UUNN World War II And Its Aftermath

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U N ITCHAPTER 16World War Looms1931–1941CHAPTER 17The United Statesin World War II1941–1945CHAPTER 18Cold War Conflicts1945–1960CHAPTER 19The Postwar Boom1946–1960UNITPROJECTDebateAs you read Unit 5, pay attentionto arguments on either side of apolitical issue. Work with a groupto stage a debate. Write aproposition, such as “Resolved:The U.S. has a responsibility toend its isolationism and enterWorld War II.” Choose teams toargue either for or against theresolution.Dawn Patrol Launching by Paul Sample524World War IIand ItsAftermath1931–1960

FLORIDA . . .TheStory Continues Årw Å EHB:Å 7HÅ EECIÅ rztr rzur rztz Å 7CFÅ B7D:?D Å?IÅ;IJ78B?I ;:Å7IÅ7ÅJH7?D?D Å 79?B?JOÅ EHÅJ ;Å 7J?ED7BÅ K7H: Å For the first few years, the sitewas used as originally intended. But in 1943, as the UnitedStates prepared for war, the Camp was transformed into anInfantry Replacement Training Center. Camp Blanding provided training for infantry, cavalry, engineers, medical troops, tankdestroyers, and many other specialties. Today, Camp Blandingis used as a training site for the National Guard and Reserves, aswell as some active duty service men and women. rzu{I Å BEH?:7ÅFB7OIÅ7ÅB7H ;ÅHEB;Å?DÅJ ;ÅC?B?J7HOÅ; EHJIÅE ÅJ ;Å D?J;:Å J7J;IÅ?DÅ EHB:Å 7HÅ Å During World WarII, military bases were built throughout Florida. By the war’send, Florida had 172 military installations. This brought economic opportunities to people throughout the state. Someof the cities that experienced tremendous growth during thewar were Key West, Tampa, Miami, Jacksonville, and Pensacola. rzu{ Å ;Å 7L7BÅ ?HÅ J7J?EDÅ7JÅ 79AIEDL?BB;Å?IÅ9ECC?IÄI?ED;: Å Within the first few years, the navy erectedover 700 buildings at the Naval Air Station at Jacksonville.During World War II, over 10,000 pilots and 11,000 aircrewmenwere trained at this station. The Blue Angels began at the NavalAir Station at Jacksonville. In 1946, the Blue Angels gave theirfirst performance; one year later they demonstrated the “diamond formation,” in which the group of planes creates theshape of a diamond, and the wings of the planes are only 18inches from one another.525 FL19-12 SFLESE611846 0516 SC.indd 110/8/11 1:53:08 PM

1939: Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings(1896–1953) wins the PulitzerPrize for The Yearling. Marjorie KinnanPEOPLERawlings began her writing career as aneditor for the National Board of theYMCA. She attended the University ofWisconsin. She went on to become anews reporter and a syndicated poet. In1928, Rawlings moved to Florida, whereshe wrote stories about life in ruralFlorida, including her famous workCross Creek. Her works include novels,biographies, magazine articles, and herown autobiography.PLACESPanama.1930: A Pan American Airwaysplane flies from Florida toair terminal on Dinner Key. Pan Am usedthis terminal for flights going to and fromSouth America. Initially, the passengerterminal was simply a house boat. Overtime, the terminal was expanded, andDinner Key underwent a vast construction transformation, including thedredging of a one-mile long, 700-footwide channel. The terminal, which isknown as the Pan American SeaplaneBase and Terminal, had restaurants, aflight viewing deck, waiting rooms, andmore. Though it served an importantrole in WWII, the terminal closed onAugust 9, 1945. The City of Miami purchased the terminal building and converted it into the Miami City Hall.Pan-American Airways,commonly known as Pan Am, built anPhoto credits: See Chapter 1 Florida. . .The Story ContinuesUnpacking the Florida Standards Read the following to learn what this standard says and what it means. See FL8–FL24to unpack all other standards related to this chapter.Benchmark SS.912.A.6.1Examine causes, course, andconsequences of World War II on the United States and the world.What does it mean?Describe the causes and course of World War II, and how the war affected the lives ofAmericans at home and abroad. Identify how the Cold War arose after the end of WorldWar II. Go to Chapter 16, World War Looms, 1931–1941, and Chapter 17, The UnitedStates in World War II, 1941–1945, for help.SPOTLIGHT ONSS.912.G.1.2 See pages FL62–FL63 for content specifically related to theseChapter 16 standards.525 FL22 9-12 SFLAESE611846 0516 SC 23/4/11 4:38:37 AM

CHA PT ER16Essential QuestionHow did the rise of dictatorscontribute to the outbreak of WorldWar II?Florida Next GenerationSunshine State StandardsLA.1112.1.6.3 The student willuse context clues to determine meaningsof unfamiliar words. SS.912.A.1.2 Utilize avariety of primary and secondary sourcesto identify author, historical significance,audience, and authenticity to understand ahistorical period. SS.912.A.1.3 Utilize timelinesto identify the time sequence of historicaldata. SS.912.A.6.1 Examine causes, course,and consequences of World War II on theUnited States and the world. SS.912.A.6.2 Describe the United States response in the earlyyears of World War II (Neutrality Acts, Cashand Carry, Lend Lease Act). SS.912.A.6.3 Analyze the impact of the Holocaust during WorldWar II on Jews as well as other groups.Flanked by storm troopers, Adolf Hitler arrivesat a Nazi rally in September 1934.1931 The EmpireState Buildingopens in NewYork City.USAWORLD19 3 11931 Japan conquers Manchuria,in northern China.5261932 FranklinDelano Roosevelt iselected president.1933Prohibitionends.1 93331931933 Adolf Hitler isappointed Germanchancellor and sets upDachau concentrationcamp.1934 Stalin beginsgreat purge in USSR.1934 Chinesecommunists flee inthe Long March.1936 Jesse Owens winsfour gold medals at Olympicsin Berlin, Germany.1936 Rooseveltis reelected.19351936 Ethiopia’s Haile Selassieasks League of Nations forhelp against Italian invasion.1936 General Francisco Francoleads a fascist rebellion in Spain.CHAPTER 169-12 SFLAESE611846 0516CO.indd 5262/28/11 1:21:51 PM

Adolf HitlerINTERACTW I THHI S TORYINTERACTW I THHI S TORYIn the summer of 1939, President FranklinRoosevelt addresses an anxious nation inresponse to atrocities in Europe committedby Hitler’s Nazi Germany. Roosevelt declaresin his broadcast that the United States “willremain a neutral nation.” He acknowledges,however, that he “cannot ask that everyAmerican remain neutral in thought.”Explore the Issuess (OW MIGHT INVOLVEMENT IN A LARGE SCALEwar influence the United States?s (OW CAN NEUTRAL COUNTRIES PARTICIPATE INthe affairs of warring countries?1937 AmeliaEarhartmysteriouslydisappearsattempting soloround-the-worldflight.19371938 Orson Wellesbroadcasts The Warof the Worlds, a fictional alien invasion.1940 Rooseveltis elected to athird term.1 9 391938Kristallnacht—Nazis riot,destroying Jewishneighborhoods.1939 GermanyinvadesPoland. Britainand Francedeclare war.1941 UnitedStates entersWorld War II.1 94 11941 Japanbombs PearlHarbor.World War Looms 5279-12 SFLESE611846 0516CO.indd 52710/8/11 1:56:35 PM

C T I ON1SESS.912.A.1.2, SS.912.A.6.1, SS.912.A.6.2Dictators ThreatenWorld PeaceThe rise of rulers with totalpower in Europe and Asia ledto World War ll.Dictators of the 1930s and1940s changed the course ofhistory, making world leadersespecially watchful for theactions of dictators today.sJoseph StalinstotalitariansBenito MussolinisfascismsAdolf HitlersNazismsFrancisco FrancosNeutrality ActsOne American's StoryTAKING NOTESUse the graphicorganizer online totake notes on theambitions of thedictators of the1930s.Martha Gellhorn arrived in Madrid in 1937 to cover thebrutal civil war that had broken out in Spain the yearbefore. Hired as a special correspondent for Collier’s Weekly,she had come with very little money and no special protection. On assignment there, she met the writer ErnestHemingway, whom she later married. To Gellhorn, a youngAmerican writer, the Spanish Civil War was a deadly struggle between tyranny and democracy. For the people ofMadrid, it was also a daily struggle for survival.A PERSONAL VOICE MARTHA GELLHORN“ You would be walking down a street, hearing only the city—The Face of WarLess than two decades after the end of World War I—“the war to end allwars”—fighting erupted again in Europe and in Asia. As Americans read about distant battles, they hoped the conflicts would remain on the other side of the world.SS.912.A.6.1Examine causes,course, and consequences of WorldWar II on the UnitedStates and the world.528Tnoises of streetcars and automobiles and people calling toone another, and suddenly, crushing it all out, would be thehuge stony deep booming of a falling shell, at the corner. There was no place torun, because how did you know that the next shell would not be behind you, orahead, or to the left or right?”Martha Gellhorn,one of the firstwomen warcorrespondents,began her careerduring theSpanish Civil War.Nationalism Grips Europe and AsiaThe seeds of new conflicts had been sown in World War I. For many nations,peace had brought not prosperity but revolution fueled by economic depressionand struggle. The postwar years also brought the rise of powerful dictators drivenby the belief in nationalism—loyalty to one’s country above all else—and dreamsof territorial expansion.CHAPTER 169-12 SFLAESE611846 051601.indd 5282/9/11 10:40:54 AM

²IdentifyingProblemsA Why did thenew democraciesset up after WorldWar I fail?SummarizingB What are thecharacteristics ofa totalitarianstate?Germany was expected to pay off hugedebts while dealing with widespreadpoverty. By 1923, an inflating economymade a five-million German mark worthless than a penny. Here children buildblocks with stacks of useless Germanmarks.FAILURES OF THE WORLD WAR I PEACE SETTLEMENT Instead of securinga “just and secure peace,” the Treaty of Versailles caused anger and resentment.Germans saw nothing fair in a treaty that blamed them for starting the war. Nordid they find security in a settlement that stripped them of their overseas coloniesand border territories. These problems overwhelmed the Weimar Republic, thedemocratic government set up in Germany after World War I. Similarly, theSoviets resented the carving up of parts of Russia. (See map, Chapter 11, p. 400.)The peace settlement had not fulfilled President Wilson’s hope of a world“safe for democracy.” New democratic governments that emerged in Europe afterthe war floundered. Without a democratic tradition, people turned to authoritarian leaders to solve their economic and social problems. The new democraciescollapsed, and dictators were able to seize power. Some had great ambitions. AJOSEPH STALIN TRANSFORMS THE SOVIET UNION In Russia, hopes fordemocracy gave way to civil war, resulting in the establishment of a communiststate, officially called the Soviet Union, in 1922. After V. I. Lenin died in 1924,Joseph Stalin, whose last name means “man of steel,” took control of the country. Stalin focused on creating a model communist state. In so doing, he madeboth agricultural and industrial growth the prime economic goals of the SovietUnion. Stalin abolished all privately owned farms and replaced them with collectives—large government-owned farms, each worked by hundreds of families.Stalin moved to transform the Soviet Union from a backward rural nation intoa great industrial power. In 1928, the Soviet dictator outlined the first of several“five-year plans,” to direct the industrialization. All economic activity was placedunder state management. By 1937, the Soviet Union had become the world’s second-largest industrial power, surpassed in overall production only by the UnitedStates. The human costs of this transformation, however, were enormous.In his drive to purge, or eliminate, anyone who threatened his power, Stalindid not spare even his most faithful supporters. While the final toll will never beknown, historians estimate that Stalin was responsible for the deaths of 8 millionto 13 million people. Millions more died in famines caused by the restructuringof Soviet society.By 1939, Stalin had firmly established a totalitarian government that triedto exert complete control over its citizens. In a totalitarian state, individuals haveno rights, and the government suppresses all opposition. BWorld War Looms529

NThe Rise of Nationalism, 1922–1941WES75nN0n45nEArctic CircleAT L A N T I COCEAN60nNAdolf Hitler offers economic stabilityto unemployed Germans during theMapQuest.Com,Great DepressionInc.and becomeschancellor in 1933.Joseph Stalin grabs control of theSoviet Union in 1924 and squelchesall opposition after V. I. Lenin, founderof the communist regime, dies.Fascist dictatorshipCommunist dictatorshipImperialist military regime0S O V I E TU N I O N0McDougal-Littell, The Americas ProgramBookR/Unit 5/Chapter 16 - arpe-0516s1-17-eMoscowGREATTheRise of NationalismLocatorBerlinBRITAINl Information LondonArea (per page):8pGERMANY wide X 4p deepMask Area(per page):8p wide x 4p deepParisBenito Mussolini rises to powerFRANCE 2nd proof date: 1/15/01in 1922 and attempts to restore45nNSPAINMadridITALYan7507501,500 miles1,500 kilometersCHINAItaly to its former position as aworld power.RomeM e d i t e r rane165nEJAPANSeaFrancisco Franco leads therebel Nationalist army to victoryin Spain and gains completecontrol of the country in 1939.Hideki Tojo, the force behind Japanesestrategy, becomes Japan’s primeminister in 1941. Emperor Hirohitobecomes a powerless figurehead.TokyoPA C I F I COCEANTropic of CancerGEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER1. Region In which countries did authoritarian leaders come to power?Who were the leaders?2. Location What geographic features might have led Japan to expand?MapQuest.Com, Inc.McDougal-Littell, The Americas Program“530THE RISE OF FASCISM IN ITALY While Stalin was consolidating BookR/Unithis power in5/Chapter 16 - arpe-0516s1-04-ethe Soviet Union, Benito Mussolini was establishing a totalitarian regime inThe Rise of NationalismItaly, where unemployment and inflation produced bittersome Areaof whichVitalstrikes,Information(per page): 51p9 wide X 29p9 deep(per page):53p9 wide x 31p9 deepwere communist led. Alarmed by these threats, the middle and MaskupperAreaclasses3rd proof date: 5/11/01demanded stronger leadership. Mussolini took advantage of this situation. Apowerful speaker, Mussolini knew how to appeal to Italy’s wounded nationalpride. He played on the fears of economic collapse and communism. In this way,he won the support of many discontented Italians.By 1921, Mussolini had established the FascistItaly wants peace, Party. Fascism (W7dYE kF: ) stressed nationalism andwork, and calm.placed the interests of the state above those of individI will give theseuals. To strengthen the nation, Fascists argued, powerthings with love if must rest with a single strong leader and a small grouppossible, with force of devoted party members. (The Latin fasces—a bundleof rods tied around an ax handle—had been a symbol ofif necessary.”unity and authority in ancient Rome.)BENITO MUSSOLINIIn October 1922, Mussolini marched on Rome withthousands of his followers, whose black uniforms gave them the name “BlackShirts.” When important government officials, the army, and the police sidedwith the Fascists, the Italian king appointed Mussolini head of the government.Calling himself Il Duce, or “the leader,” Mussolini gradually extended Fascist Analyzingcontrol to every aspect of Italian life. Tourists marveled that Il Duce had even CausesC What factors“made the trains run on time.” Mussolini achieved this efficiency, however, by led to the rise ofcrushing all opposition and by making Italy a totalitarian state. CFascism in Italy?CHAPTER 169-12 SFLESE611846 051601.indd 53010/8/11 1:59:48 PM

The Faces of TotalitarianismFascist ItalyUÊ ÝÌÀi iÊ Ì Ã UÊ Ì À ÃÌ VÊiÝ« à à UÊ À Ã Ì VÊ i iÀUÊÊ*À Û ÌiÊ«À «iÀÌÞÊÜ Ì ÊÃÌÀ }Ê} ÛiÀ i ÌÊV ÌÀ ÃUÊ Ì V Õ ÃÌNazi GermanyUÊ ÝÌÀi iÊ Ì Ã Ê ÊÀ V à UÊ Ì À ÃÌ VÊiÝ« à à UÊ ÀVivÕ Ê i iÀUÊÊ*À Û ÌiÊ«À «iÀÌÞÊÜ Ì ÊÃÌÀ }Ê} ÛiÀ i ÌÊV ÌÀ ÃUÊ Ì V Õ ÃÌCommunist Soviet UnionUÊÊ Ài ÌiÊ ÊÃ Õ ÊV Õ ÃÌÊÃÌ ÌiÊ ÊÜ ÌÊv ÀÊÜ À ÊÀiÛ ÕÌ UÊ,iÛ ÕÌ ÊLÞÊÜ À iÀÃUÊ Ûi ÌÕ ÊÀÕ iÊLÞÊÜ À }ÊV ÃÃUÊ-Ì ÌiÊ Ü iÀà «Ê vÊ«À «iÀÌÞ²c.mempp1SummarizingD Ê7 ÌÊÜiÀiÊÌ i iÞÊ i ÃÊ Ê} ÃÊÌ ÌÊ Ì iÀÊ«ÀiÃi Ìi Ê ÊMeinKampf ?Background VV À }ÊÌ Ê Ì iÀÊÌ iÀiÊÜiÀiÊÌ ÀiiÊ iÀ Êi « ÀiÃ\ÊÌ iÊ ÞÊ, Ê « ÀiÆÊ/ iÊ iÀ Ê « ÀiÊ vÊ nÇ q nÆÊ Ê/ iÊ/ À Ê,i V THE NAZIS TAKE OVER GERMANY In Germany, Adolf Hitler had followeda path to power similar to Mussolini’s. At the end of World War I, Hitler had beena jobless soldier drifting around Germany. In 1919, he joined a struggling groupcalled the National Socialist German Workers’ Party, better known as the NaziParty. Despite its name, this party had no ties to socialism.Hitler proved to be such a powerful public speaker and organizer that hequickly became the party’s leader. Calling himself Der Führer—“the Leader”—hepromised to bring Germany out of chaos.In his book Mein Kampf [My Struggle], Hitler set forth the basic beliefs ofNazism that became the plan of action for the Nazi Party. Nazism ( zeEd kF: ),the German brand of fascism, was based on extreme nationalism. Hitler, who hadbeen born in Austria, dreamed of uniting all German-speaking people in a greatGerman empire.Hitler also wanted to enforce racial “purification” at home. In his view,Germans—especially blue-eyed, blond-haired “Aryans”—formed a “master race”that was destined to rule the world. “Inferior races,” such as Jews, Slavs, and allnonwhites, were deemed fit only to serve the Aryans.A third element of Nazism was national expansion. Hitler believed that forGermany to thrive, it needed more lebensraum, or living space. One of the Nazis’aims, as Hitler wrote in Mein Kampf, was “to secure for the German people theland and soil to which they are entitled on this earth,” even if this could beaccomplished only by “the might of a victorious sword.” DThe Great Depression helped the Nazis come to power. Because of war debtsand dependence on American loans and investments, Germany’s economy washit hard. By 1932, some 6 million Germans were unemployed. Many men whowere out of work joined Hitler’s private army, the storm troopers (or Brown Shirts).The German people were desperate and turned to Hitler as their last hope.By mid 1932, the Nazis had become the strongest political party in Germany.In January 1933, Hitler was appointed chancellor (prime minister). Once in power,Hitler quickly dismantled Germany’s democratic Weimar Republic. In its place heestablished the Third Reich, or Third German Empire. According to Hitler, the ThirdReich would be a “Thousand-Year Reich”—it would last for a thousand years.Left to right:Benito Mussolini,Adolf Hitler,Joseph StalinWorld War Looms531

Japan Invades Manchuria, 1931Italy Invades Ethiopia, 1935–1936SOVIET UNIONITALYJapan took controlof the southern halfMapQuest.Com, Inc.of Sakhalin Islandin 1905.McDougal-Littell, The Americas ProgramMANCHURIAk R/Unit 5/ChapterMONGOLIA16 - arpe-0516s1-19-e(Province of China)Aggressive Acts LOCATORtion Area (per page): 8p wide X 4p deepMask Area (per page): 8p wide x 4p deepMukden3rd proof date: 5/02/01RomeMapQuest.Com, Inc.MediterraneanSea ofJapan(East Sea)KOREAMcDougal-Littell, The Americas ProgramBook R/Unit 5/Chapter 16 - arpe-0516s1-18-eAggressive Acts LOCATORVital Information Area (per page): 8p wide X 4p deepMask Area (per page): 8p wide x 4p deepRed3rd proof date: 5/02/01SeaJAPAN15oNETHIOPIACHINAYellowSeaIn 1910, Koreawas annexed byJapan.SeaAddis AbabaTokyo0oEquatorEast ChinaSeaINDIANOCEAN0oNNWTropic of CancerE15oSPACIFICOCEANS135nE0200W400 miles0 200 400 kilometers0Tropic of Capricorn0400ES800 miles400 800 kilometersGEOGRAPHY SKILLBUILDER1. Location What countries were aggressorsduring this period?2. Movement Notice the size and location ofItaly and of Japan with respect to the countryeach invaded. What similarities do you see?MapQuest.Com, Inc.MapQuest.Com, Inc.McDougal-Littell, The Americas ProgramBook R/Unit 5/Chapter 16 - arpe-0516s1-14-eMcDougal-Littell, The Americas ProgramItaly Invades EthiopiaBook R/UnitGAIN5/Chapter16 - arpe-0516s1-15-eMILITARISTSCONTROLIN JAPAN Halfway aroundthe world,nationVital InformationArea(per page): 22p wide X 28p deepInvadesalistic military leadersJapanwere tryingtoManchuriatake control of the imperial Maskgovernmentof page): 24p wide x 30p deepArea (perVital Information Area (per page): 22p wide X 28p deepJapan. These leaders shared in common with Hitler a belief in the need for more3rd proof date: 5/02/01Mask Area (per page): 24p wide x 30p deepliving space for a growing population. Ignoring the protests of more moderate3rd proof date: 5/02/01Japanese officials, the militarists launched a surprise attack and seized control ofthe Chinese province of Manchuria in 1931. Within several months, Japanesetroops controlled the entire province, a large region about twice the size of Texas, AnalyzingMotivesthat was rich in natural resources. EE Why did JapanThe watchful League of Nations had been established after World War I to pre- invade Manchuria?vent just such aggressive acts. In this greatest test of the League’s power, representatives were sent to Manchuria to investigate the situation. Their report condemnedBackgroundJapan, who in turn simply quit the League. Meanwhile, the success of the MilitaryManchurian invasion put the militarists firmly in control of Japan’s government. government hadAGGRESSION IN EUROPE AND AFRICA The failure of the League of Nationsto take action against Japan did not escape the notice of Europe’s dictators. In1933, Hitler pulled Germany out of the League. In 1935, he began a militarybuildup in violation of the Treaty of Versailles. A year later, he sent troops intothe Rhineland, a German region bordering France and Belgium that was demilitarized as a result of the Treaty of Versailles. The League did nothing to stop Hitler.532CHAPTER 16centuries-old rootsin Japan. Theshogun lords ofthe Middle Ageshad been militaryleaders.

Meanwhile, Mussolini began building his new RomanEmpire. His first target was Ethiopia, one of Africa’s fewremaining independent countries. By the fall of 1935, tensof thousands of Italian soldiers stood ready to advance onEthiopia. The League of Nations reacted with brave talk of“collective resistance to all acts of unprovoked aggression.”When the invasion began, however, the League’sresponse was an ineffective economic boycott—little morethan a slap on Italy’s wrist. By May 1936, Ethiopia had fallen. In desperation, Haile Selassie, the ousted Ethiopianemperor, appealed to the League for assistance. Nothingwas done. “It is us today,” he told them. “It will be youtomorrow.”S P O TLIG H TAFRICAN AMERICANS STANDBY ETHIOPIANSWhen Mussolini invaded Ethiopia,many Europeans and Americans—especially African Americans—were outraged. Almost overnight,African Americans organizedto raise money for medical supplies, and a few went to fight inEthiopia. Years later, the Ethiopianemperor Haile Selassie (shownabove) said of these efforts,“We can never forget the helpEthiopia received from NegroAmericans during the terriblecrisis. . . . It moved me toknow that Americans of Africandescent did not abandon theirembattled brothers, but stoodby us.”²SummarizingF What foreigncountries wereinvolved in theSpanish Civil War?CIVIL WAR BREAKS OUT IN SPAIN In 1936, a group ofSpanish army officers led by General Francisco Franco,rebelled against the Spanish republic. Revolts broke out allover Spain, and the Spanish Civil War began. The wararoused passions not only in Spain but throughout theworld. About 3,000 Americans formed the AbrahamLincoln Battalion and traveled to Spain to fight againstFranco. “We knew, we just knew,” recalled MarthaGellhorn, “that Spain was the place to stop fascism.”Among the volunteers were African Americans still bitterabout Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia the year before.Such limited aid was not sufficient to stop the spread offascism, however. The Western democracies remained neutral. Although the Soviet Union sent equipment and advisers, Hitler and Mussolini backed Franco’s forces with troops,weapons, tanks, and fighter planes. The war forged a closerelationship between the German and Italian dictators, whosigned a formal alliance known as the Rome-Berlin Axis.After a loss of almost 500,000 lives, Franco’s victory in 1939established him as Spain’s fascist dictator. Once again atotalitarian government ruled in Europe. FHISTORICALA French journalistescapes from Spain toFrance with a child herescued from a streetbattle. Fighting wouldsoon engulf not onlyFrance but the rest ofEurope and parts ofAsia.World War Looms533

SS.912.A.6.2Describe the UnitedStates response inthe early years ofWorld War II(Neutrality Acts,Cash and Carry, LendLease Act).FOCUS ONIn 1933 in London,representativesfrom 66 countriesmet to work out aplan for reviving theworld’s economy.They thought that astable world economy would ensurepeace. However,talks broke downand the conferencehad the opposite ofits intended effect asnew trade barrierswent up, leading torising unemployment and politicalinstability.The United States Responds CautiouslyMost Americans were alarmed by the international conflicts of the mid-1930s butbelieved that the United States should not get involved. In 1928, the UnitedStates had signed the Kellogg-Briand Pact. The treaty was signed by 62 countriesand declared that war would not be used “as an instrument of national policy.”Yet it did not include a plan to deal with countries that broke their pledge. ThePact was, therefore, only a small step toward peace.AMERICANS CLING TO ISOLATIONISM In the early 1930s, a flood of booksargued that the United States had been dragged into World War I by greedybankers and arms dealers. Public outrage led to the creation of a congressionalcommittee, chaired by North Dakota Senator Gerald Nye, that held hearings onthese charges. The Nye committee fueled the controversy by documenting thelarge profits that banks and manufacturers made during the war. As the furor grewover these “merchants of death,” Americans became more determined than ever toavoid war. Antiwar feeling was so strong that the Girl Scouts of America changedthe color of its uniforms from khaki to green to appear less militaristic. GAmericans’ growing isolationism eventually had an impact on PresidentRoosevelt’s foreign policy. When he had first taken office in 1933, Roosevelt feltcomfortable reaching out to the world in several ways. He officially recognizedthe Soviet Union in 1933 and agreed to exchange ambassadors with Moscow. Hecontinued the policy of nonintervention in Latin America—begun by PresidentsCoolidge and Hoover—with his Good Neighbor Policy and withdrew armedforces stationed there. In 1934, Roosevelt pushed the Reciprocal Trade AgreementAct through Congress. This act lowered trade barriers by giving the president thepower to make trade agreements with other nations and was aimed at reducingAnalyzingCausesG What factorscontributed toAmericans’growingisolationism?Analyzing“THE ONLY WAY WE CAN SAVE HER”During the late 1930s, Americans watched events inEurope with growing alarm. Dictators were destroyingdemocratic systems of government throughout Europeand dragging the continent into war. These political eventsoverseas divided American public opinion. Some Americansfelt that the United States should help European democracies. However, isolationists—people who believed that theUnited States should not interfere in other nations’ affairs—strictly opposed getting involved in the disputes of“war-mad Europe.”SKILLBUILDERAnalyzing Political Cartoons1. Why is America labeled “The last refuge of democracy”?2. What does the kneeling figure fear will happen toAmerica if Uncle Sam gets involved?3. What U.S. policy does the cartoon support?SEE SKILLBUILDER HANDBOOK, PAGE R24.534CHAPTER 16534 9-12 SFLAESE611846 051601 5343/1/11 4:52:51 PM

tariffs by as much as 50 percent. In an effort to keep the United States out offuture wars, beginning in 1935, Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts. Thefirst two acts outlawed arms sales or loans to nations at war. The third act waspassed in response to the fighting in Spain. This act extended the ban on armssales and loans to nations engaged in civil wars.NEUTRALITY BREAKS DOWN Despite congressional efforts to legislate neutrality, Roosevelt found it impossible to remain neutral. When Japan launched anew attack on China in July 1937, Roosevelt found a way around the NeutralityActs. Because Japan had not formally declared war against China, the presidentclaimed there was no need to enforce the Neutrality Acts. The United States continued sending arms and supplies to China. A few months later, Roosevelt spokeout strongly against isolationism in a speech delivered in Chicago. He called onpeace-loving nations to “quarantine,” or isolate, aggressor nations in order to stopthe spread of war.A PERSONAL VOICE FRANLKIN DELANO ROOSEVELT“ The peace, the freedom, and the security of 90 percent of the population of theworld is being jeopardized by the remaining 10 percent who are threatening abreakdown of all international order and law. Surely the 90 percent who want tolive in peace under law and in accordance with moral standards that havereceived almost universal acceptance through the centuries, can and must findsome way . . . to preserve peace.”—“Quarantine Speech,” October 5, 1937At last Roosevelt seemed ready to take a stand against aggression—that is, untilisolationist newspapers exploded in protest, accusing the president of leading thenation into war. Roosevelt backed off in the face of criticism, but his speech didbegin to shift the debate. For the moment the conflicts remained “over there.”1. TERMS & NAMES For each term or name, write a sentence explaining its significance.sJoseph StalinstotalitariansBenito MussolinisfascismsAdolf HitlersNazismMAIN IDEACRITICAL THINKING2. TAKING NOTESUsing a web diagram like the onebelow, fill it in with the mainambition of each dictator.3. ANALYZING CAUSESHow did the Treaty of Versailles sowthe see

CHAPTER 16 World War Looms 1931–1941 CHAPTER 17 The United States in World War II 1941–1945 CHAPTER 18 Cold War Conflicts 1945–1960 CHAPTER 19 The Postwar Boom 1946–1960 Debate As you read Unit 5, pay attention to arguments on either side of a political issue. Work with a group to stage a debate. Write a proposition, such as “Resolved:

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2 VA History in Brief Table of Contents Chapter Page . 1 Colonial era through the Civil War 3 2 World War I era 7 3 World War I bonus march 9 4 Veterans Administration established, World War II, GI Bill 12 5 Post World War II through the Korean War 15 6 Vietnam War era, Agent Orange 18 7 Post-Vietnam era 22 8 VA becomes a Cabinet-level department; Persian Gulf War 26

“The Art of War” War Photography: World War II & Vietnam War By Rachel Miller, PhD Adaption of a lesson plan by Heather Bettinardi Grade: 6-8, 9-12 Lesson Plan Overview This lesson plan will explore the human side of war through wartime photography. Students will utilize historic photogra

Notes – World War II When World War II began in 1939, there was little enthusiasm, not even a noble slogan about the glory of war. Many saw the war as a continuation of the problems created in World War I. Dissatisfaction with the Versailles Treaty, the War Guilt Clause, the qu

Andrews Walter G. Captain World War I, 1917-1918 Andrykowski Victor NMI Private World War I, 1917-1918 Angell Howard M. Sergeant World War I, 1917-1918 Angelly Henry M. Private World War I, 1917-1918 Angelo Joseph T. Private First Class World War I, 1917-1918 Angier Albert E. First Lieutenant World War I, 1917-1918

The Korean War Student Objectives 1. Observe the ways Communism expanded in Asia and set the stage for the Korean War. . Nicknames of the Korean War: 1. Americans Forgotten War 2. A Police Action. The Korean War Causes: 1. China's Civil War - Nationalists vs. Mao Zedong and the Communists 2. Japan's loss of territory - After World War II .

Pre-war Crises Immediate Cause Course of the War Results of the War World War I Pre-war Crises International Crises (1905-1913) Early in the twentieth century, the European powers had formed themselves into two rival groups: the TRIPLE ENTENTE versus the TRIPLE ALLIANCE. The policies of these groups began to clash in many parts of the world.

Classical Theory and Modern Bureaucracy by Edward C. Page Classical theories of bureaucracy, of which that of Max Weber is the most impressive example, seem to be out of kilter with contemporary accounts of change within the civil service in particular and modern politico-administrative systems more generally. Hierarchy and rule-bound behaviour seem hard to square with an environment .