Safety Manual for Construction
Table of ContentsChapterSubjectPage No.1Safety and health rules and regulations52Employee safety and health education73Supervisory safety performance evaluation84Fire prevention and protection95Accident and incident investigation116Job safety analysis127Hazard communication standard158Confined space entry179Hearing conservation2010Mobile equipment2111Powered industrial trucks — forklifts2212Crane operations2313Hand tools2414Power tools2615Ladders2816Slings3017Scaffolds3118Aerial lifts3319Respiratory protection3520Personal protective equipment3721Fall protection3822Welding and cutting4323Electrical safety4624Lockout/tagout procedures4825Excavation5026Ergonomics in construction5227Lead5528Silica5629First aid and medical attention57
IntroductionThe most valuable asset your organization has isits employees. By improving safety and preventing accidents, you can protect your work forcewhile also reducing your workers’ compensationcosts. And the BWC’s Division of Safety andHygiene is here to help.This basic safety and health manual for theOhio construction industry summarizes successful accident-prevention principles and techniques. While application of these techniquesmay vary according to the size and nature ofyour company’s operations, the basic principlesremain the same.Please note, this manual is not all-encompassing,nor is it a document for compliance. It’s alwaysimportant to customize safety and health programsto meet the particular needs of the workplace. However, safety isn’t the only thing you can doto reduce your workers’ compensation costs. Youcan also lower your costs by proactively managing your workers’ compensation claims. Thisincludes incident investigation, early reporting ofinjuries and working with your BWC employerservices specialist and claims service specialist.This manual can also provide your company’ssafety teams with information to meet its goalsand obligations. It contains information onincident prevention, together with a completeexplanation of its use, and benefits and methodsof application.Please join BWC and the Ohio construction industry in making occupational safety and health away of life.
Chapter 1Safety and health rules and regulationsCompany commitmentSafety is more than just compliance with Occupational Safetyand Health Administration(OSHA) regulations andother government rules.It’s a state of mind thatmust permeate the entirecompany, including office and field personnel,management and hourlyemployees.No business can expect tohave good safety performanceunless the president, chief executive officer or owner demonstratesthrough personal conduct and concreteactions that safety is expected and required of allemployees.However, because managers are confrontedeach day with non-safety-related problems thatrequire immediate handling, they often aretempted to overlook safety and health activities. That’s why a company must establish andenforce safety rules to communicate its commitment to safety, and ultimately, to preventincidents and injuries.Company rulesCompany safety rules are designed primarily astraining aids to familiarize employees with potentially hazardous situations and operational errorsthat can result in injuries. Rules can be readilydeveloped by observing existing conditions andreviewing previous accidents.Rather than having top management developand implement rules, it’s better to have all parties help develop the company rules. Involvement from supervisors, safety coordinators andemployees leads to cooperation and an understanding of why the rules exist and what hazardsthey are designed to control.Involving all parties also helps ensurethe rules are presented in termsthe workers understand.Whenever possible, rulesshould state what is to bedone, rather than what isprohibited. Positive statements are more effectivethan negative declarations.Rules also should be logical,enforceable and applicableto the specific company ordepartment operations.Rules, such as be careful aroundelectricity, are too general, and therefore,not enforceable. And if rules are not or cannot beenforced, it impairs the effectiveness of other rulesand dilutes management’s commitment.In addition to general company rules, developspecial-purpose safety rules for non-routine tasks,the operation of dangerous equipment and otherhazardous jobs.Review and revise rules on an ongoing basisand communicate them regularly to employeesduring new-employee orientation and at weeklytoolbox talks.Government rulesIn addition to company rules, employers mustbecome familiar with the various governmentlaws that define the minimum duties, actions andprecautions all employers must take to ensurethe safety and health of their employees. Federalrules include OSHA’s regulations for construction(29 CFR 1904 and 1926) and for general industry(29 CFR 1904 and 1910).
Other safety regulations include the Ohio Administrative Code, Specific Safety Requirementsof the BWC Relating to Construction and to AllWorkshops and Factories, as well as those of theEnvironmental Protection Agency and state fireand building codes.Written safety and health programsOSHA requires all construction companies todevelop and implement a written safety andhealth program. A program should describe thewhole of the company’s safety-and-health activities. Think of it as an ongoing process. Organizedleadership with proper application of the programis essential to attaining good safety and healthperformance, which pays off through: Fewer accidents; Improved production; Increased employee efficiency; Enhanced employee morale; Lower workers’ compensation costs; Decreased OSHA citations and fines.Programs should address at least: Management commitment and leadership— Management’s visible support is critical tothe program. Issue clearly stated policies thatoutline the commitment and set the standardby which management will judge safety andhealth behavior; Assignment of responsibility — From topmanagement to the front-line workers, all employees must understand what is expected ofthem and must be involved in the safety andhealth process. Specifically identify safety andhealth responsibilities and expectations for allcompany employees; Identification and control of hazards — Address how to identify hazards, and how toabate hazardous situations and behavior. Company audits or inspections are a crucial part ofthe program; Training and education — A training programfor all supervisors and employees must beongoing and effective. It must also includegeneral safety and health issues with site-specific hazards and non-routine tasks; Record keeping and hazard analysis — Includeevaluation of all incidents, including near-misses, so management can determine trends andcauses, and initiate corrective action; First aid and medical assistance — Evaluateemergency procedures and first-aid suppliesavailable at each job site; Site-specific issues — In addition to generalsafety and health provisions, address hazardsthat are unique to each individual construction site. Before performing work, conduct aninspection to determine the unique hazards.Inform all employees of how to eliminate oravoid the hazards.Elements of a site-specific plan can include: Emergency procedures; Contact with utilities; Interaction with other contractors; Weather conditions; Environmental conditions; Unique activities known to be hazardous, suchas confined space entry or demolition; Material-storage areas; Access routes; Specific training requirements.
Chapter 2Employee safety and health educationGeneral trainingEmployee training is key to the effectiveness of acompany’s safety and health program, and to theprevention of injuries and illnesses.The purpose of employee training is to provideinstruction in safe work practices and rules, andto provide the skills and knowledge necessary toidentify and control work-place hazards. Awareness of the physical or administrative consequences of ignoring safe practices will foster ahealthy respect for company policy and procedures, as well as the hazards themselves.Training should be an ongoing process for allemployees, including office workers and fieldpersonnel. It should address general safety andhealth issues, as well as specific procedures forworking safely.You can conduct training in a group setting or onan individual basis. It can come in many forms,such as: New-employee orientation; Supervisor training; Communication of company safety rules; Site-specific training; Training for non-routine tasks; Equipment and machinery training; Hazard-communication training; Weekly toolbox talks.Document all training, including meeting minutesor a synopsis of the items discussed, with thesignatures or names of employees who participated in the training.Use the following steps to conduct training: Explain the purpose of training and the reasonwhy it is so important to the employee; Break down training into understandable partsand identify key points. Be concise and clearwith the training issues; Conduct demonstrations to emphasize keyareas or points. Remember the adage, “Apicture is worth a thousand words;” Encourage employees to ask questions; Conduct testing to ensure employees understand the covered information.Toolbox talksToolbox talks are a useful tool in the maintenanceof a viable safety and health education program inthe construction industry. For best results, followthese guidelines: Schedule regular weekly meetings, and neverskip a meeting; Limit topic discussion to about 10 to 15 minutes; Review the talk in advance and deliver theinformation in your own words; Encourage group participation. Receive andact upon questions, ideas and suggestions; Avoid holding meetings in noisy areas. Use anatmosphere conducive to learning; Devote meetings exclusively to health andsafety matters that apply to the particulargroup of workers; Use visual aids where available or appropriate; Document the meeting with a synopsis andsignatures of attendees; If the talk involves an incident, discuss it withinjury factors, causes and recurrence prevention, rather than the individual involved in theaccident; If the meeting involves work being planned,discuss potential hazards, safety equipment tobe used and basic procedures to be followed.Competent personsAccording to OSHA, a competent person issomeone designated by the company who canidentify potential and existing hazards, and whohas the authority to correct the hazards. There isno specific class, degree or years of experiencethat can make someone a competent person.However training can assist in the task.The company typically designates a job foreman,supervisor or superintendent as a competentperson. Upper management relies upon thisindividual to address hazards and train others insafety and health issues.Many rules and regulations require very specificsafety training and can be referenced in theOSHA regulations and the Ohio AdministrativeCode (OAC).
Chapter 3Supervisory safety performance evaluationBefore any organization can expect goodsafety performance, top management mustestablish goalsand committo a safe andhealthful workenvironment.This commitment mustcontinue in anunbroken chain tothe line supervisor.Supervisory safety performance evaluations (SSPE) provide a completemethod for determining the safety capabilitiesof each first-line supervisor. Including the SSPEon performance appraisals will help to determinewhich supervisors have a good and consistentsafety performance, and which ones need additional training. Make safety training available toall supervisors to ensure the company achievesits goals and objectives.Ideally, the supervisor’s immediate managershould serve as the safety auditor. Forward thecompleted SSPEs to the next level of management for review and comments. Continue thisprogression upward through the chain of command until it reaches the top-management level.Note corrective action taken on specific items onthe SSPEs as they pass through managementreview. The first-line supervisor’s immediate manager should be responsible for informing him orher of comments and corrective actions required.Conduct these SSPEs periodically throughout theyear. The supervisor and his or her immediatemanager should set the goals and objectives priorto the beginning of each evaluation period.SSPEs are not just based upon numbers alone,but also on the quality of all safety functions.These functions may require a supervisor to: Be accountable for the safety of employees.This includes the prompt correction of unsafeconditions or work practices, enforcement of established safety rules, laws and procedures,and high housekeeping standards;Ensure each employee is provided with,wears or uses any prescribed personal protective equipment deemed necessary, accordingto the company safety and health program orappropriate safety regulations;Enforce all safety rules and regulations on afair and equitable basis;Set a good example by following safety andhealth rules, and safe practices;Instruct each employee on the hazards of hisor her job and how to avoid and/or controlthem. Take proper corrective action wheneverunsafe behaviors or unsafe conditions areobserved or reported;Ensure employees follow the preventivemaintenance program, and that any repair andreplacement needs found during those activities are tracked to completion;Require all vendors, customers, subcontractors and visitors to comply with the company’s safety and health program;Ensure that all employees are physically ableto perform their work safely;Conduct regular safety inspections, andsubmit written reports to management uponcompletion. Determine what corrective action is needed when safety discrepancies arefound, and establish a time frame to correctthem;Personally investigate all accidents and incidents, determine the source of the accidentand correct any unsafe practices or conditionsthat might cause recurrence. Promptly complete and forward all accident-report forms;Maintain the company’s job-site medical kit asOSHA regulations require;Conduct regular employee safety meetings ortoolbox talks;Maintain all postings and written safety policies and programs as required. Ensure thatthe HazCom Program and material safety datasheet (MSDS) book are current.While this chapter deals solely with supervisors,it is equally important to evaluate employeesafety performance.
Chapter 4Fire prevention and protectionFires require three elements to burn— fuel, oxygen and heat. A construction site contains all threeelements, although their quantities and locations changeconstantly. Examples include: Fuel sources, such asgasoline, diesel fuel,paint thinner, piles ofwood scraps, cardboard, straw, paper andother trash; Heat sources, such aselectricity, cutting, welding,cigarettes, roofers’ tar kettlesand temporary heaters; Oxygen, present in the atmosphere and as acompressed gas. Fuel sources are the easiest element to remove.Therefore, concentrate on cleanup by disposingof scrap before it accumulates, storing flammable liquids in approved self-closing containers,keeping all flammable and combustible materialaway from all heating devices or heat sources.Shut engines off to allow hot parts to cool beforerefueling.Every worker on a construction site shouldknow: Locations of fire extinguishers; How to operate fire extinguishers and thehazards involved with the beginning stage offirefighting; Classifications of fire extinguishers andclasses of fires; Location of telephone and how to call thefire department; How to make sure that a used fire extinguisher has been recharged before it isreturned to its holder; Who to notify that the extinguisher has beenused and needs recharging.Fire and fire extinguisher classificationThere are four types of fires — Class A, Class B,Class C and Class D. Class A fires occur in wood, rubber, paper, cloth and most plastics.The most effective type ofextinguishing agent is wateror a solution containing largeconcentrations of waterbecause the quenchingcooling effect reduces thetemperature of the burningmaterial to below its ignition temperature. Class B fires occur inflammable or combustibleliquids, such as petroleumproducts and greases. Ablanketing-smothering effect ofan agent that excludes oxygen orinhibits the chemical chain reaction, suchas carbon dioxide, dry chemical, halon orfoam are most effective.Class C fires involve electrical equipment.Carbon dioxide, dry chemical and halon areexamples of nonconductive extinguishingagents used to snuff out electrical fires.Class D fires involve combustible metals,such as aluminum, magnesium, zirconiumand titanium. The use of water and otherconventional types of extinguishing agentsis ineffective and may even cause a violentreaction. Extinguish these fires with specially-prepared agents.Fire extinguishersThe ABC dry-chemical fire extinguisher is themost commonly used extinguisher on construction job sites. Maintain in good operating condition and periodically inspect firefighting equipment. Immediately replace defective equipment.Conduct an annual maintenance check of the fireextinguisher and record the maintenance date.Retain this date for one year after the last entryor the life of the shell, whichever is less.Provide a fire extinguisher rated not less than2A for each 3,000 square feet of the protectedbuilding area or major fraction thereof. Mounteach fire extinguisher on the wall, and mark itslocation. The travel distance from any point of theprotected area to the nearest fire extinguishercannot exceed 100 feet.
Provide one or more fire extinguishers rated notless than 2A on each floor of a multistory buildingwith at least one fire extinguisher located neara stairway. Provide a fire extinguisher, rated notless than 10B, wherever more than five gallons offlammable or combustible liquids or five poundsof flammable gas are being used on the job site.General rules for fire extinguishersUse fire extinguishers in the upright position. Discharge the fire extinguisher about eight feet fromthe fire with the wind at your back, if possible.Attack the fire as you advance.Quick work is important because most extinguishers empty in about one minute. If you areout in the open, be prepared to retreat in case ofa sudden change in wind direction. In enclosedareas, you may be on your knees with your headno higher than the upright extinguisher you areusing; the best air to breathe will be betweenknee level and the floor.With water-type extinguishers, direct the streamat the base of the fire and move forward. Whenusing dry-chemical extinguishers, attack thenearest edge of the fire and go forward, movingthe nozzle rapidly with a side-to-side sweepingmotion. When fighting flammable-liquid fireswith carbon dioxide (CO2) extinguishers, use thecarbon-dioxide in a sweeping formation to clearthe flames off the burning surface. Begin fightingat the near edge of the fire and gradually moveforward, waving the discharge slowly from side toside. When using this extinguisher in an enclosedarea, be careful because carbon dioxide may produce an oxygen deficit within the area.When two or more persons are using fire extinguishers on a flammable liquid fire, they mustact as a team, working from the same side of thefire and making sure the fire does not re-ignitebetween them.10Emergency action plansThe employer is responsible for preparing andimplementing plans covering the actions thatemployers and employees must take to ensureemployee safety in the event of fire or otheremergencies, such as tornadoes, floods, or othernatural or manmade disasters. The elements ofthis plan include: Emergency-escape procedures and emergency escape-route assignments; Procedures for employees who remain to operate critical equipment before they evacuate; Procedures to account for all employees afteran emergency evacuation; Rescue and medical duties for employeeswho perform them;
cessful accident-prevention principles and tech-niques. While application of these techniques may vary according to the size and nature of your company’s operations, the basic principles remain the same. Please note, this manual is not all-encompassing, nor is it a document for compliance. It’s always