Curriculum Level 2 Unit Plan - Sunsmart Schools

4m ago
7.91 MB
98 Pages
Last View : 14d ago
Last Download : n/a
Upload by : Bennett Almond

SunSmart Factand FictionSunSmart ScientistsLearning from and about the natural worldCurriculum Level 2 Unit Plan

IntroductionSunSmart Schools AotearoaSunSmart Schools Aotearoa is a programme run by the Cancer Societyof New Zealand.The Cancer Society supports workplaces, early childhood centres andprimary,intermediate and secondary schools to be SunSmart.There are both risks and benefits from Sun exposure. In New Zealand oursunlight is very harsh as it contains high levels of UV rays. Skin cancers are themost common form of cancers in New Zealand. From an early age our childrenneed to have the knowledge and behaviours that will protect them from theharmful rays of the Sun. The Cancer Society encourages all New Zealanders tobe SunSmart and to 'slip, slop, slap and wrap'.The SunSmart Schools ProgrammeThe Cancer Society SunSmart programme in schools supports the findings of the Community Preventive ServicesTask Force.1 The Task Force recommends that primary- and middle-school interventions are put in place toprevent skin cancer, based on strong evidence of their effectiveness in increasing Sun-protective behaviours anddecreasing ultraviolet exposure, sunburn incidence,and formation of new moles.The SunSmart schools programme provides:***12website information for teachers,students and parents on how to beSunSmartCancer Society-approved guidelines onhow to make your school a safe place forstudents and the school communityhighly engaging resources for students,parents, teachers and le-School.pdf

SunSmart Teaching ResourcesThese four cross-curricular SunSmart teaching resources address why we need to be SunSmart, how we can beSunSmart, and how science and scientific knowledge can inform and underpin the SunSmart choices we make.The units cover the New Zealand Curriculum Levels 1–4 and aim to:a.enhance youth numeracy and literacy development and provide assessment tasks to assess theNational Standardsb.embed key science concepts and experiences in relation to the Sun, energy and the principles of SunSmart and the New Zealand Curriculumd.use different examples/contexts to ensure appropriateness to different ethnic groups(particularly Māori, Pāsifika and Southeast Asian)e.use Te Reo Māori concepts and language that will be woven into the resourcef.take an inquiry-based learning approachg.utilise the SunSmart Schools Website –, and

Level 2 Unit OverviewOverview Planning ToolThe overview diagram explains how the lessons for Level 2 have been organised to scaffold the teaching andlearning experiences. The overview document can also be used as a planning document for teachers.By using the Comment tool on your Adobe Acrobat tool bar, you can make notes on your students’ progress ornext steps. You will find an example of how the overview can be used for planning purposes over the page.Science ExplorationsThese units include a number of science explorations that can be adapted/differentiated to suit learningexperiences and outcomes at any other level.Overleaf is an overview of the unit that shows the links between the curriculum,assessments, teaching and learning approaches, key concepts and ideas.KeyFront loading through different sources of informationFront loading through hands-on experiencesCHealthLiteracy4Synthesis: Developing new understandings and knowledge throughinquiryScienceScience ExperienceMathematics Mathematics Geometry and Measurement Number and AlgebraCurriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and FictionTechnologyMathematics Statistics

Sun is the major source of energyEnergy makes things happenEnergy changes thingsThe Nature of SciencePlanet Earth & BeyondLiving WorldPlant Earth and BeyondPhysical WorldThe amount of sunlight determines the type of animal and plant lifeLesson1–2HauoraLesson3–6Living thingsadapt totheir habitatLesson 3-6Compare and contrast different parts ofthe world, e.g., desert and Iceland, Ocean(top level and deep sea) and investigate thedifferent plants and animals and the ways theyhave adapted to the environment.Lesson 3-6Investigate the ways humans have adapted to living in differenthabitats e.g., dark, medium, light skin colour.Humanshave Sunstoriesbecause theSun is soimportant tous.Lesson7-8Chinese Ten SunsHawaiian KapuLesson7-8Maui &the SunLesson7-8IcarusFacts and fiction about the Sun and skinLesson7-10What have we learnt about the Sun and humans?Why is the Sun so important in our lives? Lesson7-10Why do we respect the Sun’s energy?Material WorldLesson 11 - We are investigatingthe effect that sunlight has on- black paper- green plantsLesson 12 - We are investigatinghow quickly sunlight can heatwater in different colouredcontainersLesson 13 - We are investigatingwhether different colours affecthow quickly heat from the Sunmelts iceLesson 14 - We are investigatinghow the Sun makes shadowsLesson 15 - We are investigatinghow the Sun can help us totell the time. We will make asundial using a paper plateLesson 16-20Inquiry using:What we have learnt from myths and legends about the power of the Sun.What have we learnt from our science experiences about the energy the Sun provides.Essential Question:What can we do to protect our heads and faces from the Sun?Design survey around sunhats and the materials they are made from.Analyse ResultsPlan ActionEvaluate OutcomeShare Information and ConclusionsCurriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and Fiction5

Links to the New Zealand CurriculumPurpose: To investigate the facts and fictions about the Sun and how humanscan protect themselves from the Sun.Curriculum Level 2Curriculum Areas IncorporatedAchievement ObjectivesRelevant to the activity, includingpossible linksSpecific Learning OutcomesStudents will be able toHealth andPhysicalEducationSafety ManagementIdentify risks and use safe practices ina range of contexts. Health 6understand that skin is thelargest organ in our bodyrecognise that our skinprotects our internal organsfrom chemicals, infections,cuts, sunlight and water.identify ways that we canlimit the damage the Suncan do to our skin.Healthy Communities andEnvironmentsSocietal attitudes and valuesExplore how health care and physicalactivity practices are influenced bycommunity and environmental factors. consider the ways in whichthe school community cancontrol the Sun’s harmfuleffects on our skin.Community ResourceIdentify and discuss obvious hazardsin their home, school, and localenvironment and adopt simple safetypractices. identify and discuss theneed for Sun protection athome, school and in thelocal environment. Identifyand utilise simple SunSmartpractices so as to create aSun-safe environment athome, school and in thelocal environment.

ScienceScientists investigate and use observation to ask questions about TheLiving World, Planet Earth and Beyond, Physical World and MaterialWorld.Nature of ScienceAchievement ObjectivesLevels 1 & 2Living WorldAchievement ObjectivesLevels 1 & 2Understanding inScienceInvestigating inScienceCommunicating inScienceParticipating andContributingAppreciatethat scientistsask questionsabout our worldthat lead toinvestigationsand that openmindedness isimportant becausethere may bemore than oneexplanation.Extend theirexperiencesand personalexplanationsof the naturalworld throughexploration, play,asking questions,and discussingsimple models.Build theirlanguage anddevelop theirunderstandings ofthe many ways thenatural world canbe represented.Explore and acton issues andquestions thatlink their sciencelearning to theirdaily living.Life ProcessesRecognise that all living things have certain requirements so they can stay alive.EcologyRecognise that living things are suited to their particular habitat.Planet Earth and beyondAchievement ObjectivesLevels 1 & 2Astronomical SystemsShare ideas and observations about the Sun and the Moon and their physicaleffects on the heat and light available to Earth.Physical WorldAchievement ObjectivesLevels 1 & 2Physical Inquiry and Physics ConceptsExplore everyday examples of physical phenomena, such as movement, forces,electricity and magnetism, light, sound waves, and heat.Material WorldAchievement ObjectivesLevels 1 & 2Properties and Changes of MatterObserve, describe, and compare physical and chemical properties of commonmaterials and changes that occur when materials are mixed, heated, or cooled.7

8Curriculum Areas IncorporatedAchievement ObjectivesRelevant to the activity, includingpossible linksSpecific Learning OutcomesStudents will be able toEnglishListening, Reading and ViewingProcesses and StrategiesSelect and use sources of information,processes, and strategies with someconfidence to identify, form andexpress ideas. integrates sources of informationand prior knowledge withdeveloping confidence to makesense of increasingly varied andcomplex texts.IdeasShow some understanding of ideaswithin, across, and beyond texts. demonstrate an abilityto listen, gather, read,understand and effectivelyuse information to expressideas or draw conclusions.Speaking, Writing, and PresentingProcesses and strategiesSelect and use sources of information,processes, and strategies withdeveloping confidence to identify,form and express ideas. show some understanding of theconnections between oral, writtenand visual language when creatingtexts creates texts by using meaning,structure, visual and graphophonicsources of information, andprocessing strategies with growingconfidence seeks feedback and makeschanges to texts to improve clarityand meaning is reflective about the productionof texts; monitors and selfevaluates and describes progress,with some confidence. form and express ideasand information with someclarityorganise and sequenceideas and information withconfidenceuse a variety of sentencestructures, beginnings andlengths.Literacy

Curriculum Areas IncorporatedAchievement ObjectivesRelevant to the activity, includingpossible linksSpecific Learning OutcomesStudents will be able toMathematicsand StatisticsIn a range of meaningful contexts,students will be engaged in thinkingmathematically and statistically.They will solve problems and modelsituations that require them to:Statistical InvestigationConduct investigations using thestatistical enquiry cycle: posing and answering questions gathering, sorting and displayingcategory and whole number data communicating findings based onthe data. Students should be able to: 2.1 communicate aboutrelationships between people 2.2 communicate aboutpossessions 2.3 communicate about likes anddislikes, giving reasons whereappropriate 2.5 communicate about physicalcharacteristics, personality andfeelings. Te Aho AratakiMarau mō teAko i Te ReoMāoriStatisticsTaumataTaumata:Te Reo:Group Work: gather, sort, analyse,compare and summarisedata on the ways to protectour skindisplay data in anappropriate form.discuss whānau,relationships and theirimpact on health andwellbeingassociate words withpictures of different parts ofthe worldinterview peers and surveyparticipants about theirfavourite sunhatidentify words that describefeelings/opinions.Levels 1–4 AO and assessment activities depending on ability of individuals (pp. 56–61)Students being able to greet, farewell, acknowledge and respond to simple classroomlanguage and politeness conventions in Te Reo is dependent on the teacher integrating andmodelling this in their everyday practice within the classroom.Ongoing opportunities to assess Te Reo - ko au (I, me, 1-Ko-au/Assessment-opportunitiesTe wa Kai: aSee Resource 27 for activities and assessment grid.9

Links to CurriculumTo be encouraged, modelled and explored (NZC pp. 9-11). What aspects of the values doesthis activity explore, encourage or model?VisionPrinciplesValuesKey CompetenciesPedagogicalApproachesWhat we want forour young people confident connected activelyinvolved lifelonglearnersBeliefs about whatis important highexpectations Treaty ofWaitangi culturaldiversity inclusion learning tolearn communityengagement coherence future focusExpressed inthought andactions excellence innovation,inquiry andcuriosity diversity equity communityandparticipation ecologicalsustainability integrityWhich of the key competencies (NZCpp. 12-13) thinking using language,symbols andtexts managing self relating toothers participatingandcontributingBased on the HPSInquiry Model(see attached); allunits follow thisprocess. Aspects ofeffective pedagogy(NZ pp. 34-36) arehighlighted in theactivity. Creating asupportivelearningenvironment Encouragingreflectivethought andaction Enhancing therelevance ofnew learning Facilitatingshared learning Makingconnections toprior learning Providingsufficientopportunitiesto learn E-learning Engaging Māoriand Pāsifikastudentsand theircommunitiesTaken from the New Zealand Curriculum.Specific Learning Objectives – for this unit of work, specific learning objectives have been derived from theachievement objectives in the New Zealand CurriculumLearning Outcomes – are successfuly achieved when students can demonstrate the specific learning processes,skills and knowledge detailed for each lesson in the left-hand column.It is our expectation that teachers will adapt these specific learning objectives and learning outcomes to meetthe needs of their diverse learners.10

Note: The suggested websites on the following pages are not all maintained by the Cancer Society ofNew Zealand. We only suggest sites that we consider offer credible and reliable information, but wecannot guarantee that the information on such websites is accurate, up to date or evidence based.11

Links and ResourcesTKICurriculum documents Reo Māori In the curriculum guidelines, Te Aho Arataki here are suggestions for possible learning and assessment activities for Curriculum Levels 1–2 use-te-reo-Maori. In addition, there is helpful material collected online in Te Whakaipurangi Rauemi. This collection elaborates on some of the communicative tasksoutlined in Tasks and activities, including cloze tasks, dycomm tasks, information transfer tasks, multichoice,tasks, strip stories, same-different tasks, dictocomps, listen-and-draw tasks, true-false-make it right tasks,and 4-3-2 tasks.Wellbeing, Hauora inks to resources about the Sun and skinThe Sun, Atmosphere, Radiation explained radiation activities book -radiation-learningactivities-book.pdfSun protection in schools (WHO) .pdfWHO Intersun programme /enSunSmart animals tanimals.htmlSkin information and facts th-and-human-body/human-body/skin-article/All about skin (animated video) v7m0NiLzZTAWhy do we have different skin colours gEQYdi3ZvQgHow Maui slowed the sun (Te Reo with subtitles) jbM3PwcGi0gChinese myth about the sun chinese suns.htmlScience ConceptsHow to be safe in the sun safety.htmlWhat is UV radiation -UV/NZ-Research/You-Meand-UVWhy NZ has higher UV levels Zealand-summerNIWA UV index forecasts for NZ -and-ozone/forecastsCancer Council West Australia has eight interesting and interactive learning activities that canbe delivered as stand-alone activities or presented as a term’s science work. The aim is to help studentsunderstand the science of light, with a focus on ultraviolet (UV) radiation um Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and Fiction

New Zealand informationSun safety information sk/sunsmart/Slip, slop, slap, wrap video clip (50 seconds) ooCCM28ressSunSmart website - information relevant for New Zealand Bay of Plenty Cancer Society - Undercover Cody has a range of online tips, games and songsthat promote sun safety - including short video on key tips for use -risk/what-you-can-do/sunsmart/sunscreen/Sunscreen Q&A's unSmart videos from NZ school children s.htmlSongs and WaiataNew Zealand's Kindy Rock TV's slip, slop, slap, wrap song GKPP8qqA7cYUndercover Cody's SunSmart rap - Waikato Bay of Plenty Cancer Society“Hei Konei e te Ariki”and “He Rourou mā Koutou” (in Hei Waiata, Hei Whakakoakoa – Waiata to SupportTeaching and Learning of Te Reo Māori in English-medium Schools: Years 1–8).“Kei Raro i te Moana” (in KiwiKidsongs 1, 1990)Other LinksWhy brimmed hats are better than caps Htfd63ccsRoHave fun in the sun wPCPxklEFAkPlay safe in the sun 3 V8lT67K20Importance of sun with sing‐along song Zc2wE5dVx3YSun safety film (made by children) endscreen&NR 1&v QaTcqqAwzmUSun days fun days - children & the ways they protect themselves during the week jc kCw9 NdsOnline Learning GamesUndercover Cody - Waikato Bay of Plenty Cancer Society Games .htmlCurriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and Fiction13

Part One, Lessons 1-8Lessons 1-2: Introduction & Hauora ConceptLessons 1–8, Part One: Introduction and Hauora ConceptOVERVIEW: Today we are learning about the concept of Hauora14Assessment OpportunitiesStructureWe are successful when we can: identify the things that keepus happy and healthy (physical(taha tinana), mental/emotions(taha hinengaro), social (tahaWhānau) and spiritual (tahawairua)) understand that all fourelements above need to be inbalance for us to feel happy,healthy and safe identify and share the thingsthat make us feel safe, grow andlearn use some plural pronouns understand and use short formsof address identify our family members inTe Reo.Pedagogical links: Creating a supportive learningenvironment Encouraging reflective thoughtand action Enhancing the relevance of newlearning Facilitating shared learning Making connections to priorlearning Providing sufficient1. taha tinanaopportunities to learn2. taha hinengaro E-learning3. taha whānau Engaging Māori and Pāsifikastudents and their communities4. taha wairauKey competencies:Level Two ThinkingTeacher could place students in Using language, symbols andgroups with each group having atextscopy of the table and the faces so Managing selfthat they can place them. Relating to othersConnect: Introduce the concept of Participating and contributingHauora using the diagram in the Literacy:Resource 1b, Teacher’s Notes. English and Te Reo vocabulary Provide context for video. Itbuildingis important to look after allfour elements – we need thefour walls – (physical (tahatinana), mental/emotions(taha hinengaro), social (tahawhānau) and spiritual (tahawairua)). In the video we see that Suehas taken care of her physicalneeds. What happens about herother needs – mental/emotions(taha hinengaro), social (tahawhānau) and spiritual (tahawairua)?Evidence: Teach and Assess socialand interpersonal skills (pp. 21–32in resource booklet). Ideas forTeachers re: ongoing assessment.Prepare: 2bwqTDuyv7YSong Sue goes to the beach for anice relaxing day and ends uphaving to teach her friendsabout Sun-safety. Who’slaughing now? Teacher draws upgrid on the board. Has copies oflarge happy and sad faces withBlu Tack on the back(Resource 1a).Curriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and FictionCurriculum and Resource Links

Lessons 1-2StructureOpportunity to discuss and learn Te Reo for family. See Reomations/Taku-whanau-My-family for animation and teaching resources, vocabulary and activities.Activate: Students watch the video.If students in groups, they can place their faces in the four quadrants to describe this part of Sue’s hauora.Demonstrate: Discuss what Sue uses to protect herself from the Sun. We can see that Sue is looking after her taha tinana –her physical needs – so we can put a happy face in that box.1. tahatinana1. tahawhānau1. tahahinengaro1. tahawairua Curriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and FictionLesson- 2:IntroductionandHauoraConceptLessons 1–8,Part 1One:IntroductionandHauoraConceptHow do her friends treat her when they see her on the beach? How does this make her feel? Can we put ahappy face next the mental/emotions (taha hinengaro)? No? So add a sad face to the board. Who does Sue have to play with? Is she included in her whānau’s games in the water? No? So what shouldwe add to the taha whānau section on the board? Sad face. How does Sue feel inside when they are all laughing at her and playing in the water without her? Happy/sadface in the taha wairua space? Who can tell me what happens to her friends who have been playing in the Sun? By the end of the song Sue’s hauora has changed. What should we now have in the four boxes – happy/sadfaces? How do the things we do (e.g. taking care of ourselves so we do not get sunburnt and sharing sunscreenwith our friends) impact on what happens? How does what others do impact on what happens? Discusspersonal responsibility for our own actions and the responsibility of others. All of these things help make us feel safe and secure, help us to grow and learn. They are like the four wallsof a house (draw/copy Hauora (Resource Sheet 1b) diagram for students to see and define four walls) whichare necessary to keep everything inside safe. Can we put the pictures/words above/beside the four walls ofthe house? Some things may go under more than one heading.Teacher may do this on the board or students to do in pairs depending upon abilities.Consolidation: Refocus on the grid and faces in each of the quadrants.Students draw the three most important things to them that help them to feel safe, grow, and learn.15

Lessons 1-2, Resource 1aResource 1aHappy and HealthyKey Vocabulary:happy, healthy, wellbeing, hauora, taha tinana, taha hinengaro,Lesson 1- 2:PartIntroductionand HauoraLessons1–8,One: IntroductionandConceptHauora Concepttaha whānua, taha wairua161. taha tinana2. taha hinengaro3. taha whānau4. taha wairuaCurriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and Fiction

Lessons 1-2, Resource 1bHauora ConceptInformation taken from Health and Physical Education online: ellbeingThe concept of wellbeing encompasses the physical, mental and emotional, social, and spiritual dimensions ofhealth. This concept is recognised by the World Health Organisation.HauoraHauora is a Māori philosophy of health unique to New Zealand. It comprises taha tinana, taha hinengaro, tahawhānau, and taha wairua.Taha Tinana – Physical WellbeingThe physical body, its growth, development, and ability to move, and ways of caring for it.Taha Hinengaro – Mental and Emotional WellbeingCoherent thinking processes, acknowledging and expressing thoughts and feelings and responding constructively.Taha Whānau – Social WellbeingFamily relationships, friendships, and other interpersonal relationships; feelings of belonging, compassion, andcaring; and social support.Taha Wairua – Spiritual WellbeingThe values and beliefs that determine the way people live, the search for meaning and purpose in life, andpersonal identity and self-awareness. (For some individuals and communities, spiritual wellbeing is linked to aparticular religion; for others, it is not.)Each of these four dimensions of hauora influences and supports the others.Taha tinanaPhysical wellbeingTaha whānauSocial wellbeingTaha wairauSpiritual wellbeingDr Mason Durie’s whare tapawha model compares hauora to the four walls of a whare, each wall representing adifferent dimension: taha wairua (the spiritual side); taha hinengaro (thoughts and feelings); taha tinana (the physicalside); and taha whānau (family). All four dimensions are necessary for strength and symmetry. (Adapted from MasonDurie’s Whaiora: Māori Health Development. Auckland: Oxford University Press, 1994, page 70).Curriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and FictionLessons 1–8, Part One: Introduction and Hauora ConceptTaha hinengaroMental andemotional wellbeing17

Lessons 3-6Part One – Living World - Finding out about SunSmart AnimalsAs animals, humans need the Sun. Unlike other living things, we live in many different places and this means thatwe have to be SunSmart. Living things that are in their own habitats have adaptations that help them to shieldthemselves from excessive Sun or make the most of the limited sunlight available; for example, camels and polarbears. Humans also have adaptations that help shield them from the Sun.Today we are learning about animals and whether they live in hot orcold countries and how they protect themselves from the Sun. Weare also investigating how humans protect themselves from the Sun.Overview:Assessment OpportunitiesWe are successful when wecan: Lesson 1–8,6 - ionandandMaterialHauora Concept 18 StructurePrepare:Read Teacher’s Notes Resource 2c,Go to Link https://identify animals and sightsunwisestampede/meetanimals.htmlidentify and match picturesAccess to a globe of Earth (optional)of animals with the wordConnect:that names themTeacher gives students Resource 2a.identify other animals andTeacher tells students that the wordsplants that begin with theon the left-hand side are the names ofsame soundanimals that are pictured on the rightclassify animals and plantshand side.using a range of criteria In pairs students are asked tosay and write the name ofmatch the picture of the animalthe animal displayed in the(Resource 2a) with each of thepictureswords on the side. (This givesidentify and match wherethe teacher a good idea aboutthe animal livesstudents’ prior knowledge).explain if the animal lives in As a class they match the worda hot or a cold placeand picture. Teacher asks studentshow the word sounds – andexplain the different waysthe different letters and theirthat animals in hot placescorresponding sound. (Resource 2bprotect themselves from thehas the answers.)Sunexplain how humans protect Can you tell which of these animalslive in a hot country and which livethemselves from the a cold country? What other animals can you thinkof that begin with the letter “c”,etc.? Group all the animals that live incold countries together and theones that live in hot countries.Curriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and FictionCurriculum and Resource LinksPedagogical links: Creating a supportive learningenvironment Encouraging reflective thoughtand action Enhancing the relevance of newlearning Facilitating shared learning Making connections prior tolearning Providing sufficientopportunities to learn E-learning Engaging Māori and Pasifiikastudents and their communitiesKey competencies: Thinking Using language, symbols andtexts Managing self Relating to others Participating and contributingLiteracy: English and Te Reo vocabularybuilding Can identify animals visually,orally and in writing and is ableto connect theseNumeracy: Grouping animals according to avariety of criteria

Lessons 3-6StructureActivate:See Teacher Resource link etanimals.html Which animals live in trees, in water, on the ground, under the ground? Which ones have fur/scales/feathers/wool? How do animals in cold places keep themselves warm? Why do polar bears have special eye lids? Why do meerkats have black rings around their eyes? How do camels protect their eyes? How do rhinoceros, hippopotamuses, camels and elephants keep cool and protect themselves from theSun? (See Resource 2c for teacher background info). How do koalas, chimpanzees, gorillas and rabbits protect themselves from the Sun?Teacher gives each student/groups a copy of Resource 2b to use in the next task. On the picture of a koala, meerkat, rabbit and pig, (Resource 2b), draw the ways they keep cool andprotect themselves from the Sun.Demonstrate:Curriculum Level 2 Unit Plan SunSmart Fact and FictionLessons 1–8, Part One: Introduction and Hauora ConceptResource 3Students work in groups. Cut out each of the animal pictures, and place each of the animal pictures under theheading that describes how the

Lesson 1–2. Lesson 3–6. Lesson 3-6 Lesson 3-6. Lesson 7-8. Lesson Lesson 7-8 Lesson . 7-10 Lesson . 7-10 . statistical enquiry cycle: posing and answering questions gatheri