Ancient Hebrew Dictionary

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Ancient HebrewDictionary

Ancient Hebrew DictionaryCover design by Jeff A. Benner.“Ancient Hebrew Dictionary,” by Jeff A. Benner.Published 2009 by Virtualbookworm.com Publishing Inc.,P.O. Box 9949, College Station, TX 77845, US. 2007,Jeff A. Benner. All rights reserved. Any part of this bookmay be copied for educational purposes only, withoutprior permission.Manufactured in the United States of America.

Ancient Hebrew Dictionary1000 Verbs and Nouns of the Hebrew Bible By Jeff A. Benner

To Jack and Jamie Waid, our good friendswho are an inspiration to my wife and I and toomany others.

Table of ContentsINTRODUCTION.1ABOUT THE BOOK .1DICTIONARY FORMAT .2DICTIONARY VERBS .5ALEPH .5BEYT .8GIMEL .11DALET.13HEY .14ZAYIN .15HHET .17TET .21YUD .22KAPH .27LAMED.29MEM .30NUN .33SAMEHH .39AYIN.40PEY .42TSADE.46QUPH .47RESH .50SHIN .53TAV .59DICTIONARY NOUNS. 61ALEPH .61

BEYT .74GIMEL .80DALET.83HEY .85ZAYIN .86HHET .87TET .95YUD .97KAPH .100LAMED.105MEM .107NUN .120SAMEHH .124AYIN.126PEY .133TSADE.136QUPH .139RESH .143SHIN .147TAV .157APPENDIX A THE ALPHABET. 162THE VOWELS .163APPENDIX B PREFIXES AND SUFFIXES . 164THE PREFIXES .164THE SUFFIXES (POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS).166THE SUFFIXES (PLURALS) .166COMBINATIONS .167APPENDIX C PRONOUNS, PREPOSITIONS, ETC. . 170PRONOUNS .170INDEFINITE PRONOUNS .171

PREPOSITIONS .171ADVERBS .172CONJUNCTIONS .172OTHER .173APPENDIX D NUMBERS. 174CARDINAL NUMBERS .174ORDINAL NUMBERS .176APPENDIX E VERB CONJUGATIONS. 178TENSE AND SUBJECT .178THE REVERSING VAV .179INDEX BY TRANSLATION . 180INDEX BY STRONG'S. 190

IntroductionIntroductionAbout the BookThis book has been designed to be a quick reference guide forlooking up the meaning of common Hebrew words found inthe Hebrew Bible, as well as a resource for learning theHebrew vocabulary.Within this book is a list of the 1000 most frequently usedHebrew verbs (379) and nouns (621) from the Hebrew Bible.Each word entry includes:1. The Hebrew word (in modern and ancient script).2. A transliteration of the Hebrew word.3. A one or two word translation of the Hebrew word.4. A more detailed definition of the Hebrew word.5. Cross references to other resources.In the appendices are additional words and details about theHebrew language including:1. The Hebrew alphabet and vowels.2. Hebrew prefixes and suffixes.1

Ancient Hebrew Dictionary3. Pronouns, prepositions, etc.4. Hebrew numbers.5. Hebrew verb conjugations.Dictionary FormatBelow is an example entry, followed by an explanation of itscontents. ָשׁלוֹם / mfls / sha-lom Translation: CompletenessDefinition: Something that has been finished or made whole.A state of being complete. AHLB: 2845 (c) Strong's: 7965944.Modern Hebrew WordFollowing the entry number is the Hebrew word written in theModern Hebrew script ( שׁלוֹם ָ ).Ancient Hebrew WordEach word is also written in the ancient pictographic script(mfls). In some cases, this spelling may be different than themodern script. As an example, the word ֹהל ֶ ( א #390) includesthe hholam vowel pointing (the dot above the alephrepresenting the "o" sound), but in most ancient documentsthis word is written as ( אוהל where the letter vav representsthe “o” sound) or lefa in the ancient script. In addition, thespelling of words evolve over time. For instance, the word בּוֹר 2

Introduction(#452, bor, a cistern) comes from the root ( כור kor) meaning"to dig a hole." Therefore, the ancient spelling of this wordwould have been rfk (kor).TransliterationA transliteration from Hebrew into Roman letters (sha-lom) isgiven to assist with the pronunciation of Hebrew nouns. Verbtransliterations will be represented by the consonants only.For instance, the transliteration for the Hebrew verb בדל (#20) is B.D.L.TranslationThis is one or two English words that best translate theHebrew word. In many cases, this translation will besignificantly different from what is found in other dictionaries.For instance, the word שׁלוֹם ָ is usually translated as "peace,"but this abstract idea does not completely convey the originalHebraic meaning of this word. In this dictionary, thetranslation of this word is “Completeness.” An index at theend of this book allows for a cross referencing from theEnglish translation to its corresponding entry within thisdictionary.DefinitionThis is a more specific meaning of the word which reflects itstextual and original Hebraic cultural perspective. As anexample, in our culture, the word "peace" means "a state ofmutual harmony between people or groups." However, inBiblical Hebrew, this word means "a state of being complete."3

Ancient Hebrew DictionaryCross ReferencesEach entry includes a cross reference to the Ancient HebrewLexicon of the Bible and Strong's Dictionary. An index at theend of this book allows for a cross referencing from Strong'snumber to its corresponding entry within this dictionary.4

Dictionary VerbsDictionary VerbsAleph אבד / dba / A.B.D Translation: Perish Definition: To beseparated from the whole, life or functionality. AHLB: 1027-C(V) Strong's: 61. אבה / eba / A.B.H Translation: Consent Definition: Togive approval; to be in concord in opinion or sentiment;agreement as to action or opinion; to be willing to gosomewhere or do something. AHLB: 1028-C (V) Strong's: 142. אבל / lba / A.B.L Translation: Mourn Definition: To feelor express grief or sorrow. AHLB: 1035-C (V) Strong's: 563. אהב / bea / A.H.B Translation: Love Definition: Toprovide and protect that which is given as a privilege. Anintimacy of action and emotion. Strong affection for anotherarising from personal ties. AHLB: 1094-C (V) Strong's: 1574.More about the word אהב We do not choose our parents or siblings, but areinstead given to us as a gift from above, aprivileged gift. Even in the ancient Hebrew cultureones wife was chosen. It is our responsibility toprovide and protect that privileged gift. In ourmodern Western culture love is an abstractthought of emotion, how one feels toward anotherbut the Hebrew meaning goes much deeper. As a5

Ancient Hebrew Dictionaryverb this word means "to provide and protectwhat is given as a privilege" as well as " to have anintimacy of action and emotion". We are told tolove Elohiym and our neighbors, not in anemotional sense, but in the sense of our actions.5. אוה / Efa / A.W.H Translation: Yearn Definition: To havean earnest or strong desire; long. AHLB: 1005-J (V)Strong's: 183 אור / rfa / A.W.R Translation: Light Definition: To shinewith an intense light; be or give off light; to be bright.AHLB: 1020-J (V) Strong's: 2156.7. אזן / nza / A.Z.N Translation: Give an ear Definition: Topay attention to a voice or sound; to hear with thoughtfulattention and obedience. AHLB: 1152-C (V) Strong's: 238 אחז / zha / A.Hh.Z Translation: Take holdDefinition: To have possession or ownership of; to keep inrestraint; to have or maintain in one's grasp; to grabsomething and keep hold of it. AHLB: 1168-C (V) Strong's: 2708. איב / bia / A.Y.B Translation: Attack Definition: To beantagonistic or unfriendly to another. An action taken by anenemy. AHLB: 1002-M (V) Strong's: 3419. אכל / lka / A.K.L Translation: Eat Definition: Toconsume food; to destroy. A devouring of a fire. AHLB: 1242-C(V) Strong's: 39810.6

Dictionary Verbs11. אמן / nma / A.M.N Translation: Be firmDefinition: Securely or solidly fixed in place; to stand firm inthe sense of a support. Not subject to change or revision. Thehiphil (causative) form means "support." AHLB: 1290-C (V)Strong's: 53912. אמץ / yma / A.M.Ts Translation: Be strongDefinition: To be mentally astute, firm, obstinate orcourageous. Having or marked by great physical, moral orintellectual power. AHLB: 1294-C (V) Strong's: 553 אמר / lma / A.M.R Translation: Say Definition: Tospeak chains of words that form sentences. AHLB: 1288-C (V)Strong's: 55913. אסף / pxa / A.S.P Translation: Gather Definition: Tobring together; to accumulate and place in readiness.AHLB: 1339-C (V) Strong's: 62214. אסר / rxa / A.S.R Translation: Tie up Definition: Towrap or fasten with a cord. AHLB: 1342-C (V) Strong's: 63115. אפה / Epa / A.P.H Translation: Bake Definition: Tocook using dry heat, especially in an oven. AHLB: 1017-H (V)Strong's: 64416. ארב / bra / A.R.B Translation: Ambush Definition: Tolay in wait of another to capture or do harm or injury.AHLB: 1439-C (V) Strong's: 69317. ארך / kra / A.R.K Translation: Prolong Definition: Tolengthen or delay. AHLB: 1448-C (V) Strong's: 74818.7

Ancient Hebrew Dictionary ארר / rra / A.R.R Translation: Spit upon Definition: Toeject saliva, usually on another in spite or disrespect.AHLB: 1457-C (V) Strong's: 77919. אשׁם / msa / A.Sh.M Translation: Be guiltyDefinition: To commit an offense, especially consciously.AHLB: 1473-C (V) Strong's: 81620.Beyt בגד / dcb / B.G.D Translation: Act treacherouslyDefinition: To perform an action covertly or with the intent todeceive. AHLB: 2004 (V) Strong's: 89821.22. בדל / ldb / B.D.L Translation: Separate Definition: Toset or keep apart. AHLB: 2005 (V) Strong's: 914 בהל / leb / B.H.L Translation: Stir Definition: To disturbthe quiet of; agitate. AHLB: 1035-G (V) Strong's: 92623. בוא / afb / B.W.A Translation: Come Definition: Tomove toward something; approach; enter. This can beunderstood as to come or to go. The hiphil (causative) formmeans "bring." AHLB: 1024-J (V) Strong's: 93524. בוש / sfb / B.W.Sh Translation: Be ashamedDefinition: Feeling shame, guilt or disgrace; to be dried upwith shame. AHLB: 1044-J (V) Strong's: 95425.26. בזה / ezb / B.Z.H Translation: Disdain Definition: Afeeling of contempt for what is beneath one; to look with8

Dictionary Verbsscorn on; to treat something as spoiled or no longer of value.AHLB: 1030-H (V) Strong's: 959 בזז / zzb / B.Z.Z Translation: Plunder Definition: Tocommit robbery or looting. AHLB: 1030-B (V) Strong's: 96227. בחן / nhb / B.Hh.N Translation: Examine Definition: Toinspect closely; to test, try or scrutinize. AHLB: 2011 (V)Strong's: 97428. בחר / rhb / B.Hh.R Translation: Choose Definition: Toselect freely and after consideration. AHLB: 2012 (V)Strong's: 97729. בטח / hub / B.Th.Hh Translation: Cling Definition: Tograb a hold of someone or something that is secure and safe.AHLB: 2013 (V) Strong's: 98230. בין / nib / B.Y.N Translation: Understand Definition: Tograsp the meaning of; to have comprehension. AHLB: 1037-M(V) Strong's: 99531. בכה / ekb / B.K.H Translation: Weep Definition: Toexpress deep sorrow, especially by shedding tears.AHLB: 1034-H (V) Strong's: 105832. בלל / llb / B.L.L Translation: Mix Definition: Tocombine in one mass; to mingle together. AHLB: 1035-B (V)Strong's: 110133. בלע / olb / B.L.Ah Translation: Swallow Definition: Topass through the mouth and move into the esophagus to thestomach. AHLB: 2020 (V) Strong's: 110434.9

Ancient Hebrew Dictionary בנה / enb / B.N.H Translation: Build Definition: Toconstruct a building, home or family. AHLB: 1037-H (V)Strong's: 112935. בער / rob / B.Ah.R Translation: Burn Definition: Toundergo rapid combustion or consume fuel in such a way as togive off heat, gases, and, usually, light; be on fire. AHLB: 2028(V) Strong's: 119736. בצר / ryb / B.Ts.R Translation: Fence in Definition: Abarrier intended to protect, prevent escape or intrusion, or tomark a boundary; to gather together and confine forprotection. AHLB: 2033 (V) Strong's: 121937. בקע / oqb / B.Q.Ah Translation: Cleave Definition: Todivide by or as if by a cutting blow; to separate into distinctparts; to break, cut or divide something in half. AHLB: 2034(V) Strong's: 123438. בקש / sqb / B.Q.Sh Translation: Search outDefinition: To intently look for someone or something untilthe object of the search is found. AHLB: 2036 (V)Strong's: 124539. ברא / arb / B.R.A Translation: Fatten Definition: Tomake more substantial, fleshy or plump; to fill up. The filling ofthe earth in Genesis 1 with the sun, moon, plants and animals.The filling of man with breath and the image of Elohiym.AHLB: 1043-E (V) Strong's: 125440. ברח / hrb / B.R.Hh Translation: Flee awayDefinition: To run away from. AHLB: 2038 (V) Strong's: 127241.10

Dictionary Verbs42. ברך / krb / B.R.K Translation: Kneel Definition: To bendthe knee, to kneel in homage or to drink water. The piel(intensive) form means "respect," in the sense of kneelingbefore another. AHLB: 2039 (V) Strong's: 1288More about the word ברך The Hebrew verb barak means to kneel as seen inGenesis 24:11. However, when written in the pielform it means to show respect (usually translatedas bless) as seen in Genesis 12:2. A related Hebrewword is berakhah meaning a gift or present. Fromthis we can see the concrete meaning behind thepiel form of the verb barak. It is to bring a gift toanother while kneeling out of respect. Theextended meaning of this word is to do or givesomething of value to another. Elohiym "respects"us by providing for our needs and we in turn"respect" Elohiym by giving him of ourselves as hisservants. בשׁל / lsb / B.Sh.L Translation: Boil Definition: Togenerate bubbles of vapor when heated; to cook a meat inwater. The hiphil (causative) form means "ripen." AHLB: 2043(V) Strong's: 131043.Gimel44. גאל / lac / G.A.L Translation: Redeem Definition: Tobuy back. Restore one to his original position or avenge his11

Ancient Hebrew Dictionarydeath. In the participle form this verb means "avenger," as it isthe role of the nearest relative to buy back one in slavery oravenge his murder. AHLB: 1058-D (V) Strong's: 135045. גבה / ebc / G.B.H Translation: Lift high Definition: To liftup to a greater elevation or stature. AHLB: 1048-H (V)Strong's: 136146. גבר / Rbc / G.B.R Translation: Overcome Definition: Toget the better of. Be successful in strength or authority.AHLB: 2052 (V) Strong's: 1396 גדל / ldc / G.D.L Translation: Magnify Definition: Toincrease in size or one's position of honor. AHLB: 2054 (V)Strong's: 143147.48. גור / rfc / G.W.R Translation: Sojourn Definition: To stayas a temporary resident. Travel in a strange land. Also, theextended meaning of "to be afraid" of a stranger. AHLB: 1066J (V) Strong's: 1481 גזל / lzc / G.Z.L Translation: Pluck away Definition: Totake off something or s

Hebrew language including: 1. The Hebrew alphabet and vowels. 2. Hebrew prefixes and suffixes. Ancient Hebrew Dictionary 2 3. Pronouns, prepositions, etc. 4. Hebrew numbers. 5. Hebrew verb conjugations. Dictionary Format Below is an example entry, followed by an explanation of its .

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