycombed concrete must bebroken out and reprofiled with repair mortar. Water infiltration through cracks ofconcrete structures, or along steel elements must be sealed, either withwaterproofing mortar or by injection of acrylic resin, or micro-fine cement grout. Themaximum aggregate diameter of rendering and mortar screeds must not exceed 4mm.The whole surface must be thoroughly cleaned using high pressure water. Pondingwater must be removed and the whole surface must be dried using compressed air.Substrate preparation procedure prior to application of Sikadur -31 EP adhesivesmust be according to its product data sheet.Substrate surfaces of shotcrete / gunite:Unevenness of a shotcrete surface must not exceed the ratio of length to depthunevenness of 5 : 1 and its min. radius must be 20cm. The shotcrete surfacemust not contain broken aggregates. Local water infiltration, must be sealedeither with waterproof plugging mortar, or drained with perforated hoses.It is recommended to spray a fine gunite layer on shotcrete surfaces with a min.thickness of 5cm and its aggregate dia. not exceeding 4mm (if the above mentionedshotcrete requirements can not be fulfilled). Steel elements (girders,reinforcement mesh, anchors etc.) must be covered min. 3cm.The surface of shotcrete, resp. gunite must be clean and free of loose debris (no loosestones, nails, wires, etc.).Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgPage 10 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 20083.3 Protective layersThe waterproofing membrane to be installed must be protected against hard substrateswith a geotextile cushion layer. The geotextile must be based on of Polypropylene nonwoven fabric, needle punched, or thermally cured (chemically cured geotextiles arenot compatible with membranes and therefore must not be used).The geotextile must have min. unit weight of 500g/m2 for use on smooth concretesubstrates. Geotextiles must be loose laid and must be overlapped min. 100mmon horizontal areas and be free of loose materials. The physical properties ofgeotextiles must fulfil the requirements of any relevant local standards for theprotection of membrane waterproofing systems.3.4 General membrane installation recommendationsThe installation procedure for waterproofing membranes depends on the: excavation method (open cut / internal) project design chosen membrane type and its fixing methods chosen waterproofing system (single layer / double layer)Sika Services AG, Speckstrasse 22, CH-8330 Pfäffikon / SwitzerlandTel: 41 (0)58 436 23 61 / Fax: 41 (0)58 436 23 77e-Mail: email@example.comPage 11 of 51
N : 850 64 03Author: H-J. StichDate: Apr. 02 2008As an outline guideline the following work sequences can be considered to be normalpractise:Open cut excavation system:The structure is built in an excavated space with free access to the edges of slabsand external walls, or the excavation is retained with driven steel piles with workingspace between external walls and these retaining walls. Membrane installation isperformed in two phases:1. below basement slab, prior to concreting2. to external walls1st phase (horizontal) installation of geotextile on prepared substrate installation of waterproofing membrane, incl. details installation of 2nd layer waterproofing membrane, incl. details(if specified) formation of compartments (if specified) preparation of membrane edges for overlapping and welding towaterproofing at walls - installation of protective layer onmembraneConstruction of basement slab and walls; installation of waterstops (if specified)2nd phase (vertical) installation of geotextile installation
3.7 Waterproofing details in horizontal and vertical areas 16 3.8 Installation of waterproofing membranes 19 3.9 Compartment waterproofing with waterstops 20 4. Welding methods 23 5. Quality control 24 6. Cleaning and inspection of completed waterproofing 26 7. Protection of completed waterproofing 26 8. Proposal for bills of quantities 28 9.
EPA Test Method 1: EPA Test Method 2 EPA Test Method 3A. EPA Test Method 4 . Method 3A Oxygen & Carbon Dioxide . EPA Test Method 3A. Method 6C SO. 2. EPA Test Method 6C . Method 7E NOx . EPA Test Method 7E. Method 10 CO . EPA Test Method 10 . Method 25A Hydrocarbons (THC) EPA Test Method 25A. Method 30B Mercury (sorbent trap) EPA Test Method .
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is 7.678622465 times better than the Bisection method. 2 BISECTION METHOD. The Bisection Method  is the most primitive method for nding real roots of function f(x) 0 where f is a continuous function. This method is also known as Binary-Search Method and Bolzano Method. Two initial guess is required to start the procedure. This method is based
Humidity Test Method MIL-STD-1344, Method 1002 Immersion Test Method IEC 60529:2001, IP68 UV Resistance Test Method MIL-STD-810, Method 505 Vibration Test Method MIL-STD-202, Method 214 Weatherproofing Method Butyl and electric