Chapter 16: World War Looms A. The Treaty Of Versailles .

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Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Chapter 16: World War LoomsUnit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:A.The Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment formuch of EuropeSection 1: Dictators Threaten World1.Germany didn’t believe the treaty was fair and wasPeaceupset by being stripped of overseas colonies andneighboring territories (Poland)Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia2.The democratic gov’t (Weimer Republic) in Germanycollapsed trying to deal with these problemsa.The Soviets resented having part of theirlands carved up (Poland)b.Unable to cope with multiple problems, theyoung democracies collapsed and dictatorsrose to powerB.Officially called the Soviet Union in 1922, Joseph Stalin (man ofsteel) became the leader/dictator of the Soviet Union after thedeath of V. Lenin in 1924 (Lenin made the S.U. communist)1.Stalin abolished all privately owned farms and replacedthem with collective-large gov’t-owned farmsa.All economic activity was placed under statemanagement (in 1928, Stalin outlined the“five-year plans” for industrialization2.By 1937, the S.U. became the world’s second-largestindustrial power (only the U.S. was larger)a.Historians estimate Stalin had 8 million to 13million “questionables” killed/assassinated3.Totalitarian (1939): pertaining to a centralizedgovernment that does not tolerate parties of differingopinion and that exercises dictatorial control overmany aspects of life.C.Benito Mussolini established a totalitarian regime in Italy whereunemployment and inflation created chaos1.The middle and the upper class demanded strongerleadership to stop the chaosa.Mussolini gained power by reminding thepublic that economic collapse and the rise ofcommunism was imminent and dangerous2.By 1921, Mussolini est. the Fascist Partya.Fascism: a governmental system led by adictator having complete power, forciblysuppressing opposition and criticism,regimenting all industry, commerce, etc., andemphasizing an aggressive nationalism andSummary:often racism.b.Fascists believed power must rest in a singlestrong leader and a small group of devotedparty leadersc.Nationalist: a member of a political groupadvocating or fighting for nationalindependence, a strong national government,etc.3.Oct 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome with his “BlackShirt(s)” followersa.Many prominent officials sided with Mussolini,which encouraged the Italian king to appointhim head of the gov’tClass Website: hepg 1b.Calling himself Il Duce or Page:“the leader”crushed all opposition

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia(con’t)Summary:Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:D.Within Mein Kampf (My Struggle) Hitler outlined the basicbeliefs of Nazism1.Nazism: the German brand of fascism, was based onextreme nationalism (wanted to unify allGerman-speaking people) and demanded racialpurification (purification made this different thanMussolini’s version of fascism)2.Hitler wanted to enforce racial “purification,”supporting the idea that Germans-especiallyblue-eyed, blond-haired “Aryans” formed a “masterrace”a.See Buck v. Bell in the U.S. (1907Indiana-1981 Oregon)b.Estimated that 65,000 people weresterilized in the U.S.)3.Hitler believed that Germany could only thrive if thepeople had more living spacea.German people should have the land they areentitled to, even if it means war4.Many unemployed men (6 million in 1932) joinedHitler’s private army, the storm troopers (brownshirts)a.German citizens felt Hitler was their lasthope5.Paul von Hindenburg ran against Hitler in 1932 andwas re-elected via a runoff electiona.By mid 1932, the Nazis were the strongestpolitical party in Germanyb.In Jan 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor(prime minister)6.Reichstag Fire Decree (Feb 1933): The law suspendedmany key civil liberties, such as free press, habeascorpus, and warrant requirements.a.It was in response to the burning of theReichstag (the German Parliament building)on the previous day7.Enabling Act (March 1933): Chancellor Adolf Hitlerlegally obtained plenary powers and established hisdictatorship.a.It received its name from its legal status as anenabling act granting the Cabinet theauthority to enact laws without theparticipation of the ReichstagClass Website: 12

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Nationalism Grips Europe and Asia(con’t)Unit/Era:Details:E.F.G.Summary:World War LoomsIgnoring the protests of more moderate Japanese officials, themilitarists launched a surprise attack and seized control of theChinese province of Manchuria in 1931 (wanted naturalresources)1.They also controlled Korea and Vietnam for a periodof time2.The League of Nations sent representatives toManchuria to investigate the situationa.Japan was condemned by the League, soJapan simply quit the LeagueThe rest of the world took notice of the League of Nations(lasted from 1920-1946 with 58 member) failure(s)1.In 1933, Hitler pulled Germany out of the Leaguea.In 1935, Hitler began building up the military,which was a direct violation of the Treaty ofVersaillesb.In 1936, Hitler sent troops into the Rhineland,a German region bordering France andBelgium (the League did nothing to stop it)2.Mussolini targeted Ethiopia, one of Africa’s fewremaining independent countriesa.The League of Nations response consisted ofan ineffective economic boycottb.U.S. Congress did not want to be drug into awar so they passed an act banning armsshipments to both sides (only hurt Ethiopia)c.Italy continued to receive weapons fromGermany and oil from U.S. companiesIn 1936, a group of Spanish army officers led by GeneralFrancisco Franco rebelled (civil war) against the Spanishrepublic (after 500,000 deaths, Franco became the fascistleader of a totalitarian gov’t in 1939)1.3,000 Americans formed the Abraham LincolnBattalion and traveled to Spain to fight Franco(Fascism) in support of the loyalistsa.Many volunteers were African Americansupset over Mussolini’s (Fascist) invasion ofEthiopia2.Western democracies remained neutral while theSoviet Union sent equipment and advisers to helpFranco’s rebellion3.Hitler and Mussolini backed Franco’s forces with realman power and military weaponsa.The war forged a close relationship b/wHitler and Mussolini causing them to sign aformal alliance known as the Rome-BerlinAxisClass Website: 13

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:The United States RespondsCautiouslyUnit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:A.B.Isolationism: a withdrawal from world affairs in the late 1920sand 1930s1.In a 1936 speech Roosevelt said, “I hate war!”2.Unilateralism: independent actions in foreign affairs3.We did not enter Woodrow Wilson’s League ofNations4.Permanent Court of International Justice (WorldCourt): created to solve international disputesa.Nations belonging to the court rejected U.S.membership (Senate wanted to protect itsright to make treaties)Charles Evans Hughes organized the Washington Conferencein 1921 (US Secretary of state) - The US used diplomacy andnegotiated disarmament to promote world peace1.The Washington Conference (1921): conference onnaval disarmament and Pacific securitya.Lost the 1916 presidential election toWoodrow Wilson by 23 electoral votesb.July 2, 1921 Congress adopted a jointresolution declaring WW I over-In August separate treaties were signedb/w America, Germany, andAustria-Hungary2.Five Power Agreement:a.US, Great Britain, Japan scrap 78 warshipsand stop building ships for 10 years (NavalHoliday)b.Create a 5:5:3 ratio of naval strength: GBand US same naval strength, Japan less, andItaly and France even less3.Four Power Treaty: Japan, GB, France, and the USwould respect each others territories in the Pacific4.Nine Power Treaty: guaranteed China’s territorialintegrity and promised to uphold the Open Door policy(all nations have access to trade and investment inChina)Summary:Class Website: 14

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:The United States RespondsCautiously (con’t)Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:C.D.Unsuccessful Efforts1.Kellogg-Briand Pact: (62 countries signed pact)outlawed war as a means of solving their differences,but allowed countries to go to war in self-defense (thepact could not be enforced)a.U.S. secretary of state Frank Kellogg andFrench foreign minister Aristide Briandcreated the pact2.Failure of the Pact:a.In 1931, Japan invaded the Chinese territoryof Manchuria (ended internationalagreements for peace)b.President Hoover believed economicsanctions would cause U.S. entry into a warso the U.S. did nothingNorth Dakota Senator Gerald Nye held hearings the revolvedaround charges that the U.S was drug into WW I by greedybankers and arms dealers1.Nye Committee: documented the large profits banksand manufactures made during WW Ia.Anger grew over those companies nicknamed“merchants of death”2.Congress responded to Axis actions by passingNeutrality Laws/Acts in 1935-1937a.Prohibited the shipment of US munitions towarring nations (did not work in WW I)b.Required warring nations that bought goodsfrom America to transport these goods intheir own ships (US ships were sunk byGerman U-boats)c.Forbade Americans to travel on the vesselsof warring nations (Lusitania)Summary:Class Website: 15

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Section 2 - War in EuropeUnit/Era:Details:A.Austria and CzechoslovakiaB.The German Offensive BeginsA.Summary:World War LoomsAfter WW I, the Paris Peace Conference carved Austria outof what was left of the Austro-Hungarian Empire1.Most of Austria’s 6 million people were Germanswho favored unification with Germany2.On March 12, 1938 German troops marched intoAustria unopposed and a day later it was unified withGermanya.The world took no action against GermanyAbout 3 million German-speaking people lived in a region ofCzechoslovakia called the Sudetenland1.Hitler claimed the Czechs were abusing SudetenGermansa.France and G.B. promised to protectCzechoslovakia2.Munich Conference (1938): Hitler invited theFrench premier and British Prime Minister, NevilleChamberlain, to meet in Munich, Germanya.Hitler stated that annexation of the Sudetenlandwould be his “last territorial demand.”b.Munich Agreement (Sep 30, 1938): turned theSudetenland over to Germany without a war3.Winston Churchill, Chamberlain’s political rival, feltthe signing of the Munich Agreement was nothingmore than the establishment of a dangerous policy ofappeasementa.Appeasement: giving up principles to pacify anaggressorb.Churchill commented, “Britain and France had tochoose b/w war and dishonor. They chosedishonor. They will have war.”4.March 15, 1939 German troops invaded what wasleft of CzechoslovakiaMost thought Hitler would not invade Poland b/c the SovietUnion would enter the war against Germany and France andG.B. would also declare war on Germany since they alreadypromised aid to Poland1.In 1939, Hitler, once again, claimed that the Germansin Poland were mistreated by the Polesa.Learning from WW I (Hitler was a corporalin WW I), Hitler chose not to invade Polanduntil the S.U. promised not to enter the waragainst Germany2.Nonaggression/Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact (Aug 23,1939): fascist Germany and communist Russiapromised to never attack each othera.A second, secret pact, agreeing to dividePoland b/w to two nations was also signedb.The danger of a two front war was eliminatedClass Website: 16

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:The German Offensive Begins (con’t)Unit/Era:Details:B.C.France and Britain Fight OnWorld War LoomsA.Sep 1, 1939 the German Luftwaffe (German air force) invadedPoland’s airspace at the same time German ground forcedattacked Poland1.Blitzkrieg (lightning war): advanced militarytechnology such as fast tanks and powerful aircraftsurprise the enemy and crush them withoverwhelming forcea.Sept 3, 1939 Poland, France, and G.B.declared war on Germanyb.It took three weeks before the Allies wereprepared to mount a defenseFrench and British troops waited along the Maginot Line(s): asystem of fortifications built along France’s eastern borderwhere the troops waited for the Germans to attack1.The Germans stared back at the allies from theirSiegfried Line a few miles away2.The Soviets ended up invading and taking Estonia,Latvia, Lithuania, and Finland3.In 1940, Hitler invaded and took Denmark, Norway,Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxemburga.Hitler planned to build bases along the coastsof Denmark and Norway so he could attackG.B.Germany bypassed the French Maginot Line by travelingthrough Belgium and passing through the so-called impassableArdennes (forest) in northeast France1.Battle of Dunkirk/Dynamo (1940): Germans hadtrapped more than 400,000 British and Frenchsoldiers along the English Channel on France’s sidea.Makeshift vessels were able to rescue thetrapped soldiers2.Germany attacked France from the north closing inon Paris and Italy invaded France from the Southa.On June 22, 1940 Hitler handed Frenchofficers his terms of surrenderb.A French general named Charles de Gaullefled to England and set a gov’t-in-exileSummary:Class Website: 17

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:France and Britain Fight On (con’t)Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:B.In the summer of 1940, Germany set its sites on Britain byassembling a naval fleet on the French coast and attackingthrough the air (Luftwaffe)1.Battle of Britain (1940): aerial assault against theBritish Royal Air Force (RAF) and a psychologicalattack against the British civiliansa.The assault occurred everyday from summerto fall2.With the help of radar, British pilots were able toplot the flight path(s) of German planesa.Hitler mistakenly chose not to continuouslytarget the radar stations of the British(resorted to terror bombing)Section 3: The HolocaustSection 3: The HolocaustHolocaust: the systematic murder of 11 million people across Europe, more thanhalf of whom were JewsA. Anti-Semitism: or the hatred of Jews, had a long history in manyEuropean countries1. Hitler discovered that a majority of Germans were willing toaccept the idea that the Jews were the cause of the country’seconomic problems and defeat during WW Ia. Nuremberg Laws (1935): stripped Jews of theirGerman citizenship, jobs, and propertyb. Star of David: bright marking on cloths used byNazis to identify people as JewsB. Kristallnacht or “Night of Broken Glass” (Nov 9-10, 1938): Nazistorm troopers attacked Jewish homes, businesses, and synagoguesacross Germany1. About 100 Jews were killed, hundreds injured, and 30,000Jews were arresteda. The Nazis blamed the Jews for the destructionSummary:Class Website: 18

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:The Holocaust (con’t)Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:C.Jews fleeing Germany had trouble finding nations that wouldaccept them1. France already had 40,000 and didn’t want more2. The British worried about fueling anti-Semitism and refusedto admitmore Jews3. The British also had a mandate over Palestine (later Israel)since WW I and had admitted more than 30,000a. The native Palestinians didn’t want any more Jews4. The United States only wanted to accept the best andbrightest Jews into the U.S., including Albert Einstein and100,000 others (Americans feared further immigration wouldworsen the Depression)a. Albert Einstein entered the U.S. in 1933 andinformed FDR about the potential of an atomic bomb in1939 (Szilard’s research)b. Anti-Semitism and fear of “enemy agents” enteringAmerica fueled the desire to keep the Jews outD. St. Louis: German ocean liner carrying 943 passengers (most ofthem Jews) with 740 passengers possessing U.S. immigrationpapers1. The U.S. Coast Guard would not allow anyone to enter theU.S.a.The ship and passengers were forced to return toEurope, and more than half of the passengers werekilled in the HolocaustE. Buck v. Bell1.Facts of the Casea.Carrie Buck was a feeble minded woman whowas committed to a state mental institution.Her condition had been present in her familyfor the last three generations. A Virginia lawallowed for the sexual sterilization of inmatesof institutions to promote the "health of thepatient and the welfare of society." Beforethe procedure could be performed, however, ahearing was required to determine whetheror not the operation was a wise thing to do.Summary:Class Website: 19

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:The Holocaust (con’t)Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:Buck v. Bell (con’t)1.2.Questiona.Did the Virginia statute which authorizedsterilization deny Buck the right to dueprocess of the law and the equal protection ofthe laws as protected by the FourteenthAmendment?Conclusiona.The Court found that the statute did notviolate the Constitution. Justice Holmesmade clear that Buck's challenge was notupon the medical procedure involved but onthe process of the substantive law. Sincesterilization could not occur until a properhearing had occurred (at which the patientand a guardian could be present) and after theCircuit Court of the County and the SupremeCourt of Appeals had reviewed the case, if sorequested by the patient. Only after "monthsof observation" could the operation takeplace. That was enough to satisfy the Courtthat there was no Constitutional violation.Citing the best interests of the state, JusticeHolmes affirmed the value of a law likeVirginia's in order to prevent the nation from"being swamped with incompetence . . . Threegenerations of imbeciles are enough."Summary:Class Website: 110

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:Hitler’s Final Solutionwere even given a bar of soap before cyanide gas wasSummary:dropped in the locked chamber(s)Class Website: 111

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:Final Stage(con’t)Hitler’sFinal SolutionSection 4: America Moves Toward WarThe United States Musters its ForcesSummary:Class Website: 112

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:The United States Musters its ForcesHitler’s Final Solution(con’t)Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:The Great Arsenal of DemocracySummary:Class Website: 113

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16FIXKey Points:Details:The Great Arsenal of DemocracyHitler’s Final Solution(con’t)Unit/Era:World War LoomsFDR Plans for WarSummary:Class Website: 114

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:Japan Attacks the United StatesHitler’s Final SolutionSummary:Class Website: 115

Name:Ferguson’s NotesDate:Chapter: 16Key Points:Unit/Era:World War LoomsDetails:Japan Attacks the United States (con’t)Hitler’s Final SolutionEND OF CHAPTER 16 NOTESSummary:Class Website: 116

Sep 25, 2015 · Chapter: Page: 1 Ferguson’s Notes 16 World War Looms Section 2 - War in Europe Austria and Czechoslovakia The German Offensive Begins A. After WW I, the Paris Peace Conference carved Austria out of what was left of the Austro-Hungarian Empire 1. Most of Austria’s 6 million people were Germans who favored unification with Germany 2.

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