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Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices forSafe Healthcare Delivery in All Settings –Recommendations of the Healthcare InfectionControl Practices Advisory CommitteePrefaceThe Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee (HICPAC) is a federal advisorycommittee chartered in 1991 to provide advice and guidance to the Centers for Disease Control andPrevention (CDC) and the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regardingthe practice of infection control and strategies for surveillance, prevention, and control of healthcareassociated infections, antimicrobial resistance and related events in United States healthcare settings.CDC has been developing recommendations for healthcare infection control to prevent infections inpatients and healthcare personnel since the 1970’s. These recommendations continue to evolve overtime as evidence bases are built and serve as a foundation for healthcare safety across settings, abasis for quality improvement efforts, and part of the process that identifies important research gaps.Guideline development methods have since moved beyond expert opinion alone and incorporatedsystematic approaches to evidence analysis. A number of core practices are recommended by CDCand considered standards of care and/or accepted practices (e.g., aseptic technique, hand hygienebefore patient contact) to prevent infection in healthcare settings. These widely agreed uponpractices are elements of care that are not expected to change based on additional research, eitherbecause of an overwhelming preponderance of evidence (e.g., hand hygiene requirements), or insome cases due to ethical concerns (e.g., randomizing patients to procedures performed by trainedversus untrained personnel). Therefore, these accepted practices are categorized as strongrecommendations, even when high-quality randomized controlled trials are not available to supportthem. In an effort to streamline and systematize the process for updating existing guidelines withoutrecreating the analytic process for each of these accepted/core practices, in March 2013, CDCcharged HICPAC to review existing CDC guidelines and identify all recommendations that warrantinclusion as core practices. A HICPAC workgroup was formed that was led by HICPAC members andcontained representatives from the following stakeholder organizations: America’s EssentialHospitals, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology (APIC), the Councilof State and Territorial Epidemiologists (CSTE), the Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC), theSociety for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA), and the Society of Hospital Medicine (SHM).The Workgroup provided updates and obtained HICPAC input at the June 2013, November 2013, April2014, and July 2014 public meetings. HICPAC voted to finalize the recommendations at the July 2014Last updated: March 15, 2017Downloaded from: actices.htmlPage 1 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACmeeting. Additional information about HICPAC is available at the HICPAC website( to infection prevention and control practices is essential to providing safe and highquality patient care across all settings where healthcare is delivered. Substantial attention has beenfocused in recent years on improving infection prevention practices within acute care hospitals tooptimize patient safety; many of these practices also need to be applied across multiple aspects ofpatient care. In addition, changes in healthcare during the past decade, driven at least in part byefforts to contain costs, have resulted in an increasing proportion and range of healthcare servicesbeing delivered outside of the acute care setting.1,2 These ambulatory and community-basedhealthcare encounters also can lead to infectious complications that can be prevented using thosesame infection prevention and control practices.This document concisely describes a core set of infection prevention and control practices thatare required in all healthcare settings, regardless of the type of healthcare provided. The practiceswere selected from among existing CDC recommendations and are the subset that HICPAC and itsCore Practices Working Group determined were fundamental standards of care that are not expectedto change based on emerging evidence or to be regularly altered by changes in technology orpractices, and are applicable across the continuum of healthcare settings. This document also isintended to improve consistency of language, reduce redundancy across guidelines, and provide aconvenient reference wherein these recommendations are maintained. A review of existing CDCguidelines demonstrated many examples of similar recommendations in multiple guidelines withvariability in language. The recommendations outlined in this document are intended to serve as astandard reference and reduce the need to repeatedly evaluate practices that are considered basicand accepted as standards of medical care. Readers are urged to consult the full text of CDCguidelines (see references) for additional background and rationale related to the core practicerecommendations captured here.ScopeThe core practices in this document should be implemented in all settings where healthcare isdelivered. These venues include both inpatient settings (e.g., acute, long-term care, rehabilitation,behavioral health) and outpatient settings (e.g., physician and nurse practitioner offices, clinics,urgent care, ambulatory surgical centers, imaging centers, dialysis centers, physical therapy andrehabilitation centers, alternative medicine clinics). In addition, these practices apply to healthcaredelivered in settings other than traditional healthcare facilities, such as homes, pharmacies, andhealth fairs.Healthcare personnel (HCP) referred to in this document include all persons, paid and unpaid, inthe healthcare setting having direct patient contact and/or potential for exposure to patients and/orto infectious materials (e.g., body substances, used medical supplies and equipment, soiledenvironmental surfaces). This also includes persons not directly involved in patient care (e.g., clericalLast updated: March 15, 2017Page 2 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACstaff, environmental services, volunteers) who could be exposed to infectious material in a healthcaresetting.MethodsCDC healthcare infection control guidelines3-19 were reviewed, and recommendations included inmore than one guideline were grouped into core infection prevention practice domains (e.g.,education and training of HCP on infection prevention, injection and medication safety). AdditionalCDC materials aimed at providing general infection prevention guidance outside of the acute caresetting20-22 were also reviewed. HICPAC formed a workgroup led by HICPAC members and includingrepresentatives of professional organizations (see Contributors for full list). The workgroup reviewedand discussed all of the practices, further refined the selection and description of the core practices,and presented drafts to HICPAC at public meetings in June 2013, November 2013, April 2014, and July2014 to inform HICPAC’s final recommendations. The recommendations (see Table) were approvedby the full Committee in July 2014.ConclusionsAdherence to basic infection prevention and control practices are essential, not only in acute carehospitals but also in settings with limited infection prevention infrastructure. The frequency ofinfectious outbreaks stemming from errors in infection control across settings (e.g., reuse of syringesbetween patients leading to transmission of viral hepatitis23-25) underscores the critical importance ofadherence to these core infection prevention practices wherever healthcare is provided.Recommendations highlighted in this document represent minimum expectations, and healthcarepersonnel and facilities will need to supplement them according to their settings, proceduresperformed, and patient populations.Readers should consult the full texts of CDC healthcare infection control guidelines forbackground, rationale, and related infection prevention recommendations for more comprehensiveinformation. We encourage professional associations and societies and the research community todevelop tools to facilitate implementation and maintenance of these core infection preventionpractices across the continuum of healthcare.Text References1. Hsiao CJ, Cherry DK, Beatty PC, Rechsteiner EA. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 2007Summary. National health statistics reports; no 27. Hyattsville, MD: National Center for HealthStatistics. 2010.2. Medicare Payment Advisory Committee. A data book: Health care spending and the Medicareprogram, June 2016 [PDF - 4.1 MB] -medicare-program.pdf?sfvrsn 0).3. Bolyard EA. Tablan OC, Williams WW, Pearson ML, Shapiro CN, Deitchmann SD. Guideline forInfection Control in Healthcare Personnel, 1998 ( HospitalInfection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 1998 Jun;19(6):407-63.Last updated: March 15, 2017Page 3 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPAC4. Mangram AJ, Horan TC, Pearson ML, Silver LC, Jarvis WR. Guideline for Prevention of Surgical SiteInfection, 1999 ( Hospital Infection Control PracticesAdvisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999 Apr 20(4):250-78.5. Boyce JM, Pittet D, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Society forHealthcare Epidemiology of America, Association for Professionals in Infection Control, InfectiousDiseases Society of America, and the Hand Hygiene Task Force. Guideline for Hand Hygiene inHealth-Care Settings: Recommendation of the Healthcare Infection Control Practices AdvisoryCommittee and the HICPAC/SHEA/APIC/IDSA Hand Hygiene Task 5116a1.htm). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol.2002 Dec 23(12 Suppl):S3-40.6. Sehulster L, Chin RY, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guidelines forEnvironmental Infection Control in Health-Care Facilities. Recommendations of CDC and theHealthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee [PDF - 2.31 lines/environmental-guidelines.pdf). MMWRRecomm Rep 2003 Jun 6:52(RR-10):1-42.7. Jensen PA, Lambert LA, Iademarco MF, Ridzon R. Guidelines for Preventing the Transmission ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in Health-Care Settings, 2005 [PDF - 4.2 MB]( MMWR Recomm Rep. 2005 Dec 30:54(RR17):1-141.8. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, Healthcare Infection Control Practices AdvisoryCommittee. Management of Multidrug-Resistant Organisms in Healthcare Settings, 2006 [PDF 553 KB] es/mdro-guidelines.pdf). Am J InfectControl, 2007 Dec 35 (10 Suppl 2):S165-93.9. Siegel JD, Rhinehart E, Jackson M, Chiarello L, Healthcare Infection Control Practices AdvisoryCommittee. 2007 Guideline for Isolation Precautions: Preventing Transmission of InfectiousAgents in Healthcare Settings [PDF - 1.42 idelines/isolation-guidelines.pdf). Am J InfectControl. 2007 Dec 35(10 Suppl 2)S65-164.10. Gould CV, Umscheid CA, Agarwal RK, Kuntz G, Pegues DA, Healthcare Infection Control PracticesAdvisory Committee, Guideline for Prevention of Catheter-Associated Urinary Tract Infection2009 [PDF - 650 KB] es/cauti-guidelines.pdf).Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 2010 Apr 31(4):319-26.11. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guidance for Control of Infections with CarbapenemResistant or Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae in Acute Care Facilities [PDF - 381 508.pdf). MMWR 2009 Mar 20:58 (10):256-60.12. Division of Viral Disease, National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases, Centers forDisease Control and Prevention. Updated Norovirus Outbreak Management and DiseasePrevention Guidelines 1.htm). MMWR2011 Mar 4:60(RR-3):1-18.13. O’Grady NP, Alexander M, Burns LA, Dellinger EP, Garland J, Heard SO, Lipsett PA, Masur H,Mermel LA, Pearson ML, Raad I, Randolph AG, Rupp ME, Saint S, Healthcare Infection ControlLast updated: March 15, 2017Page 4 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACPractices Advisory Committee. Guidelines for the Prevention of Intravascular Catheter-RelatedInfections [PDF - 678 KB] es/bsiguidelines.pdf). Am J Infect Control. 2011 May 39(4 Suppl 1):S1-34.14. Rutala WA, Weber DJ, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Guideline forDisinfection and Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities, 2008 [PDF - 1.26 lines/disinfection-guidelines.pdf). Am J InfectControl. 2013;41(5 Suppl):S67-71.15. Tablan OC, Anderson LJ, Besser R, Bridges C, Haijeh R, Healthcare Infection Control PracticesAdvisory Committee. Guidelines for Preventing Healthcare-associated Pneumonia, 2003Recommendations of CDC and the Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory /rr5303a1.htm. MMWR Recomm Rep 204 Mar26:53(RR-3):1-26.16. World Health Organization. WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care: First Global PatientSafety Challenge Clean Care Is Safer Care [PDF - 4.26 9241597906 eng.pdf). Geneva. World HealthOrganization, 2009.17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Immunization of Healthcare Personnel:Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) [PDF - 705 KB]( MMWR Recomm Rep. 2011 Nov 25:60(RR-7):1-45.18. U.S. Public Health Service Working Group on Occupational Postexposure Prophylaxis, Kuhar DT,Henderson DK, et. al., September, 2013.19. US Department of Labor. Occupational Safety & Health Standards. 29 CFR 1910.1030, eb/ document?p id 10051&p table STANDARDS).March 6, 1992.20. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommendations for Preventing Transmission ofInfections Among Chronic Hemodialysis /rr5005a1.htm). MMWR. April 27,2001/50(RR05); 1-43.21. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Guide to Infection Prevention in Outpatient Settings:Minimum Expectations for Safe Care [PDF - 632 tory-care-04-2011.pdf). April, 2011.22. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Basic Infection Control and Prevention Plan forOutpatient Oncology Settings [PDF - 1.67 MB] ction-control-prevention-plan-2011.pdf). December, 2011.23. Thompson ND, Perz JF, Moorman AC, Holmberg SD. Nonhospital health care-associated HepatitisB and C virus transmission: United States, 1998-2008. Ann Intern Med. 2009;150:33-39.24. Greeley RD, Semple S, Thompson ND, et al. Hepatitis B outbreak associated with a hematologyoncology office practice in New Jersey, 2009. Am J Infect Control. 2011;39:663-670.25. Thompson ND, Perz JF, Moorman AC, et al. Nonhospital health care–associated hepatitis B and Cvirus transmission: United States, 1998–2008. Ann Intern Med 2009;150:33-39.Last updated: March 15, 2017Page 5 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACCore Practices TableCore Practice Category1. Leadership SupportReferences and resources:1-12Core Practices1. Ensure that the governing body of the healthcare facility or organizationis accountable for the success of infection prevention activities.2. Allocate sufficient human and material resources to infectionprevention to ensure consistent and prompt action to remove ormitigate infection risks and stop transmission of infections. Ensure thatstaffing and resources do not prevent nurses, environmental staff,, from consistently adhering to infection prevention and controlpractices.3. Assign one or more qualified individuals with training in infectionprevention and control to manage the facility’s infection preventionprogram.4. Empower and support the authority of those managing the infectionprevention program to ensure effectiveness of the program.2. Education and Training1. Provide job-specific, infection prevention education and training to allof Healthcare Personnel onhealthcare personnel for all tasks.Infection Prevention2. Develop processes to ensure that all healthcare personnel understandReferences and resources:and are competent to adhere to infection prevention requirements as1-4, 6-8, 10-13they perform their roles and responsibilities.3. Provide written infection prevention policies and procedures that areavailable, current, and based on evidence-based guidelines (e.g., CDC/HICPAC, etc.)4. Require training before individuals are allowed to perform their dutiesand at least annually as a refresher.5. Provide additional training in response to recognized lapses inadherence and to address newly recognized infection transmissionthreats (e.g., introduction of new equipment or procedures).3. Patient, Family and1. Provide appropriate infection prevention education to patients, familyCaregiver Educationmembers, visitors, and others included in the caregiving network.References and resources:2-5, 7-8, 10-11Last updated: March 15, 2017CommentsTo be successful, infection prevention programs requirevisible and tangible support from all levels of the healthcarefacility’s leadership.Training should be adapted to reflect the diversity of theworkforce and the type of facility, and tailored to meet theneeds of each category of healthcare personnel beingtrained.Include information about how infections are spread, howthey can be prevented, and what signs or symptoms shouldprompt reevaluation and notification of the patient’shealthcare provider. Instructional materials and deliveryshould address varied levels of education, languagecomprehension, and cultural diversity.Page 6 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACCore Practice CategoryCore Practices4. Performance Monitoring 1. Monitor adherence to infection prevention practices and infectionand Feedbackcontrol requirements.References and resources: 2. Provide prompt, regular feedback on adherence and related outcomes1-14to healthcare personnel and facility leadership.3. Train performance monitoring personnel and use standardized toolsand definitions.4. Monitor the incidence of infections that may be related to careprovided at the facility and act on the data and use informationcollected through surveillance to detect transmission of infectiousagents in the facility.5. Standard PrecautionsUse Standard Precautions to care for all patients in all settings.Standard Precautions include:5a. Hand hygiene5b. Environmental cleaning and disinfection5c. Injection and medication safety5d. Risk assessment with use of appropriate personal protectiveequipment (e.g., gloves, gowns, face masks) based on activities beingperformed5e. Minimizing Potential Exposures (e.g. respiratory hygiene and coughetiquette)5f. Reprocessing of reusable medical equipment between each patientand when soiled5a. Hand Hygiene1. Require healthcare personnel to perform hand hygiene in accordanceReferences andwith Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)resources: 3, 7, 11recommendations.2. Use an alcohol-based hand rub or wash with soap and water for thefollowing clinical indications:a. Immediately before touching a patientb. Before performing an aseptic task (e.g., placing an indwelling device)orhandling invasive medical devicesc. Before moving from work on a soiled body site to a clean body siteon the same patientd. After touching a patient or the patient’s immediate environmente. After contact with blood, body fluids or contaminated surfacesf. Immediately after glove removal3. Ensure that healthcare personnel perform hand hygiene with soap andwater when hands are visibly soiled.4. Ensure that supplies necessary for adherence to hand hygiene arereadily accessible in all areas where patient care is being delivered.Last updated: March 15, 2017CommentsPerformance measures should be tailored to the careactivities and the population served.Standard Precautions are the basic practices that apply to allpatient care, regardless of the patient’s suspected orconfirmed infectious state, and apply to all settings wherecare is delivered. These practices protect healthcarepersonnel and prevent healthcare personnel or theenvironment from transmitting infections to other patients.Unless hands are visibly soiled, an alcohol-based hand rub ispreferred over soap and water in most clinical situations dueto evidence of better compliance compared to soap andwater. Hand rubs are generally less irritating to hands andare effective in the absence of a sink.Refer to “CDC Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-CareSettings” or “Guideline for Isolation Precautions: PreventingTransmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings,2007” for additional details.Page 7 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACCore Practice Category5b. EnvironmentalCleaning andDisinfectionReferences andresources: 4, 7, 10, 11,13, Injection andMedication SafetyReferences andresources: 11, 17- updated: March 15, 2017Core PracticesRequire routine and targeted cleaning of environmental surfaces asindicated by the level of patient contact and degree of soiling.a. Clean and disinfect surfaces in close proximity to the patient andfrequently touched surfaces in the patient care environment on amore frequent schedule compared to other surfaces.b. Promptly clean and decontaminate spills of blood or otherpotentially infectious materials.Select EPA-registered disinfectants that have microbiocidal activityagainst the pathogens most likely to contaminate the patient-careenvironment.Follow manufacturers’ instructions for proper use of cleaning anddisinfecting products (e.g., dilution, contact time, materialcompatibility, storage, shelf-life, safe use and disposal).Use aseptic technique when preparing and administering medicationsDisinfect the access diaphragms of medication vials before inserting adevice into the vialUse needles and syringes for one patient only (this includesmanufactured prefilled syringes and cartridge devices such as insulinpens).Enter medication containers with a new needle and a new syringe, evenwhen obtaining additional doses for the same patient.Ensure single-dose or single-use vials, ampules, and bags or bottles ofparenteral solution are used for one patient only.Use fluid infusion or administration sets (e.g., intravenous tubing) forone patient onlyDedicate multidose vials to a single patient whenever possible. Ifmultidose vials are used for more than one patient, restrict themedication vials to a centralized medication area and do not bring theminto the immediate patient treatment area (e.g., operating room,patient room/cubicle)Wear a facemask when placing a catheter or injecting material into theepidural or subdural space (e.g., during myelogram, epidural or spinalanesthesia)CommentsWhen information from manufacturers is limited regardingselection and use of agents for specific microorganisms,environmental surfaces or equipment, facility policiesregarding cleaning and disinfecting should be guided by thebest available evidence and careful consideration of the risksand benefits of the available options.Refer to “CDC Guidelines for Environmental Infection Controlin Health-Care Facilities” and “CDC Guideline for Disinfectionand Sterilization in Healthcare Facilities” for details.Refer to “Guideline for Isolation Precautions: PreventingTransmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings,2007” for details.Page 8 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACCore Practice Category5d. Risk Assessmentwith AppropriateUse of PersonalProtectiveEquipmentReferences andresources: 7, 11, 201.2.5e. MinimizingPotential ExposuresReferences andresources: 1, 7, 11, 161.2.3.Last updated: March 15, 2017Core PracticesEnsure proper selection and use of personal protective equipment (PPE)based on the nature of the patient interaction and potential forexposure to blood, body fluids and/or infectious material:a. Wear gloves when it can be reasonably anticipated that contact withblood or other potentially infectious materials, mucous membranes,non-intact skin, potentially contaminated skin or contaminatedequipment could occur.b. Wear a gown that is appropriate to the task to protect skin andprevent soiling of clothing during procedures and activities thatcould cause contact with blood, body fluids, secretions, orexcretions.c. Use protective eyewear and a mask, or a face shield, to protect themucous membranes of the eyes, nose and mouth during proceduresand activities that could generate splashes or sprays of blood, bodyfluids, secretions and excretions. Select masks, goggles, face shields,and combinations of each according to the need anticipated by thetask performed.d. Remove and discard PPE, other than respirators, upon completing atask before leaving the patient’s room or care area. If a respirator isused, it should be removed and discarded (or reprocessed ifreusable) after leaving the patient room or care area and closing thedoor.e. Do not use the same gown or pair of gloves for care of more thanone patient. Remove and discard disposable gloves upon completionof a task or when soiled during the process of care.f. Do not wash gloves for the purpose of reuse.Ensure that healthcare personnel have immediate access to and aretrained and able to select, put on, remove, and dispose of PPE in amanner that protects themselves, the patient, and othersUse respiratory hygiene and cough etiquette to reduce the transmissionof respiratory infections within the facility.Prompt patients and visitors with symptoms of respiratory infection tocontain their respiratory secretions and perform hand hygiene aftercontact with respiratory secretions by providing tissues, masks, handhygiene supplies and instructional signage or handouts at points ofentry and throughout the facilityWhen space permits, separate patients with respiratory symptoms fromothers as soon as possible (e.g., during triage or upon entry into thefacility).CommentsPPE, e.g., gloves, gowns, face masks, respirators,goggles and face shields, can be effective barriers totransmission of infections but are secondary to themore effective measures such as administrative andengineering controls.Refer to “Guideline for Isolation Precautions: PreventingTransmission of Infectious Agents in Healthcare Settings,2007” as well as Occupational Safety and HealthAdministration (OSHA) requirements for details.Refer to “Guideline for Isolation Precautions:Preventing Transmission of Infectious Agents inHealthcare Settings, 2007” for details.Page 9 of 15

Core Infection Prevention and Control Practices for Safe Healthcare Delivery in All SettingsRecommendations of the HICPACCore Practice Category5f. Reprocessing ofReusable MedicalEquipmentReferences andresources: 2-4, 7-8,11-136. Transmission-BasedPrecautionsReferences and resources:7, 11Last updated: March 15, 2017Core Practices1. Clean and reprocess (disinfect or sterilize) reusable medical equipment(e.g., blood glucose meters and other point-of-care devices, bloodpressure cuffs, oximeter probes, surgical instruments, endoscopes)prior to use on another patient and when soiled.a. Consult and adhere to manufacturers’ instructions for reprocessing.2. Maintain separation between clean and soiled equipment to preventcross contamination.1. Implement additional precautions (i.e., Contact, Droplet, and/orAirborne Precautions) for patients with documented or suspecteddiagnoses where contact with the patient, their body fluids, or theirenvironment presents a substantial transmission risk despite adherenceto Standard Precautions2. Adapt transmission-based precautions to the specific healthcare setting,the facility design characteristics, and the type of patient interaction.3. Implement transmission-based precautions based on the patient’sclinical presentation and likely infection diagnoses (e.g., syndromessuggestive of transmissible infections such as diarrhea, meningitis, feverand rash, respiratory infection) as soon as possible after the patiententers the healthcare facility (including reception or triage areas inemergency departments, ambulatory clinics or physicians’ offices) thenadjust or discontinue precautions when more clinical informationbecomes available (e.g., confirmatory laboratory results).4. To the extent possible, place patients who may need transmissionbased precautions into a single-patient room while awaiting clinicalassessment.5. Notify accepting facilities and the transporting agency about suspectedinfections and the need for transmission-based precautions whenpatients are tra

Mar 15, 2017 · Hospital Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 1999 Apr 20(4):250-78. 5. Boyce JM, Pittet D, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee, Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America, Association for Prof essionals in Infection Control, Infectious

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