Assessment Of Communication Disorders In Children

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Assessment of CommunicationDisorders in ChildrenResources and ProtocolsThird Edition

Assessment of CommunicationDisorders in ChildrenResources and ProtocolsThird EditionM. N. Hegde, PhDFrances Pomaville, PhDCalifornia State University, Fresno

5521 Ruffin RoadSan Diego, CA 92123e-mail: info@pluralpublishing.comWebsite: http://www.pluralpublishing.comCopyright 2017 by Plural Publishing, Inc.Typeset in 11/14 Stone Informal by Flanagan’s Publishing Services, Inc.Printed in the United States of America by McNaughton & Gunn, Inc.All rights, including that of translation, reserved. No part of this publication may bereproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means,electronic, mechanical, recording, or otherwise, including photocopying, recording,taping, Web distribution, or information storage and retrieval systems without the priorwritten consent of the publisher.For permission to use material from this text, contact us byTelephone: (866) 758-7251Fax: (888) 758-7255e-mail: permissions@pluralpublishing.comEvery attempt has been made to contact the copyright holders for material originally printed inanother source. If any have been inadvertently overlooked, the publishers will gladly make thenecessary arrangements at the first opportunity.Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNames: Hegde, M. N. (Mahabalagiri N.), 1941- author. Pomaville, Frances,author.Title: Assessment of communication disorders in children : resources andprotocols / M.N. Hegde, Frances Pomaville.Description: Third edition. San Diego, CA : Plural Publishing, [2017] Includes bibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2016019170 ISBN 9781597567848 (alk. paper) ISBN1597567841 (alk. paper)Subjects: MESH: Communication Disorders — diagnosis Clinical Protocols Needs Assessment ChildClassification: LCC RJ496.C67 NLM WL 340.2 DDC 616.85/5075 — dc23LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2016019170

ContentsPrefaceCreating Child-Specific Assessment Packages with Protocols on theCompanion WebsitePart I. Foundations of Assessmentxixiii1Chapter 1. Assessment of Communication Disorders in ChildrenAssessment, Evaluation, and DiagnosisWritten Case HistoryThe Initial Clinical InterviewHearing ScreeningOrofacial ExaminationDiadochokinetic TasksSpeech-Language SampleStandardized Assessment InstrumentsAlternative and Integrated Assessment ProceduresAssessment of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal ChildrenAssessment of Literacy SkillsStimulabilityPostassessment CounselingAssessment ReportChapter SummaryStudy 6Chapter 2. Common Assessment ProtocolsCommon Protocol 1: Child Case History ProtocolCommon Protocol 2: Developmental Milestones from 0 to 4 Years of AgeInstructions for Conducting the Orofacial Examination: Observationsand ImplicationsCommon Protocol 3: Orofacial Examination and Hearing Screening ProtocolCommon Protocol 4: Diadochokinetic Assessment ProtocolCommon Protocol 5: Speech-Language Sample Transcription ProtocolCommon Protocol 6: Language Sample Analysis Protocol: Syntactic,Morphologic, and Pragmatic SkillsCommon Protocol 7: Assessment Report OutlineReference19212629Chapter 3. Standardized AssessmentStandardized and Norm-Referenced TestsTest ConstructionReliabilityValidityQuestionnaires and Developmental InventoriesStrengths of Standardized TestsGeneral Limitations of Standardized Tests5152575962666869v343738424349

vi     Assessment of Communication Disorders in ChildrenSpecific Limitations of Standardized Tests in Assessing EthnoculturallyDiverse ChildrenPrudent Use of Standardized TestsChapter SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences7276798081Chapter 4. Alternative and Integrated AssessmentAssessment in Ethnoculturally Diverse SocietiesCan Speech-Language Assessment Be Culture-Free?Assessment of African American ChildrenGeneral Strategies for Assessing Bilingual ChildrenAssessment of Asian American ChildrenAssessment of Hispanic American ChildrenAssessment of Native American ChildrenAlternative Assessment ApproachesBehavioral AssessmentCriterion-Referenced and Client-Specific AssessmentAuthentic AssessmentDynamic AssessmentA Comprehensive and Integrated Assessment ApproachChapter SummaryStudy 121125129130130Part II. Assessment of Speech Sound Production137Chapter 5. Assessment of Speech Sound Production: ResourcesOverview of Speech Sound ProductionSpeech Sounds and Their AcquisitionPhonologic Analysis of Speech SoundsSpeech Sound DisordersDysarthria Associated with Cerebral PalsyChildhood Apraxia of SpeechOverview of Assessment of Speech Sound ProductionScreening for Speech Sound DisordersStandardized Tests of Articulation and Phonologic SkillsSpeech and Language SamplesStimulability of Speech SoundsAnalysis and Integration of Assessment ResultsDiagnostic Criteria and Differential DiagnosisPostassessment CounselingChapter SummaryStudy 68171172173175179181181Chapter 6. Assessment of Speech Sound Production: ProtocolsNote on Common ProtocolsNote on Specific ProtocolsSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 1: Interview Protocol185186186187

Contents    viiSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 2: Phonetic Inventory Analysis ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 3: Manner-Place-Voicing Analysis ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 4: Consonant Clusters Inventory ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 5: Phonologic Pattern Assessment ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 6: Speech Sound StimulabilityAssessment ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 7: Childhood Apraxia of SpeechAssessment ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 8: Dysarthric Speech Assessment ProtocolSelected Multicultural Assessment ProtocolsSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 9: African American English Assessment:Speech Sound Assessment ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 10: Asian American English Assessment:Speech Sound Assessment ProtocolSpeech Sound Assessment Protocol 11: Spanish-Influenced English Assessment:Speech Sound Assessment Protocol189190191194196204205206207210212Part III. Assessment of Language Skills in Children215Chapter 7. Assessment of Language Skills in Children: ResourcesOverview of LanguageOverview of Verbal BehaviorPrevalence of Child Language DisordersOverview of Child Language DisordersClinical Conditions That May be Associated with Language DisordersSpecific Language ImpairmentFactors Related to Language DisordersOverview of Assessment of Child Language DisordersScreening for Language DisordersLanguage SamplingIntegrating Alternative Assessment TechniquesAssessment of Language UnderstandingAssessment of Other Aspects of CommunicationStandardized Language Diagnostic TestsAnalysis and Integration of Assessment ResultsDifferential Diagnosis of Child Language DisordersPostassessment CounselingChapter SummaryStudy 42249251252253253258259262262263Chapter 8. Assessment of Language Skills: ProtocolsNote on Common ProtocolsNote on Specific ProtocolsLanguage Assessment Protocol 1: Interview ProtocolLanguage Assessment Protocol 2: Normal Language Assessment ProtocolLanguage Assessment Protocol 3: Task-Specific Assessment Protocol forBasic VocabularyLanguage Assessment Protocol 4: Task-Specific Assessment Protocol forGrammatic Morphemes267268268269274281285

viii     Assessment of Communication Disorders in ChildrenLanguage Assessment Protocol 5: Task-Specific Assessment Protocol forConversational SkillsLanguage Assessment Protocol 6: Task-Specific Assessment Protocol forNarrative and Discourse SkillsLanguage Assessment Protocol 7: Behavioral Assessment ProtocolSelected Multicultural Assessment ProtocolsLanguage Assessment Protocol 8: African American English (AAE):Language Assessment ProtocolLanguage Assessment Protocol 9: Asian American English: LanguageAssessment ProtocolLanguage Assessment Protocol 10: Spanish-Influenced English: LanguageAssessment Protocol289292293301302304306Part IV. Assessment of Fluency307Chapter 9. Assessment of Fluency Disorders: ResourcesDescriptions of FluencyMeasurement of FluencyDisorders of FluencyStutteringEthnocultural Variables and StutteringDefinition and Measurement of StutteringAdditional Features of StutteringClutteringAnalysis and Integration of Assessment ResultsDifferential Diagnosis of Fluency DisordersPostassessment CounselingChapter SummaryStudy 37338342342343Chapter 10. Assessment of Fluency Disorders: ProtocolsNote on Common ProtocolsNote on Specific ProtocolsFluency Assessment Protocol 1: Interview ProtocolFluency Assessment Protocol 2: Dysfluency Measurement ProtocolFluency Assessment Protocol 3: Associated Motor BehaviorsAssessment ProtocolFluency Assessment Protocol 4: Avoidance Behaviors Assessment ProtocolFluency Assessment Protocol 5: Cluttering Assessment Protocol347348348349354355Part V. Assessment of Voice361Chapter 11. Assessment of Voice: ResourcesPrevalence of Voice Disorders in ChildrenChildren’s Voice DisordersEtiologic Factors Associated with Voice DisordersThe Need for Medical EvaluationAssessment of Voice Production363365366372380381356359

Contents    ixInstrumental EvaluationLaryngeal ImagingClinical Assessment of VoiceStimulability of Voice ProductionAssessment of Voice in Ethnoculturally Diverse ChildrenAnalysis and Integration of Assessment ResultsDifferential Diagnosis of Voice DisordersPostassessment CounselingChapter SummaryStudy 04Chapter 12. Assessment of Voice: ProtocolsNote on Common ProtocolsNote on Specific ProtocolsVoice Assessment Protocol 1: Interview ProtocolVoice Assessment Protocol 2: Vocal Abuse and Misuse InventoryVoice Assessment Protocol 3: Child Voice Evaluation ProtocolVoice Assessment Protocol 4: Resonance and Velopharyngeal FunctionAssessment ProtocolVoice Assessment Protocol 5: Voice Stimulability Assessment ProtocolReferences425427Part VI. Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children429Chapter 13. Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally VerbalChildren: ResourcesAn Overview of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal ChildrenThe Assessment TeamAssessment of Nonverbal or Minimally Verbal ChildrenCase History and InterviewOrofacial Examination and Hearing ScreeningParent-Completed QuestionnairesStandardized and Criterion-Referenced InstrumentsSystematic Quantitative and Qualitative Observations of NonverbalCommunicationAssessment of Receptive LanguageAssessment of VerbalizationsAnalysis and Integration of Assessment ResultsPrognosis for Developing Verbal CommunicationPostassessment CounselingChapter SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences431Chapter 14. Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally VerbalChildren: ProtocolsNote on Common ProtocolsNote on Specific 8439439444445446448448450451451456456

x     Assessment of Communication Disorders in ChildrenNonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children Assessment Protocol 1:Interview ProtocolNonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children Assessment Protocol 2:Verbalizations of Nonverbal or Minimally Verbal Children: Assessment ProtocolNonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children Assessment Protocol 3: NonverbalExpressive Communication: Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment ProtocolNonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children Assessment Protocol 4: NonverbalReceptive Communication: Qualitative and Quantitative Assessment ProtocolNonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children Assessment Protocol 5: InteractionBetween Communicative Partners and the Child: Assessment Protocol457462467473478Chapter 15. Assessment for Augmentative and AlternativeCommunication SystemsThe Three Phases of AAC System AssessmentThe Role of Speech-Language PathologistsResources for the ClinicianHistorical PerspectiveRevised Participation ModelAnalysis and Integration of Assessment ResultsPostassessment CounselingChapter SummaryStudy QuestionsReferences481Part VII. Literacy509Chapter 16. A Primer on Literacy AssessmentLanguage Disorders and Literacy ProblemsEmergent LiteracyEmergent Literacy Skill AcquisitionAssessment of Emergent Literacy SkillsAssessment of Reading and WritingIntegrated Language and Literacy Skill AssessmentChapter SummaryStudy ndex543482483484485487499500502504504

PrefaceThe third edition of this book, Assessment of Communication Disorders in Children, is acompanion volume to the second edition of the Assessment of Communication Disorders inAdults (Hegde & Freed, 2017). Together, these two texts provide a comprehensive set ofresources and protocols for assessing both children and adults with communication disorders. The two books share the same clinical philosophy: Clinicians need both scholarlyinformation on disorders of communication and practical protocols for assessing them.Clinicians typically find that they have to seek scholarly and background informationon assessment in one source and practical assessment tools in another. Most backgroundinformation on assessment techniques are to be found in more traditionally written textbooks on assessment. More practical assessment tools are typically presented in resourcebooks. Clinicians often find this an inefficient arrangement to gain access to both scholarly background and practical procedures of assessment. Sometimes, the different sourcesthat clinicians have to access may be somewhat inconsistent with each other, creatingfurther problems of integration and validation. Therefore, to solve these practical andtechnical problems, we have designed an assessment book that includes two chapters eachon the most commonly assessed communication disorders in children: one to provide thescholarly background and the other to give practical assessment protocols. Thus, in asingle source, the clinicians can find both scholarly information and practical protocols toassess speech, language, fluency, voice disorders, as well as nonverbal communication inchildren with limited verbal skills. We have also written a single chapter on literacy skillsthat offers both the background information and assessment parameters and procedures,and a single chapter introducing assessment for augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems.This book, similar to the companion volume, Assessment of Communication Disorders in Adults (Hegde & Freed, 2017), has an initial section on the foundations of clinicalassessment. This section includes chapters on common assessment procedures and majorassessment matters and issues. The first chapter gives the outline of a basic assessmentprocedure. The second chapter then offers all the protocols commonly used in assessingmost, if not all, disorders of communication in children. This section includes additionalchapters on assessment based on standardized tests, assessment of ethnoculturally diversechildren, and alternative assessment procedures, along with a model that integrates alternative and traditional approaches. All chapters offer extensive background informationand critical reviews of major issues.A unique philosophy that has guided the writing of this book is that the alternativeand traditional assessment procedures need to be integrated in assessing all children — includingmainstream children. We do not believe that traditional assessments are good for all children, and do believe that alternative procedures are needed for some children. Certainfundamental limitations of standardized tests do not disappear when they are administered to mainstream children. Many alternative procedures are designed to overcome thelimitations of standardized tests and those limitations are evident even when the tests areadministered to children included in the standardization sample (mainstream or culturally diverse). Most alternative procedures have additional strengths that will enhance thexi

xii     Assessment of Communication Disorders in Childrenreliability and validity of assessment data obtained on any child, not just an ethnoculturally diverse child. We have added behavioral assessment as an additional alternativeapproach, a well-established method in applied behavior analysis, but somewhat new tomost speech-language pathologists. Behavioral assessment offers several distinct advantages over the traditional linguistically oriented approach popular in speech-languagepathology. Our chapter on alternative assessment procedures not only reviews extensiveinformation on alternative procedures, but also describes a model of assessment thatintegrates the strengths of the traditional approach with those of the various alternativeapproaches.The first chapter on each disorder, called the Resource chapter, is a review of scholarlyinformation on assessment, the kind typically found in traditional textbooks. The chaptergives the research base on the normal skill development when relevant, describes thedisorder and its classification, summarizes etiologic information, specifies any associatedclinical conditions, and gives a descriptive overview of assessment. Each Resource chapteroffers critical review of issues related to assessing the particular disorder. In addition, thechapter includes a description of diagnostic criteria, differential diagnosis, and probabilistic prognostic statements. All Resource chapters include a section on postassessmentcounseling, in which the clinician gives the parents or other caregivers the assessmentresults and answers their questions. The most frequently asked questions and the clinician’s answers are written in a dialogue format that the student and the beginningclinician can model after.The second chapter on each disorder and on augmentative and alternative communication is a collection of detailed, as well as practical and precisely written, Protocols to makecomplete and valid assessments. The protocols go beyond the typical resources offered tospeech-language pathologists. Most protocols are detailed enough to be used immediatelyin assessing any child with a communication disorder. All protocols may be individualized on the companion website and printed out for clinical use. In addition, the commonand standard assessment protocols given in Chapter 2 may be combined with specialized protocols given in the respective chapters on disorders of speech, language, fluency,voice, and on alternative and augmentative communication. Therefore, with the help ofresources and protocols given in the book and the companion website, the clinician candevelop child-specific, individualized assessment packages that can be easily and readilyused during assessment sessions.For this third edition, we have updated assessment research and tools throughout thebook. All chapters and protocols have been revised as found necessary. New research onassessment techniques and approaches has been summarized.We would also like to thank Valerie Johns for her excellent editorial support, and KalieKoscielak for the fine production of this book. As always, Plural Publishing’s PresidentAngie Singh’s behind-the-scene support is greatly appreciated.

Creating Child-Specific AssessmentPackages with Protocols on theCompanion WebsiteAssessment protocols are detailed forms clinicians can use to complete specific diagnostictasks. These protocols are time-saving devices for the clinician. The accompanying websitecontains all the standard protocols: the child case history form, the orofacial examination and hearing screening form, and the assessment report outline. These protocols areessential in assessing all children with any disorder of communication.The companion website also contains protocols included in various protocol chapters inthe book. These specific protocols help assess speech sound production and phonologicalpatterns, various language skills, fluency disorders, voice disorders, and nonverbal andminimally verbal children. Although the protocols are offered as detailed procedures inspecific formats, we emphasize that assessment is a dynamic process. No procedure canbe applied to a child without modifications. Tailoring assessment procedures to suit theindividual child and the family requires both creativity and scholarship; in fact, this isone of the themes of the book. Therefore, we do not expect the clinician to photocopy theprotocols from the printed book and use them during assessment. Instead, we expect theclinician to modify the protocols on the companion website to suit an individual child andfamily, print them out, and use them during assessment. Even as they use printed formsduring assessment, clinicians will modify certain procedures, change the wordings ofquestions to be asked, and alter the manner in which information is given to the families.Individualizing a protocol is accomplished with relative ease because the bulk of the information on the companion website will be relevant to most children and families. A fewadditions and deletions may help individualize each protocol for a specific child. Theclinician can also type in the name of the school or clinic, along with all the identifyinginformation needed (e.g., the name and address of the child and the parents, name of theclinician, the date of assessment, etc.). Therefore, the protocols can easily be convertedinto the clinician’s stationery formats. When filled out and printed, they will be appropriate to be placed in a child’s clinical folder.In addition to an opportunity to individualize the protocols, clinicians are also offeredthe possibility of putting together a comprehensive assessment package for a child efficientlyand relatively quickly. The clinician can select the protocols needed for a given child’sassessments, individualize them, and print them for clinical use. This feature is especially useful when a child needs to be assessed for multiple communication disorders.For example, for a child who exhibits both a speech sound and a language disorder,the clinician may print out all the basic protocols plus the several speech and languageprotocols. For a child with a diverse ethnocultural background, the clinician may print outthe specific speech and language protocols given in Chapters 6 and 8 and attach them toall the other protocols used.An additional advantage of the protocols is that several of them help assess speechand language skills without the use of those standardized tests that may not be appropriatefor certain children. For example, the clinician can assess apraxic or dysarthric speechxiii

xiv     Assessment of Communication Disorders in Childrenfeatures and the production of grammatic morphemes, basic vocabulary, conversationalskills, and so forth with protocols designed in the manner of criterion-referencing withoutnormative comparisons.We encourage clinicians to freely individualize and use the practical and time-savingprotocols to design a child-specific and comprehensive assessment packages. The assessment report outline given on the companion website will further expedite the task of writingan assessment report.

Pa r tIFoundations ofAssessment

Chapter 1Assessment ofCommunicationDisorders in Children Assessment, Evaluation, and Diagnosis Written Case History The Initial Clinical Interview Hearing Screening Orofacial Examination Diadochokinetic Tasks Speech-Language Sample Standardized Assessment Instruments Alternative and Integrative Assessment Procedures Assessment of Nonverbal and Minimally Verbal Children Assessment of Literacy Skills Stimulability Postassessment Counseling Assessment Report Chapter Summary Study Questions References3

4     Assessment of Communication Disorders in ChildrenNo communication disorder may be effectively treated without a thoughtful assessment.Treatment is a systematic effort to change an existing condition, and assessment is a firststep to determine what needs to be changed, and if possible, why. In medicine, diagnosisof the disease precedes treatment; in communication and other behavioral disorders,efforts designed to understand the nature of the problem precedes treatment.Treatment may not be offered unless the clinician knows what exactly to treat. Onthe other hand, treatment may be more effective if the cause of a disorder can be determined. Generally, causes may be better inferred or demonstrated for physical diseasesthan for communication disorders, especially for the commonly treated speech sound andlanguage disorders in children. A highly correlated clinical condition such as a cleft ofthe palate, traumatic or congenital brain injury, autism, or similar disorders may suggestcausation of communication disorders but, in fact, both the clinical condition and thecommunication disorder are coexisting conditions. Potential causes of communicationdisorders, especially of those characterized as functional, are inferred, rather than experimentally demonstrated.Assessment, Evaluation, and DiagnosisBecause of the difficulty in establishing the causes of communication disorders in manycases, speech-language pathologists typically use the term diagnosis in a restricted sense.Strictly speaking, diagnosis specifies a cause of a set of symptoms, but because such specification is impractical in many cases of communication disorders, diagnosis often meansnaming the disorder (e.g., language disorders, stuttering) and describing its characteristicswith or without speculation about its causes. Speech-language pathologists have preferredto describe a set of pretreatment activities as assessment or evaluation. The term assessment means to determine the value of something. But as used in speech-language pathology,assessment is inclusive of several kinds of clinical activities that result in: naming thecommunication disorder of a client (diagnosis), making statements about prognosis forimprovement with or without treatment, and offering recommendations for communication treatment, additional assessment, or other kinds of specialized services. The termevaluation is often used interchangeably; we make no distinction between assessment andevaluation in this book. We use the term diagnosis in the restricted sense of naming thedisorder and determining its parameters (characteristics).Communication disorders may be diagnosed in a different sense, too. Although it maybe difficult to specify why a child has not acquired speech sounds or language behaviors,it may be possible to find out what maintains the child’s current appropriate or inappropriate verbal repertoire. The maintaining causes of the disorders may be studied by whatis known as a functional analysis in applied behavioral science (Duker, 1999; B.E. Esch,LaLounde, & J. Esch, 2010; Kelley, Shillingsburg, Castro, Addison, & LaRue, 2007; Lermanet al., 2005; Maul, Findley, & Adams, 2016). This kind of functional analysis (assessment)has been demonstrated to be useful in diagnosing the maintaining or currently controlling variables of verbal behaviors of the kind specified by Skinner (1957). Furthermore,an identification of maintaining causes helps design an effective treatment procedure.Regrettably, most speech-language pathologists, being linguistically oriented by theirtraining, have not included a functional analysis in their assessment of communication disorders. The traditional assessment helps identify what needs to be taught, but it

1 Assessment of Communication Disorders in Children5does not suggest what might be an effective treatment procedure. We describe the highlyuseful functional assessment in Chapter 4 on alternative assessment approaches and inChapter 7 on assessing language skills in children.Historically, the term diagnosis was more commonly used than assessment. The classicbooks of this kind were likely to be called diagnosis in speech-language pathology (Darley,1964; Darley & Spriestersbach, 1978). Even if tentative, subject to later revision, diagnosisis the end result of a series of scientific and clinical activities, examinations, and datagathering through various means; adding a functional analysis to these traditional activities will greatly enhance the usefulness of the data collected in planning treatment. In thissense, diagnosis is a part of an overall assessment (or evaluation) strategy. In this book,we use the term assessment in this inclusive sense.As different forms of disorders of communication have come to light through researchand clinical observation, assessment also has become an increasingly complex activity.As we learn more about the behavioral, neurophysiologic, genetic, and cultural aspects ofcommunication disorders, we find ourselves expanding the parameters of assessment. Inthe past, communication disorders in children were viewed with relatively little concern forthe cultural and social contexts of speech and language. In most cases, linguistic deviationfrom established norms was sufficient to diagnose a disorder of communication. Clinicians now realize that linguistic deviation cannot be evaluated in isolation and needsto be evaluated in the context of the individual child, his or her family, the culture, thelanguage background, the educational demands and objectives, the future occupationalgoals, and so forth. A linguistic deviation from some accepted norm by itself is not abasis to diagnose a disorder of communication. This realization is not surprising becausecommunication is always social and cultural; a linguistic deviation may only be a culturaldifference. Therefore, more than a linguistic deviation, a concept of verbal behavior deficits may better serve the ultimate purpose of assessment: treatment planning.Parameters of assessment of communication disorders in adults and children sharecommon elements, but there are significant differences. Not all, but most disorders ofcommunication in adults are due to aging and related disease processes that affect previously mastered speech-language ski

Part VII. LIteracy 509 Chapter 16. A Primer on Literacy Assessment 511 Language Disorders and Literacy Problems 512 Emergent Literacy 514 Emergent Literacy Skill Acquisition 516 Assessment of Emergent Literacy Skills 520 Assessment of Reading and Writing 528 Integrated Language and Literacy Skill Assessment 536 Chapter Summary 537

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