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DOCUMFNT RESUMESP 007 129ED 048 215TITLEDietary Supervisors. Senior Division. CurriculumINSTITUITCNCntario Dept. of Education, Toronto.NOTE76p.EDRS PhICHDESCRIPTORSEDES Price AF- 0.65 HC- 3.29*Curriculum Guides, *Dietetics, *Grade 11, *Grade12, *Home FC0h0MiCSRP-2.ABSTRACTGRADES OR AGES: Grades 11 and 12. SUBJECT MATTER:Dietetics and home economics. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE:The guide is divided into two parts. The first part outlines a 2-yearcourse in dietetics, wnich is divided into ten units. The second partoutlines a 1-year, grade 11 course in home economics which is dividedinto two sections, each of which is then divided into several units.All units are in list form. The guide is xeT:oxed and staple -houndwith a paper cover. OBJECTIVES AND ACTIVITIES; Several objectives arelisted at the beginning of each unit. No specitic activities arementioned; each unit contains detailed lists of topics to be covered.Suggestions are made for timing of units. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS:each unit and some subunits contain lists of related teacher andstudent references and films. STUDENT ASSESSMENT: No mention. (ET)


CONTENTSPageIntroduction1Diet Therapy3Equipment7Food Preparation, Production and Service11Food Purchasing26Hygiene and Sanitation29Menu36PlanningNutrition39Records Pertaining to Cost Control43Safety45Supervision482

1--FART 1DIETARY SUBJECTSINTRODUCTIONDefinition of a Dietary SupervisorA dietary supervisor is defined as a person employed in a food servicedepartment of a hospital or other institution, who has been trained inroutine supervisory work and in the record keeping of the department.When a registered professional dietitian is employed, the dietary supervisor works under the direction of the professional dietitian.Allotment of Total School Time(i)(ii)(iii)Half time of academic subjectsQuarter time of dietary subjects taught in the classroomQuarter time to contact training in the dietary department of aninstitution which employs a registered professional dietitianAllotment of Time to Dietary Sub'ects and OrganizationThe allotment of classroom teaching time to each of the ten dietary topicsin Grades 11 and 12, and the sequence of subject matter will be influencedby the program for contact training which should be developed jointly bythe teacher and the director of the dietary department of the cooperatinginstitution.In this planning, the need to correlate the learning ofbasic principles in the classroom with concurrent application in theinstitution is emphasized. Consequently, in the following outline, thesubjects are arranged in alphabetical order, and no attempt has beenmade to prescribe the sequence of subject matter through the two years.On page 2 is a suggested allotment of classroom periods for theten dietary topics to be taught in the two-year period.3

-2SubjectPeriodsGrade 11NutritionGrade 1246Food Preparation Production and ServiceTheoryLaboratory work32192Hygiene and 64Menu Planning16Diet Therapy64Records Pertaining to Cost Control16Food Purchasing32RecordsRecords should be kept of the time used in teaching each of thedietary subjects over the full two years.Records, in considerable detail, of the nature of the pupil'swork experience during contact training should be kept and arrangementsshould be made to ensure that, before the completion of Grade 12, eachpupil has had adequate practical experience to develop competence in allphases of dietary work within the scope of the dietary supervisor.4

- 3DIET THERAPYAims:To establish the relationship of the normal diet to the therapeuticdietTo develop understanding of the role of therapeutic nutrition intctal patient careTo develop some understanding of the technical aspects of therapeuticdiets in common use, together with an understanding of the associateddiseases and conditionsTo appreciate the importance of treating the individual needs of eachpatient1.2.INTRODUCTION(a)Definitions:(b)Brief history of dietetics(c)Purposes of therapeutic nutrition(i)General:to establish and/or maintain adequate nutritionalstatus(ii)Specific, such as:to rest the whole body or the affectedorgan,e.g. restricted protein intake innephritis; to adjust to the body'sability to metabolize or assimilate thenutrients,e.g. diabetic diets in diabetes;to increase or decrease body weight; toovercome deficiencies,e.g. gluten-freediets in coeliac disease(d)Role of diet therapy in total patient care(i)Consideration of the diet as a vital part of treatment(ii) Diet counselling of the patientMODIFICATIONS OF THE NORMAL DIET IN THERAPEUTIC NUTRITION(a)(b)(c)(d)(e)(f)3.dietetics, diet therapyCaloric intakeNutrient contentConsistency and textureBulkInclusion or exclusion of specific foodsPattern and frequency of mealsSTANDARD HOSPITAL DIETS(a)Full diet(i)Based on Canada's Food Guide(it)Outline of daily food allowance(iii) Additions for increased protein and/or caloric intaket1

- 4(b)Clear Fluid(i)Purpose(ii)Indication for use(iii) General description:consistency of diet, feeding pattern(iv) List of foods allowed and not n for useGeneral description: consistency of diet, feeding patternList of foods allowed and not allowedScft(i)(ii)(iii)PurposeIndications for use such as:General description:medical, surgical or dentalconditions which indicate thistype of dietmodification from full diet, types offood(iv)4.Lists of food allowed and not allowedTHERAPEUTIC DIETS(a)Definition(b)Diets to be included:Gastric 1, 2 and 3Modified GastricPost GastrectamyRestricted ResidueRestricted Sodium - 250, 400, 1000 mg. and 3-5 gm.Restricted Calorie Diets800, 1000, 1200, 1500 CalorieExchange Lists for Use with Restricted CalorieDietsRestricted Protein Diets - 20 and 40 gm.Restricted Purine DietGluten-Free DietAltered Fat DietsDiabetic Diets - including review of exchangelistsAcute Nephritic Diets for Children(c)NOTE:Other therapeutic diets which may be included if time permits:Dietary routine for treatment of phenylketonuriaAllergy and Elimination dietsRestricted copper diet for treatment of Wilson'sdiseaseModified Calcium dietSUGGESTED METHOD OF APPROACH TO EACH DIET IN (b) AND (c) ABOVEPurposeDescriptive statement of the purpose of the dietIndications for useList of medical or surgical conditions indicating the needfor modified diet

-5-Brief description of these conditions, illustrating thereasons for various dietary modificationsGeneral DescriptionCharacteristics of the diet, including quantity, consistency,chemical composition, texture, methods of preparation, calorieand nutrient contentTypes of Food Allowed and Not AllowedLists of specific foods relating the foods allowed and notallowed to characteristics of the dietMenu PatternTotal daily food allowanceOutline of daily meals, including variations in meal patternCheck of nutritive valueMethods of preparation and serviceWays and means to make restricted diets more appetizing5.(d)Calculation of dietsInterpretation of physician's orders(i)Explanation of exchange system(ii)Calculation of diets for specified calorie, protein,(iii)fat, carbohydrate or sodium content(e)Feedings(i)Blender(ii)DuodenalOther special feedings for particular conditions(iii)(f)Test Meals(i)Gallbladder test mealVNA test(ii)(iii)Fishber3 testGlucose tolerance test(iv)TEACHING THE PATIENT(a)Pu '-pose of diet(b)Pertinent facts necessary for following dietary prescriptionduring hospitalization and at time of dischargeAdaption of therapeutic diet to patient's way of life;economic, religious, ethnic6.(d)Problems which patients on therapcutic diets encounter(e)Follow-up instructionTHERAPEUTIC DIET MENU PLANNING(a)Relationship to regular menu(b)Method of planning

Resources(a)BooksBowes, Church and Church, Food Values of Portions CommonlyUsed, McClelland and StewartCanadian Diabetic Association, Manual for Diabetics in Canada,Canadian Diaoetic Association, 477 Mount PleasantRoad, Toronto 7Canadian Diabetic Association, Meal Planning for Diabetics,Canadian Diabetic Association, 477 Mount PleasantRoad, Totonto 7Department of National Health and Welfare, Table of FoodValues Recommended for Use in Canada, Departmentof Public Printing and Stationary, OttawaHowe, Nutrition for Practical Nurses,& Co. Ltd.(W.B. Saunders), McAinshKrause, M.V., Food, Nutrition and Diet Therapy, (W.B. Saunders),McAinsh & Co. Ltd.Ontario Dietetic Association, Cookbook for Diabetics, OntarioDietetic Association, Box 313, Postal Station K,Toronto 12Ontario Dietetic Association and Ontario Hospital Association,Diet Manual, Ontario Hospital Association,24 Ferrand Drive, Don Mills, OntarioPayne and Callahan, The Low Sodium - Fat Controlled Cookbook,Little, Brown and Co. (Canada) Ltd.Stead and Warren, Low Fat Cookery, McGraw-Hill Co. of Canada Ltd.Itead and Warren, Sodium Restricted Diets - The RationaleComplication and Practical Aspects of Their Use,National Research Council, Washington, D.C.Wohl and Goodhart, Modern Nutrition in Health and Disease,Macmillan Company of CanadaWohl and Goodhart, The Role of Dietary Fat in Human Health,National Research Council, Publication #575,Washington, D.C.(b)FilmsOntario Department of Health, Okesity, Ontario Department ofHealth, Information and Publicity Branch,Room 5424, East Block, Parliament Buildings,Toronto 58

-7-Canadian Film Institute, Weight Reduction Through Diet, CanadianFilm Institute, 1762 Carling Avenue, OttawaEQUIPMENTAim;1.To develop understanding of the efficient and safe use of heavyduty food service equipmentTYPES OF EQUIPMENT, USE AND OPERATION(a)Mechanical, such as:dish washers(b)Cooking, such as:ranges, ovens, broilers, grills, steam jacketedkettles, compartment steamers, d ep fat fryers(c)Food holding, such as:milk dispensers(d)Refrig.!rators and freezers, such as:walk-ins, reach-ins,mobile, pass throughs; temperature and humidity controls(e)Auxiliary, such as:peelers, slicers, mixers, choppers,hot an. zeld counters, coffee urnstexhaust hoods, shelves, cabinets, sinks tables(f)Transportation and mobile, such astrucks, dollies, heatedfood trucks, hot and cold tray trucks, vertical and horizontalconveyors, elevators(g)Utensils and tableware, such asknives, ladles, spoons, trays,flatware, dishes, glassware, disposablesBibliographyWest B. B. and Wood L., Food Service in Institutions, (JohnWiley and Sons Incorporated) General PublishingCo, Ltd., 34 Le .mill Road, Don Mills, Ontario.Kotschevar and Terrell, Food Service Planning, (John WileyAnd Sons Incorporated) General PublishingCo. Ltd.2.MAINTENANCE OF EQUIPMENT(a)Equipment manual(0 The need(ii)(iii)The useThe importance of safe accessible filing9

- 8(b)Preventive maintenance(i) Advantages of a preventive maintenance program(ii)Departmental responsibility for such a program(iii)General requirements for maintenince of electrical,steam and gas equipment; stationary and mobile equi;ement(iv)Use of check list(v)Importance of a permanent record(c)Equipment repair(i)Responsibility of dietary department to watch for andreport deficiencies(ii)Need and procedure for requisitions(iii) Cost of repair:time and materials(iv)Follow up of requisitions(v)Permanent service record cardsBibliographyWest, B.B. and Wood, L., Food Service in Institutions, (JohnWiley and Sons) General Publishing Co. Ltd.Kotschevar and Terrell, Food Service Planm.na, (John Wiley andSons) General Publishing Cu. Ltd.3.SANITATION(a)Equipment design(i)The National Sanitation Foundation - what it is andhow it works(ii) Design factors affecting equipment sanitation such asmaterial and finish, runners for drawers and slidingdoors, drains, ease of dismantlini4 rounded corners andwelded joints(b)Regularity of cleaning equipment(i)Use of cleaning schedule(ii)Recomnendee frequency of cleaning equipment su;:h as:refrigerators, tray trucks, cooking units, mixers(c)Cleaning methods for some types of equipment such as electrical,cooking, refrigerated(d)Instal:Ation of equipment for good sanitation(i)Sealed units(ii)Height above floor(iii) Distance from wall(iv) Wall or ceiling suspensionMobility(v)Bibliograph!National Sanitation Foundation Code -(Michigan State University)Kotschevar and Terrell, Food Service Planw:.ng: Layout andEquipment, (John Wiley and Sons) GeneralPublishing Co. Ltd.Clawsol, A., Equipment Maintenance Manual, (Ahrens Book Company)reneral Publishing Co. Ltd. (Presently out ofprint, but available from sxte libraries)n.

- 94.SAFETYEquipment design(1)Rolled edges(ii)Location of control units such as valves, handles, fuses,switches, timers(iii)Steam control(iv)Guards on machinery such as slicers, choppers, saws, motorsRelease device on walk-in refrigerator doors(v)(vi)Special filters, light protectors and fire extinguishersin ventilating hood5.SELECTION OF EQUIPMENT(a)Factors determining need(i)Menu(ii)Maximym number served(iii)Labour saving value(iv)Use of convenience foods(v)Improved sanitation(vi)Improved fooj quality(b)Kinds available(i)Standard(ii)Custom(c)Construction principles(i)Type of material, gauge and design(ii)Durability(iii)Factors discussed under sanitation and LOCATION OF EQUIPMENT(a)Flow of processing in logical sequence(i)From receiving to service(ii)From service to cleaning(iii)Separation of clean and soiled production, service, andsanitizing areas(b)Work centres:(c)Work comfort:(i)Aisle space(ii)Loading and unloading space(iii)Correct working heights(d)Labour control(i)Drop deliveryStep saving(ii)(iii)Single unit preparation and storage(iv)Single unit cooking and servingreceiving, storage, preparation, production,service, sanitizing11

- 10 -7.ACQUISITION OF EQUIPMENT(a)Specifications(i)By manufacturers' specificetion9e. g. manufacturer,model number, capacity(ii)By complete, detailed specifications for custom-built,:quipment(b)Methods of acquiring and financing(i)Ownership; amortization of purchase price throughsaving 41 wages, cost of repairs and depreciation(ii)Leasing; annual rental basis which includes servicecharges for preventive maintenance and repairs,e. g.vending machines(iii)Lend-lease, such as:detergent dispensing equipment,ice cream cabinets(iv)Rental with option to purchase, when the money paidfor rental is applied against the purchase priceBibliographyBarnes, Motion ad Time Study, (Wiley and Sons) GeneralPublishing Co. Ltd.Dukas & Lundberg, How to Operate a Restaurant,General. Publishing Co. Ltd.(Ahrens Book Co.)Fairbrook, Starting and Managing a Small Restaurant, SmallBusiness Administration, Weshington, D. C.George, N. L. & Heckler, Ruth D., School Food Centres, (The RonaldPress Co.) General Publishing Co. Ltd.State Education Department, Bureau of F:eld Financial Service,School Business Management . -Iandbook #5 Purchaseand Stores. The University of the State of NewYork, State Education Deportment, Albany, New YorkVocational Bulletin, Food Service Industry Training Prooramand Facilities U. S. Department of HealthEducation and WelfareVocational Bulletin, Training for Quantity Food Preparation,U. S. Department of Health Education and WelfareWatson, Specifications Writing for Architects & Engineers,McGraw-Hill Co. of Canada Ltd.Winco Ltd., General Manual, Winco Ltd., Toronto12

FOOD PREPARATION, PRODUCTION AND SERVICEAims:To broaden and deepen the understanding of principles of foodpreparation and service and .heir applicqtionTo recognize standards of excellence in food with respect toappearance, flavour, texture, and temperatureTo develop standards of excellence in work habits and in selectionand use of equipment1.2.pANT1TY FOOD PRODUCTION(a)A planned tour of an established quantity food productionarea,e.g. school cafeteria or local institute to introduce:quantity food productioh differences between quantity andfamily food productionspecial quantity equipmentholding methods for hot and cold foodstypical serving methodsquality control of foodsassembly-line work methods, e.g. sandwich makingstorage facilities(b)Glossary of terms in common use(c)Measurements:(d)Large quantity recipesaccuracy, abbreviations, equivalentsBEVERAGESCoffee -Sources, kinds, cost, extenders, e.g. chicorySubstances contained and their effectsCare and storageEssentials for good brew (pre-measured)Types of coffee makers and their proper useVariations - iced, semi-tasse, cafe au lait, instant,decaffienated, vended- Taste panelTea-Sources, kinds, grades, costSubstances contained and their effectsPremeasured and looseCare and storagePreparationEssentials for good teaVariations - iced, instantTaste panelMilk &Crelm - Pasteurization- Homogenization13

12-- Fotms, fresh fluid, canned and powdered, malted- Types of cream (whipping, coffee, cereal) powdered,non-dairy products- Types of fresh milk:jersey, cream top, homo, 27, skim,buttermilk, chocolate drink, multi-milk- Composition and nutritive value- Taste panel- Packaging and cost- Sanitary care and storage- Serving methods- Milk shakes- Eggnogs- Milk cookeryCocoa andChocolate -Sources, typesDifferences between cocoa and chocolate, substitutionComposition and nutritive valueSelection and buyingCare and storageTheory related to usePreparation of hot and cold beverage - garnishesPreparation of chocolate syrupUse of commercial hot chocolate powdersFruit Juices andDrinks- Types a) juices (fresh, frozen, canned, nectars)b) drinks (concentrates, canned)- Nutritive value and cost- Care and storage- Preparation- Serving methods- Fruit punch combinations3. SANDWICHESVarieties of bread; relative food values; enrichmentTypes of sandwichesTypes of fillingsStandards for bread, butter, fillings, sandwichesSuitable equipmentTechniques of production for efficiencyStorage of ingredients and sandwichesSuitable garnishes and accompanimentsServing4. TRAY SERVICERequirements,e.g. attractive, complete, simple, sanitary, proper temperatureStorage of all items involvedAssembly area stressing efficiencyMethods of maintaining food temperaturesDelivery and return of tray mealsSanitationEquipmentte.g. trays, china, silver, teapots, plate covers, etc.

- 135. VEGETABLESFresh or pre-preparedClassificationNutritive valueSelection and buyingCare and storagePreparation - Cleaning- Trimming and paring- Proper equipment,e.g. electric slicer, vegetablepeeling machine etc.- Set up of work area for efficiency- Efficiency of motions and time- Storage, e.g. method, nutritive effects, spacerequired, etc.Cook.ng-ReasonsEffects on flavours, colours, nutritive valueBakingSteamingPressure cookingBoilingPanningSeasoningStuffed and glazed vegetablesUse of left-over vegetablesCanned vegetables - Nutritive value- Guides to buying- Preparation- Use of juiceFrozen vegetables DehydratedvegetablesNutritive valueMethods of freezingChanges in colour, texture, flavourStoragePreparation- Nutritive value- Storage- Preparation6. FATS AND OILS(a)List of common fats and oils(b)Properties of fats -GeneralInstability (factors toward rancidity)Melting temperaturesSmoking temperatures15

- 14-(c)Composition andnutritive value-(d)Guides to buying -(e)ManufactureEnergyVitaminsEssential fatty acidsDigestibilityUse in the dietLabelsInspection stampGrade markBrand nameIntended useMarket costNutritive valueFactors determining amounts to buy- Butter- Margarine- Lard: steam-rendered, kettle-rendered,dry-rendered hydrogenated, deodorized, neutral,drip-rendered- Compounds- Hydrogenated shortenings- Oils7. FRUITSCharacteristics and classificationComposition and nutritive valueChanges during ripening,e.g., starch, texture, acidArtificial ripening,e.g. ethyleneDigestibility and place in dietSelection and buying: varieties, sizes, grades, costsCare and storageEffects of cooking fruit on enzymes, cellulose, starch and bacteriaMethods of cooking fruit:stewing, as sauce, baking, canning, jamand jelly making, frying, broilingCanned fruit: changes due to canning; kinds and grades, juices andnectars; nutritive valueService of raw fruit as a dessert or snackPreparation of fruits: fruit cup; sectioning oranges, cutting grapefruitSpecial problems: discolouration, softeningDried fruits: method of drying, composition and nutritive value,selection and buying, preparation and cooking, special usesFrozen fruits: kinds, cost, processing, storage, useFruits as accompaniments8. SALADSDefinition of type and list of suitable ingredientsAccompaniment, salads and salad platesNutritive value, purchase and characteristics of each salad ingredientff

- 15Care and storage-reparationEfficient assemblingGeneral riles for saladsSpecific rules fcr arranging salad platesGarnish lists for different types of saladAccompanimentsCost comparison with other luncheon or supper dishesSalad DressingsGeneral ingredients and their purposesClassificationFrench dressing: method, proportions, variations, usesmethod, proportions, variations, usesMayonnaise:method, proportion, variations, usesCooked salad dressing:Other dressings9. PUDDINGS AND DESSERT SAUCES(a)Puddings(i)(ii)(iii)(iv)(v)StarchKinds of starch, e.g. corn, wheat, maize(regular, instant), potato, riceGluten-freeTheory of starch cookeryProportions used of starch to liquidEssentials of a good productVariations of blanc mange pudding; chocolatebutterscotch, caramel, fruit souffleTaste panels: compare with commercial productson the marketTapioca, SagoSourceForms found on marketPreparationEssentials of a good productVariations:custard, fruit, cream, chocolateRiceVarietiesMillingMethods of cooking; taste panelcreamy rice, old-fashioned rice,Variations;baked rice, Hawaiian riceEgg1. As thickening agent- kinds of custard; soft (thin and thick), baked- basic proportions- methods of preparation- variations: Floating Island, trifle, bakedrice custard, bread and butter, Queen's2. As leavening agent- souffles, whipsRennittSourcesComposition and theory of its action:precautions

- lb-(vi)(vii)(viii)Forms availablePreparation of rennet dessertVariations: almond, caramel, chocolate,maple, vanillaGelatine and jelly powdersSourcesComposition and nutritive value of eachSelection and buyingUses in food preparation: proportionTexture of gelatine mixtures.taste panelPlain jellies: compare with commercial products;addition of fruit; mouldssnows and sponges; spanish andVariations:bavarian creams; charlotte russe; fillings forchiffon pies; cheese cakeInclude whipping of cream (35%); use ofevaporated and powdered milks in place ofwhipped cream; suitable conditions necessaryDietetic jelly powders, e.g. sugar - free and lowsodiumSteamed PuddingsCombination of ingredientsCooking methodsEssentials of good productVariations, e.g. batter, carrot, chocolate, fruit,orange, marmalade, plum, suetIce cream; sherbets, ice milk, specialty itemsStorage - temperature, arrangement; safe handling;servingNutritive valuesCostQualityStandards (over-run)(b)Dessert SaucesCorrect combining of ingredientsEssentials of a good productCareStorageCostSauces: butterscotch, brown sugar, chocolate, chocolatefudge, custard, fruit, hard,marshmallow, vanillaToppings; whipping cream, evaporated milk, powdered milk,commercial products(c)Commercial Mixes and SaucesSurvey of types in useStandardsFree from pathogenic organismsEvaluation of use, cost, flavour (see "Trends in food products ")Taste panellR

- 17 -10. SOUPS AND SAUCES(a)SoupsTypes: without meat stock, e.g. cream, thickened withoutmilk, chowdersWith meat stock, e.g. thick stock soup, cleared stock soupWhere used in mealsDefine: vegetable stock, puree, binding soupsClarifying stockCharacteristics of a good soupStorage of stockCare of stock potUse of left-over vegetables in soupSuitable garnishes for soupSoup accompanimentsComparison of price and quality with canned soups, soup bases;taste panelComparison of frozen, condensed, ready-to-serve, canned,dried mix, soup bases(b)Sauces for Meat, fish, vegetablesBasic proportions for one cup of sauce; thin, medium, thick,very thickCombining of ingredients by five methods; melted fat, creamedfat, cold liquid, roux, creamSaLce mixStorage of sauceReheating of sauce; safe food handling, storage and reheatingVariations of sauce,e.g. B6chamel, brown gravy, cheese, curry,egg, mornay, mushroom, mustard, parsley, raisin, shrimp,Spanish, tomatoOther seuces,e.g. barbecue, creamy horseradish, creole,cucumber, Hollandaise, lemon butter, mint, sweet and sour,tartar11. CEREALS AND CEREAL FOODSSource and world consumptionComposition and maritive valueUses of different cereals: wheat, corn, rye, oats, rice, barley,other cerealsParts of the grain: bran, endosperm, germ(a)ready-to-cook, instant, ready-to-eatCer2a1 breakfast foods:Selection and buying: comparative costCare and storageCooking breakfast cereal: general proportions for cookingwhole grain and starchy cerealsServing of cereals(b)RiceVarietiesMillingMethods of cooking:taste panel19

- 18-(c)Macaroni and pasta productsComposition and nutritive valueVarieties of product: macaroni, spaghetti, vermicelli,noodlesMethod of cookingStandard of productHolding techniques(d)Beans and LegumesVarieties:navy, lima, kidney, chili, soy, lentils, peasComposition and nutritive valueDigestibilityEconomy and use in dietSelection and carePreparation and cookery12. LUNCHEON AND SUPPER CASSEROLESCombination of suitable foods and saucesUse of leftoversUse of spices and herbsVariety of toppingsProper use of equipment,e.g. meat grinderProper cooking methodsFreezing of ingredients for these dishesSafe food handling stressed here,e.g. leftover meats, vegetables,saucesVariations:scalloped dishes; casseroles with macaroni, spaghetti ornoodles; a la Kings; casseroles with rice; casseroles with beans13. BAKERY PRODUCTS(a)GeneralAccurate measurementsEquivalents in substitutingDefinition of mixing, cooking and baking techniquesTypes of flour and their recognitionClassification of flour mixturesBasic proportions for types of flour mixtures,e.g. muffins,tea biscuits, cake, pastryLeavening agents:rules governing substitutionChoice of ingredients in Flour mixturesFats and oilsFlavouringsEssentials of good productsRecognition of the completion of baking period(b)Yeast leavened breadsNutritive value of breadFacts to consider in bread-makingBasic methods: batter, sponge, refrigerator, straight doughBasic steps in bread makingFoundation recipe for bread, rolls, sweet dough90

-19 -Variations: white, whole wheat, fruit breads; rolls, e.g.Parker House, cloverleaf, fan tans, quick pan, crescents;sweet doughs, e.g. cinnamon rolls, pecan rolls, SwedishTea Ring, doughnutsCare of bakingSpecial equipment:proofing cupboard or room; dough hook;pans(c)Quick Breads(i)Basic batters and variations, e.g. pop-overs, YorkshirePudding, timbales and cover batters, egg pancakes,cream puffs, griddle cakes, waffles, muffins, dropfritters and dumplings, plain cake, gingerbread,doughnutsExperimental baking of pop-overs by different methods(ii)Basic doughs and variations, e.g. drop biscuits anddumplings, scones, shortcake and dessert , hot water, refrigerator, sweet puff,Experimental preparation of pastry to show effect of variousingredients and methodsOne crust pies: cream, custard, chiffon, e.g. souffle andgelatine, Dutch fruitTwo crust pies:fruit, pies with cooked filling, chiffon,custardEither one or two crust pies:cobblers, deep dish fruit,meat, tartsOther uses; pastry cases, dumplings, cheese strawsEssentials of a good productComparison of commercial pastries:taste panelComparison of cost and product with frozen pieson the market, ready-to-bake, and ready-to-serveVariations of crumb crusts(e)Cakes(i)(ii)Containing fatMethods of combining: muffin, modified muffin,conventional; new speed method and variationVariations,e.g. standard butter, spice, orange,banana, mocha, chocolate, marble, cup cakesExperimental preparation of identical ingredientsby three methodsChiffon; (special manipulation of ingredients);orange, lemon, spice, cocoa, cherry, banana,Maple WalnutFruit: pound, Madeira, light and dark fruit, weddingCommon faults, their causes and correctionContaining no fatSponge,e.g. true, hot milk, jelly roll, lady fingers,chocolate roll, sunshine

- 20-Angel:special manipulation of ingredientsMeringues:shells, torteCommon faults, their cause and correctionWO Comparative study of commercial mixes(iv)(f)Fillings and frostings1.Fillingsthici ened, cooked cream fillings with variations,e.g. cocoanut, chocolate, orange, lemon:fruit,e.g.strawberry, pineapple, date, whipped cream,e.g.chocolate, mocha, marshmallow2.Frostingsuncroked,e.g. basic butter:Frendh chocolate, coffee,cocoanut, mocha, orange, almond: chocolate, cheesecooked,e.g. seven-minute and boilee, chocolatemarshmallow, peppermint, lemon, caramel, fondantglazes:for fruit cakes and tartsCookies avid SquaresTypes:(i)(ii)(iii)drop cookies: test cookie; placing on baking sheet;removal to cake rack to cool; correct storage; specialtype,e.g. fruit meringues and macarooa3rolled cookies:chilling of dough before rolling; use)f bread flour on board when rollingrefrigerator: consistency of dough; wrapping ofdough; correct refrigeration methods; slicing ofrookies(iv).fariaticns, e.g. sugar, ginger, almond, caraway,orange, butterscotch, chocolate, mint :hocolate,date pinwheelsodmparisvn with frozen products on the marketnoulded imd pressed:consistency of dough for:.haping in hands or co

Restricted Calorie Diets. 800, 1000, 1200, 1500 Calorie Exchange Lists for Use with Restricted Calorie Diets Restricted Protein Diets - 20 and 40 gm. Restricted Purine Diet Gluten-Free Diet Altered Fat Diets Diabetic Diets - including review of exchange. lists Acute Nephritic Diets for Children

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