The ConciseOxford Dictionary ofLiterary TermsCHRIS BALDICKOXFORD UNIVERSITY PRESS
OXFORD PAPERBACK REFERENCEThe Concise Oxford Dictionary ofLiterary TermsChris Baldick is Professor of English at Goldsmiths'College, University of London. He edited The OxfordBook of Gothic Tales (1992), and is the author of InFrankenstein's Shadow (1987), Criticism and LiteraryTheory 1890 to the Present (1996), and other works ofliterary history. He has edited, with Rob Morrison,Tales of Terror from Blackwood's Magazine, and TheVampyre and Other Tales of the Macabre, and haswritten an introduction to Charles Maturin'sMelmoth the Wanderer (all available in the OxfordWorld's Classics series).
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The ConciseOxford Dictionary ofLiteraryTermsCHRIS BALDICKOXFORDUNIVERSITY PRESS
OXFORDUNIVERSITY PRESSGreat Clarendon Street, Oxford ox2 6DPOxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford.It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship,and education by publishing worldwide inOxford New YorkAthens Auckland Bangkok Bogota Buenos Aires Cape TownChennai Dar es Salaam Delhi Florence Hong Kong Istanbul KarachiKolkata Kuala Lumpur Madrid Melbourne Mexico City MumbaiNairobi Paris Sao Paulo Singapore Taipei Tokyo Toronto Warsawwith associated companies in Berlin IbadanOxford is a registered trade mark of Oxford University Pressin the UK and in certain other countriesPublished in the United Statesby Oxford University Press Inc., New York(C) Chris Baldick 2001The moral rights of the author have been assertedDatabase right Oxford University Press (maker)First published 1990First issued as an Oxford University Press paperback 1991Reissued in new covers 1996Second edition published 2001All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, withoutthe prior permission in writing of Oxford University Press,or as expressly permitted by law, or under terms agreed with the appropriatereprographics rights organization. Enquiries concerning reproductionoutside the scope of the above should be sent to the Rights Department,Oxford University Press, at the address aboveYou must not circulate this book in any other binding or coverand you must impose the same condition on any acquirerBritish Library Cataloguing in Publication DataData availableLibrary of Congress Cataloging in Publication DataData availableISBN 0-19-280118-X13579108642Typeset in Swift and Frutiger by Kolam Information Services Pvt. Ltd, Pondicherry, IndiaPrinted in Great Britain byCox & Wyman Ltd., Reading, England
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PrefaceThis is a book of hard words alphabetically arranged and brieflyexplained. It cannot purport to fulfil the functions of a balancedexpository guide to literary criticism or literary concepts, nor does itattempt to catalogue the entire body of literary terms in use. It offersinstead to clarify those thousand terms that are most likely to cause thestudent or general reader some doubt or bafflement in the context ofliterary criticism and other discussion of literary works. Rather thaninclude for the sake of encyclopaedic completeness all the most commonterms found in literary discussion, I have set aside several that I havejudged to be sufficiently well understood in common speech (anagram,biography, cliche and many more), or virtually self-explanatory (detectivestory, psychological criticism), along with a broad category of generalconcepts such as art, belief, culture, etc., which may appear as literarycritical problems but which are not specifically literary terms. This policyhas allowed space for the inclusion of many terms generated by thegrowth of academic literary theory in recent years, and for adequateattention to the terminology of classical rhetoric, now increasinglyrevived. Along with these will be found hundreds of terms from literarycriticism, literary history, prosody, and drama. The selection is weightedtowards literature and criticism in English, but there are many termstaken from other languages, and many more associated primarily withother literatures. Many of the terms that I have omitted from thisdictionary are covered by larger or more specialist works; a brief guide tothese appears on page 279.In each entry I have attempted to explain succinctly how the term is orhas been used, with a brief illustrative example wherever possible, andto clarify any relevant distinctions of sense. Related terms are indicatedby cross-reference, using an asterisk (*) before a term explainedelsewhere in the dictionary, or the instruction see. I have chosen not togive much space to questions of etymology, and to discuss a term's originonly when this seems genuinely necessary to clarify its current sense. Myattention has been devoted more to helping readers to use the termsconfidently for themselves. To this end I have displayed the plural forms,adjectival forms, and other derived words relevant to each entry, andhave provided pronunciation guides for more than two hundredpotentially troublesome terms. The simplified pronunciation system
Preface to the Second Editionviiiused, closely based on the system devised by Joyce M. Hawkins for theOxford Paperback Dictionary, offers a basic but sufficient indication of theessential features of stress-placing and vowel quality. One of itsadvantages is that it requires very little checking against thepronunciation key on page ix.In compiling this dictionary, the principal debt I have incurred is to mypredecessors in the vexed business of literary definition and distinction,from Aristotle to the editors of the Princeton Encyclopedia of Poetry andPoetics. If the following entries make sense, it is very often because thosewho have gone before have cleared the ground and mapped its moretreacherous sites. My thanks are owed also to Joyce Hawkins and MichaelOckenden for their help with pronunciations; to Kirn Scott Walwyn ofOxford University Press for her constant encouragement; to Peter Currie,Michael Hughes, Colin Pickthall, and Hazel Richardson for their adviceon particular entries; to my students for giving me so much practice; andespecially to Harriet Barry, Pamela Jackson, and John Simons for givingup their time to scrutinize the typescript and for the valuableamendments they suggested.C.B.AcknowledgementI am grateful to David Higham Associates Limited on behalf of MurielSpark for permission to quote from The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie publishedby Macmillan Publishers Ltd.Preface to the Second EditionFor this edition I have added new entries expanding the dictionary'scoverage of terms from rhetoric, theatre history, textual criticism, andother fields; and introduced further terms that have arrived or becomemore prominent in literary usage in the last ten years. I have alsoupdated many of the existing entries along with the appendix on generalfurther reading, and more extensively attached additionalrecommendations for further reading to several of the longer or morecomplex entries. For advice on some of this additional material I amindebted to my colleagues Alcuin Blamires, Michael Bruce, Hayley Davis,and Philip McGowan.C.B.
PronunciationWhere a term's pronunciation may not be immediately obvious from itsspelling, a guide is provided in square brackets following the word orphrase. Words are broken up into small units, usually of one syllable. Thesyllable that is spoken with most stress in a word of two or more syllablesis shown in bold type.The pronunciations given follow the standard speech of southernEngland. However, since this system is based on analogies rather than onprecise phonetic description, readers who use other varieties of spokenEnglish will rarely need to make any conscious adjustment to suit theirown forms of pronunciation.The sounds represented are as follows:as in catas in agoas in calmas in hairas in baras in laway as in sayb as in batch as in chind as in daye as in bede as in takenee as in meeteer as in beerer as in herew as in fewewr as in purefas in fatg as in geth as in hataaahairarawiIIjk1mnngnko6ohoioooororowPras in pinas in pencilas in eyeas in jamas in kindas in legas in manas in notas in sing, fingeras in thankas in topas in lemonas in mostas in joinas in soonas in pooras in foras in cowas in penas in reds as in sitsh as in shopt as in topth as in thinth as in thisu as in cupu as in focusuu as in bookvos in voicew as in willy as in yesor when preceded bya consonant I as incry, realizeyoo as in unityoor as in Europeyr as in firez as in zebrazh as in visionThe raised n (n) is used to indicate the nasalizing of the preceding vowelsound in some French words, as in baton or in Chopin. In several Frenchwords no syllable is marked for stress, the distribution of stress beingmore even than in English.
PronunciationxA consonant is sometimes doubled, especially to help show that thevowel before it is short, or when without this the combination of lettersmight suggest a wrong pronunciation through looking misleadingly likea familiar word.
Aabsurd, the, a term derived from the *EXISTENTIALISM of AlbertCamus, and often applied to the modern sense of humanpurposelessness in a universe without meaning or value. Many 20thcentury writers of prose fiction have stressed the absurd nature ofhuman existence: notable instances are the novels and stories of FranzKafka, in which the characters face alarmingly incomprehensiblepredicaments. The critic Martin Esslin coined the phrase theatre of theabsurd in 1961 to refer to a number of dramatists of the 1950s (led bySamuel Beckett and Eugene lonesco) whose works evoke the absurd byabandoning logical form, character, and dialogue together with realisticillusion. The classic work of absurdist theatre is Beckett's En attendantGodot (Waiting/or Godot, 1952), which revives some of the conventions ofclowning and *FARCE to represent the impossibility of purposeful actionand the paralysis of human aspiration. Other dramatists associated withthe theatre of the absurd include Edward Albee, Jean Genet, HaroldPinter, and Vaclav Havel. For a fuller account, consult Arnold P.Hinchliffe, The Absurd (1969).academic drama (also called school drama), a dramatic traditionwhich arose from the *RENAISSANCE, in which the works of Plautus,Terence, and other ancient dramatists were performed in schools andcolleges, at first in Latin but later also in *VERNACULAR adaptationscomposed by schoolmasters under the influence of * HUMANISM. Thistradition produced the earliest English comedies, notably Ralph RoisterDoister (c.1552) by the schoolmaster Nicholas Udall.acatalectic, possessing the full number of syllables in the final *FOOT(of a metrical verse line); not *CATALECTIC. Noun: acatalexis.accent, the emphasis placed upon a syllable in pronunciation. The termis often used as a synonym for * STRESS, although some theorists prefer touse 'stress' only for metrical accent. Three kinds of accent may bedistinguished, according to the factor that accounts for each:etymological accent (or 'word accent') is the emphasis normally given to
accentual verse2a syllable according to the word's derivation or *MORPHOLOGY; rhetoricalaccent (or 'sense accent') is allocated according to the relativeimportance of the word in the context of a sentence or question; metricalaccent (or stress) follows a recurrent pattern of stresses in a verse line (seemetre). Where metrical accent overrides etymological or rhetoricalaccent, as it often does in *BALLADS and songs (Coleridge: 'in a far countree'), the effect is known as a wrenched accent. See also ictus, recessiveaccent.accentual verse, verse in which the *METRE is based on counting onlythe number of stressed syllables in a line, and in which the number ofunstressed syllables in the line may therefore vary. Most verse inGermanic languages (including Old English) is accentual, and muchEnglish poetry of later periods has been written in accentual verse,especially in the popular tradition of songs, *BALLADS, nursery rhymes,and hymns. The predominant English metrical system in the 'high'literary tradition since Chaucer, however, has been that of accentualsyllabic verse, in which both stressed and unstressed syllables arecounted: thus an iambic *PENTAMETER should normally have five stressesdistributed among its ten syllables (or, with a *FEMININE ENDING, elevensyllables). See also alliterative metreacephalous [a-sef-al-us], the Greek word for 'headless', applied to ametrical verse line that lacks the first syllable expected according toregular *METRE; e.g. an iambic *PENTAMETER missing the first unstressedsyllable, as sometimes in Chaucer:Twenty bookes, clad in blak or reedNoun: acephalexis. See also truncation.Acmeism, a short-lived (c.1911-1921) but significant movement inearly 20th-century Russian poetry, aiming for precision and clarity inopposition to the alleged vagueness of the preceding *SYMBOLISTmovement. Its leaders, Nikolai Gumilev and Sergei Gorodetsky,founded an Acmeist 'Poets' Guild' in 1911, and propounded itsprinciples in the magazine Apollon. The principal poetic luminaries ofthis school were Anna Akhmatova (1889-1966) and Osip Mandelstam(1891-1938).acrostic, a poem in which the initial letters of each line can be readdown the page to spell either an alphabet, a name (often that of theauthor, a patron, or a loved one), or some other concealed message.
3aestheticsVariant forms of acrostic may use middle letters or final letters of linesor, in prose acrostics, initial letters of sentences or paragraphs.act, a major division in the action of a play, comprising one or more*SCENES. A break between acts often coincides with a point at which theplot jumps ahead in time.actant, in the *NARRATOLOGYof A. J. Greimas, one of six basiccategories of fictional role common to all stories. The actants arepaired in *BINARY OPPOSITION: Subject/Object, Sender/Receiver, Helper/Opponent. A character (or acteur) is an individualized manifestation ofone or more actants; but an actant may be realized in a non-humancreature (e.g. a dragon as Opponent) or inanimate object (e.g. magicsword as Helper, or Holy Grail as Object), or in more than one acteur,Adjective: actantial.adynaton, a *FIGURE OF SPEECH related to *HYPERBOLE that emphasizesthe inexpressibility of some thing, idea, or feeling, either by stating thatwords cannot describe it, or by comparing it with something (e.g. theheavens, the oceans) the dimensions of which cannot be grasped.Aestheticism, the doctrine or disposition that regards beauty as anend in itself, and attempts to preserve the arts from subordination tomoral, * DIDACTIC, or political purposes. The term is often usedsynonymously with the Aesthetic Movement, a literary and artistictendency of the late 19th century which may be understood as a furtherphase of *ROMANTICISM in reaction against * PHILISTINE bourgeois valuesof practical efficiency and morality. Aestheticism found theoreticalsupport in the * AESTHETICS of Immanuel Kant and other Germanphilosophers who separated the sense of beauty from practical interests.Elaborated by Theophile Gautier in 1835 as a principle of artisticindependence, aestheticism was adopted in France by Baudelaire,Flaubert, and the *SYMBOLISTS, and in England by Walter Pater, OscarWilde, and several poets of the 1890s, under the slogan I'art pour I'art(*'art for art's sake'). Wilde and other devotees of pure beauty—like theartists Whistler and Beardsley—were sometimes known as aesthetes.See also decadence, fin de siecle. For a fuller account, consult R. V. Johnson,Aestheticism (1969).aesthetics (US esthetics), philosophical investigation into the nature ofbeauty and the perception of beauty, especially in the arts; the theory ofart or of artistic taste. Adjective: aesthetic or esthetic.
affective4affective, pertaining to emotional effects or dispositions (known inpsychology as 'affects'). Affective criticism or affectivism evaluatesliterary works in terms of the feelings they arouse in audiences orreaders (see e.g. catharsis). It was condemned in an important essay byW. K. Wimsatt and Monroe C. Beardsley (in The Verbal Icon, 1954) as theaffective fallacy, since in the view of these *NEW CRITICS such affectiveevaluation confused the literary work's objective qualities with itssubjective results. The American critic Stanley Fish has given the nameaffective stylistics to his form of *READER-RESPONSE CRITICISM. See alsointentional fallacy.afflatus, a Latin term for poetic inspiration.agitprop [aj-it-prop], a Russian abbreviation of 'agitation andpropaganda', applied to the campaign of cultural and politicalpropaganda mounted in the years after the 1917 revolution. The termis sometimes applied to the simple form of *DIDACTIC drama whichthe campaign employed, and which influenced the *EPIC THEATRE ofPiscator and Brecht in Germany.agon [a-gohn] (plural agones [a-goh-niz]), the contest or disputebetween two characters which forms a major part of the action in theGreek *OLD COMEDY of Aristophanes, e.g. the debate between Aeschylusand Euripides in his play The Frogs (405 BCE). The term is sometimesextended to formal debates in Greek tragedies. Adjective: agonistic.alba, see aubade.Alcaics, a Greek verse form using a four-line *STANZA in which the firsttwo lines have eleven syllables each, the third nine, and the fourth ten.The * METRE, predominantly * DACTYLIC, was used frequently by theRoman poet Horace, and later by some Italian and German poets, but its* QUANTITATIVE basis makes it difficult to adapt into English—althoughTennyson and Clough attempted English Alcaics, and Peter Reading hasexperimented with the form in Ukelele Music (1985) and other works.aleatory [ayl-eer-tri] or aleatoric, dependent upon chance. Aleatorywriting involves an element of randomness either in composition, as in*AUTOMATIC WRITING and the *CUT-UP, or in the reader's selection andordering of written fragments, as in B. S. Johnson's novel The Unfortunates(1969), a box of loose leaves which the reader could shuffle at will.Alexandrianism, the works and styles of the Alexandrian school of
5allegoryGreek poets in the *HELLENISTIC age (323 BCE-31 BCE), which includedCallimachus, Apollonius Rhodius, and Theocritus. The Alexandrian stylewas marked by elaborate artificiality, obscure mythological *ALLUSION,and eroticism. It influenced Catullus and other Roman poets.alexandrine, a verse line of twelve syllables adopted
expository guide to literary criticism or literary concepts, nor does it attempt to catalogue the entire body of literary terms in use. It offers instead to clarify those thousand terms that are most likely to cause the student or general reader some doubt or bafflement in the context of literary criticism and other discussion of literary works.
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