RNA & PROTEIN SYNTHESIS6 FEBRUARY 2013Lesson DescriptionIn this lesson, we will look at: The DNA profiling (finger-printing) with respect to the following:oThe concept of DNA profilingoIts use in forensicsoCosts, ethical considerations and consequences of interpretation errors.Location and functions of mRNA and tRNAStructure of RNA as single stranded and consisting of nucleotides, each made up of a sugar(ribose), phosphate and nitrogen base4 nitrogenous bases of RNA: adenine (A), uracil (U), cytosine (C), guanine (G)Similarities and differences between DNA and RNAProtein Synthesis – Where? How? Why?Gene MutationsDNA SequencesKey ConceptsDNA Profiling Every human being, with the exception of identical twins, has a unique sequence of bases intheir DNA. Each individual – unique DNA – used to identify people.Technique used - genetic profiling/DNA fingerprintingSources - body tissue like saliva, blood, skin, semen or hair.
This is how we get a DNA fingerprint:
The Structure of RNA RNA - Single-stranded polynucleotide. The nucleotides of RNA differ slightly from those of DNA. An RNA nucleotide consists of:oA ribose sugaroA phosphateoOne of four bases: Either uracil, cytosine, guanine or adenine.(Structure of RNA from Life Sciences for all, Grade 12, Figure 4.14, Page 193)Types of RNARNA is manufactured by DNA. There are three types of RNA.The three types of RNA:1. Messenger RNA (mRNA). It carries information about the amino acid sequence of a particularprotein from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosome where the protein will be made.2. Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) has no precise shape. It forms the ribosomes, which are found in thecytoplasm of the cell, that make proteins.3. Transfer RNA (tRNA) is a small molecule with a cloverleaf shape. It picks up amino acids inthe cytoplasm and brings them to the ribosomes where they are joined together to form aprotein.
(The Three Types of RNA from Life Sciences for all, Grade 12, Figure 4.15, Page 193)Protein SynthesisPROTEIN SYNTHESISdna replication formation ofmRNAenzymestranscriptionnucleusmRNA leaves nucleusattaches to ribosomesexposing base triplets codontrna - amino acids ribosomeanticodontranslation -ribosomescodon - anticodonadjacent amino acids peptidedipeptide - tripeptide-polydehydration synthesisenzymesprotein
(Transcription from Life Sciences for all, Grade 12, Figure 4.16, Page 194)
Mutation A mutation is a change in the DNA or chromosome of an organism.Gene mutation – change in DNA or geneChromosomal – change in larger sections of the chromosomesCauses Spontaneous Environmental factors UV light X-rays Chemicals, e.g.: Benzene, formaldehyde, carbon tetrachloride Causal agents known as MUTAGENSGene Mutation Types:Point:
Frameshift Mutations: Adding or deleting one base of DNA molecule will change every amino acid in the proteinafter the addition or deletion.
All organisms have the same method of passing on hereditary information from onegeneration to the next. They all use DNA. The greater the similarity between the sequences of bases in the DNA from two differentpeople, the closer their biological relationship is. We can also compare the sequence of bases in the DNA of two different species to find outhow closely they are related.Table showing the percentage difference in the DNA between different species and humansand the times that the different species and humans separated from a common line of descent(The data in the table is based on research carried out by Feng-Chi Chen of the National Tsing HuaUniversity in Taiwan and Professor Wen-Hsiung Li of the University of Chicago in the USA.)(Phylogenetic tree showing the evolution of great apes and humans from Life Sciences for all, Grade12, Figure 4.32, Page 207)
QuestionsQuestion 1Give the correct biological term for the following:a)b)c)d)e)f)the nitrogenous base which is found in RNA but not DNAa triplet of three bases found on an mRNAthe single strand of DNA that contains the instructions for making a proteinthe type of RNA that picks up amino acids in the cytoplasm and brings them to the ribosomesfactors that cause mutations in DNA and chromosomesthe synthesis of mRNA from DNA.Question 2Tabulate the differences between DNA and RNAQuestion 3(Adapted from March 2010, DOE, P1, Question 2.2)Study the diagram below which shows part of the process of protein synthesis.a)b)c)d)e)f)Provide labels for structures A, B and D respectively.State ONE function of molecule D. Which part of protein synthesis takes place at 1?Which part of protein synthesis takes place at 1?Name the type of proteins that control the process named in QUESTION (c).Identify organelle C.Name and describe the part of protein synthesis that takes place at organelle C.(3)(1)(1)(1)(1)(6)
Question 4(Adapted from March 2010, DOE, P1, Question 2.3)Study the diagram below which shows the following DNA profiles/genetic fingerprints: a)b)c)d)e)Blood of a raped female victimBlood of three suspectsSemen found on the female victimWhich suspect was most likely the rapist?Explain your answer to QUESTION (a) .Give ONE reason why this evidence may be considered reliable.Give TWO reasons why this evidence may not be considered reliable.Name TWO benefits of DNA profiling other than for solving crimes.(1)(2)(1)(2)(2)Question 5(Adapted from Exemplar 2011)Describe how proteins are formed in a cell and explain the impact of the two types of gene mutationson the formation of proteins.(20)
(Structure of RNA from Life Sciences for all, Grade 12, Figure 4.14, Page 193) Types of RNA RNA is manufactured by DNA. There are three types of RNA. The three types of RNA: 1. Messenger RNA (mRNA). It carries information about the amino acid sequence of a particular protein from the DNA in the nucleus to th
DNA AND RNA Table 4.1: Some important types of RNA. Name Abbreviation Function Messenger RNA mRNA Carries the message from the DNA to the protein factory Ribosomal RNA rRNA Comprises part of the protein factory Transfer RNA tRNA Transfers the correct building block to the nascent protein Interference RNA
The process of protein synthesis can be divided into 2 stages: transcription and translation. 5 as a template to make 3 types of RNA: a) messengermessenger--RNA (mRNA)RNA (mRNA) b) ribosomalribosomal--RNA (rRNA)RNA (rRNA) c) transfertransfer--RNA (tRNA)RNA (tRNA) Objective 32 2)2) During During translationtranslation, the
biological signiﬁcance of protein complexation with RNA has been well recognized, the speciﬁc mecha-nism of protein–RNA interaction is not fully understood . Measurement of sequence–speciﬁc DNA– protein and RNA–protein interactions is a key experimental procedure in molecular biology of gene regulation.
RNA and Protein Synthesis Genes- coded DNA instructions that control the production of proteins within the cell. – In order to decode genes, the nucleotide sequence must be copied from DNA to RNA, as RNA contains the instructions for making proteins. 3 main differences between RNA and DNA: – The sugar in RNA is ribose instead of .
Chapter 13 Section 3: RNA and Gene Expression Key Vocabulary Terms . RNA Ribonucleic acid, plays a role in protein synthesis . Gene Expression . sites of protein synthesis: the ribosome's. RNA polymerase An enzyme that starts (catalyzes) the formation of RNA
13.1 RNA RNA Synthesis In transcription, RNA polymerase separates the two DNA strands. RNA then uses one strand as a template to make a complementary strand of RNA. RNA contains the nucleotide uracil instead of the nucleotide thymine. Follow the direction
protein-building sites in the cytoplasm—the ribosomes. Functions of RNA You can think of an RNA mol-ecule as a disposable copy of a segment of DNA, a working facsimile of a single gene. RNA has many func-tions, but most RNA molecules are involved in just one job—protein synthesis
Genes Sequence of bases in a DNA molecule Carries information necessary for producing a functional product, usually a protein molecule or RNA Average gene is 3000 bases long 31 . 32 . Genes Instruction set for producing one particular molecule, usually a protein Examples fibroin, the chief component of silk triacylglyceride lipase (enzyme that breaks down dietary fat) 33 .