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MODERN ROBOTICSMECHANICS, PLANNING, AND CONTROLKevin M. Lynch and Frank C. ParkDecember 30, 2019This document is the preprint version of the updated first edition ofModern Robotics: Mechanics, Planning, and ControlKevin M. Lynch and Frank C. ParkCambridge University Press, 2017This updated first edition, first available for purchase from Cambridge University Press in late 2019, includes several corrections and minor additions to theoriginal first edition, first published in May 2017, ISBN 9781107156302. Theprinted textbooks published by Cambridge marked “3rd printing 2019” or latercontain these corrections. Citations should cite Cambridge University Press asthe publisher, with a publication date of 2017.This preprint is being made available for personal use only and not for furtherdistribution. Original figures from this book may be reused provided propercitation is given. More information on the book, including software, videos,online courses, simulations, practice problems, errata, and an errata reportingform can be found at http://modernrobotics.org. Comments are welcome!

A Chinese translation of the book is available for purchase from China Machine Press. Please visit http://modernrobotics.org for more information.

ContentsForeword by Roger BrockettixForeword by Matthew MasonxiPrefacexiii1 Preview12 Configuration Space2.1 Degrees of Freedom of a Rigid Body . . . . . . . .2.2 Degrees of Freedom of a Robot . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.1 Robot Joints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.2.2 Grübler’s Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.3 Configuration Space: Topology and Representation2.3.1 Configuration Space Topology . . . . . . . .2.3.2 Configuration Space Representation . . . .2.4 Configuration and Velocity Constraints . . . . . . .2.5 Task Space and Workspace . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.7 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3 Rigid-Body Motions3.1 Rigid-Body Motions in the Plane . . . . . . . . .3.2 Rotations and Angular Velocities . . . . . . . . .3.2.1 Rotation Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.2 Angular Velocities . . . . . . . . . . . . .3.2.3 Exponential Coordinate Representation of3.3 Rigid-Body Motions and Twists . . . . . . . . . .i.11121516172323252832363738. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rotation. . . . . .57606666747787.

s Transformation Matrices . . . . . . . . . .Twists . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Exponential Coordinate Representation of Rigid-Body Motions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Wrenches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87951021061091111131144 Forward Kinematics1354.1 Product of Exponentials Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1384.1.1 First Formulation: Screw Axes in the Base Frame . . . . 1394.1.2 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1414.1.3 Second Formulation: Screw Axes in the End-Effector Frame1464.2 The Universal Robot Description Format . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1504.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1564.4 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1574.5 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1584.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1585 Velocity Kinematics and Statics5.1 Manipulator Jacobian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1.1 Space Jacobian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1.2 Body Jacobian . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.1.3 Visualizing the Space and Body Jacobian . . . . . .5.1.4 Relationship between the Space and Body Jacobian5.1.5 Alternative Notions of the Jacobian . . . . . . . . .5.1.6 Looking Ahead to Inverse Velocity Kinematics . . .5.2 Statics of Open Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.3 Singularity Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.4 Manipulability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.6 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.7 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1691761761811831851851871881891941981991992006 Inverse Kinematics2176.1 Analytic Inverse Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2196.1.1 6R PUMA-Type Arm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2196.1.2 Stanford-Type Arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

452472492502502522542592602618 Dynamics of Open Chains8.1 Lagrangian Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.1.1 Basic Concepts and Motivating Examples . . . . .8.1.2 General Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.1.3 Understanding the Mass Matrix . . . . . . . . . .8.1.4 Lagrangian Dynamics vs. Newton–Euler Dynamics8.2 Dynamics of a Single Rigid Body . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.2.1 Classical Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.2.2 Twist–Wrench Formulation . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.2.3 Dynamics in Other Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.3 Newton–Euler Inverse Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.3.1 Derivation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.3.2 Newton-Euler Inverse Dynamics Algorithm . . . .8.4 Dynamic Equations in Closed Form . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.5 Forward Dynamics of Open Chains . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.6 Dynamics in the Task Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.7 Constrained Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996.36.46.56.66.76.8Numerical Inverse Kinematics . . . .6.2.1 Newton–Raphson Method . .6.2.2 Numerical Inverse KinematicsInverse Velocity Kinematics . . . . .A Note on Closed Loops . . . . . . .Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Notes and References . . . . . . . . .Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Algorithm. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7 Kinematics of Closed Chains7.1 Inverse and Forward Kinematics . . . . . .7.1.1 3 RPR Planar Parallel Mechanism .7.1.2 Stewart–Gough Platform . . . . . .7.1.3 General Parallel Mechanisms . . . .7.2 Differential Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . .7.2.1 Stewart–Gough Platform . . . . . .7.2.2 General Parallel Mechanisms . . . .7.3 Singularities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.5 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . .7.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

ivContents8.88.98.108.118.128.13Robot Dynamics in the URDF . . . . .Actuation, Gearing, and Friction . . . .8.9.1 DC Motors and Gearing . . . . .8.9.2 Apparent Inertia . . . . . . . . .8.9.3 Newton–Euler Inverse Dynamicsfor Motor Inertias and Gearing .8.9.4 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8.9.5 Joint and Link Flexibility . . . .Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . .Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Algorithm Accounting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9 Trajectory Generation9.1 Definitions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2 Point-to-Point Trajectories . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2.1 Straight-Line Paths . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.2.2 Time Scaling a Straight-Line Path . . . . .9.3 Polynomial Via Point Trajectories . . . . . . . . .9.4 Time-Optimal Time Scaling . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.4.1 The (s, ṡ) Phase Plane . . . . . . . . . . . .9.4.2 The Time-Scaling Algorithm . . . . . . . .9.4.3 A Variation on the Time-Scaling Algorithm9.4.4 Assumptions and Caveats . . . . . . . . . .9.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.6 Software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.7 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33633834134334434634734834935010 Motion Planning10.1 Overview of Motion Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.1.1 Types of Motion Planning Problems . . . . .10.1.2 Properties of Motion Planners . . . . . . . .10.1.3 Motion Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . .10.2 Foundations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.2.1 Configuration Space Obstacles . . . . . . . .10.2.2 Distance to Obstacles and Collision Detection10.2.3 Graphs and Trees . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.2.4 Graph Search . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.3 Complete Path Planners . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .355355356357358360360364366367370Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

Contentsv10.4 Grid Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.4.1 Multi-Resolution Grid Representation .10.4.2 Grid Methods with Motion Constraints10.5 Sampling Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.5.1 The RRT Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . .10.5.2 The PRM Algorithm . . . . . . . . . . .10.6 Virtual Potential Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.6.1 A Point in C-space . . . . . . . . . . . .10.6.2 Navigation Functions . . . . . . . . . . .10.6.3 Workspace Potential . . . . . . . . . . .10.6.4 Wheeled Mobile Robots . . . . . . . . .10.6.5 Use of Potential Fields in Planners . . .10.7 Nonlinear Optimization . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.8 Smoothing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.9 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.10Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10.11Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Robot Control11.1 Control System Overview . . . . . . . . . . .11.2 Error Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.2.1 Error Response . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.2.2 Linear Error Dynamics . . . . . . . .11.3 Motion Control with Velocity Inputs . . . . .11.3.1 Motion Control of a Single Joint . . .11.3.2 Motion Control of a Multi-joint Robot11.3.3 Task-Space Motion Control . . . . . .11.4 Motion Control with Torque or Force Inputs .11.4.1 Motion Control of a Single Joint . . .11.4.2 Motion Control of a Multi-joint Robot11.4.3 Task-Space Motion Control . . . . . .11.5 Force Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.6 Hybrid Motion–Force Control . . . . . . . . .11.6.1 Natural and Artificial Constraints . .11.6.2 A Hybrid Motion–Force Controller . .11.7 Impedance Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11.7.1 Impedance-Control Algorithm . . . . .11.7.2 Admittance-Control Algorithm . . . .11.8 Low-Level Joint Force/Torque Control . . . .11.9 Other Topics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9441443445446447450Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

viContents11.10Summary . . . . . .11.11Software . . . . . . .11.12Notes and References11.13Exercises . . . . . .45145345445512 Grasping and Manipulation12.1 Contact Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.1.1 First-Order Analysis of a Single Contact . . . . . . .12.1.2 Contact Types: Rolling, Sliding, and Breaking Free .12.1.3 Multiple Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.1.4 Collections of Bodies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.1.5 Other Types of Contacts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.1.6 Planar Graphical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.1.7 Form Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.2 Contact Forces and Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.2.1 Friction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.2.2 Planar Graphical Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.2.3 Force Closure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.2.4 Duality of Force and Motion Freedoms . . . . . . . .12.3 Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.5 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12.6 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0550613 Wheeled Mobile Robots13.1 Types of Wheeled Mobile Robots . . . .13.2 Omnidirectional Wheeled Mobile Robots13.2.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.2.2 Motion Planning . . . . . . . . .13.2.3 Feedback Control . . . . . . . . .13.3 Nonholonomic Wheeled Mobile Robots .13.3.1 Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.3.2 Controllability . . . . . . . . . .13.3.3 Motion Planning . . . . . . . . .13.3.4 Feedback Control . . . . . . . . .13.4 Odometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.5 Mobile Manipulation . . . . . . . . . . .13.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13.7 Notes and References . . . . . . . . . . .13.8 Exercises . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

ContentsviiA Summary of Useful FormulasB Other Representations of RotationsB.1 Euler Angles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B.1.1 Algorithm for Computing the ZYXB.1.2 Other Euler Angle RepresentationsB.2 Roll–Pitch–Yaw Angles . . . . . . . . . .B.3 Unit Quaternions . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B.4 Cayley–Rodrigues Parameters . . . . . . .567. . . . . . . .Euler Angles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C Denavit–Hartenberg ParametersC.1 Assigning Link Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C.2 Why Four Parameters are Sufficient . . . . . . . . .C.3 Manipulator Forward Kinematics . . . . . . . . . . .C.4 Examples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C.5 Relation Between the PoE and D–H RepresentationsC.6 A Final Comparison . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .577577579579582583584.587587591592593595597D Optimization and Lagrange Multipliers599Bibliography601Index617Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

viiiContentsDec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

Foreword by RogerBrockettIn the 1870s, Felix Klein was developing his far-reaching Erlangen Program,which cemented the relationship between geometry and group theoretic ideas.With Sophus Lie’s nearly simultaneous development of a theory of continuous(Lie) groups, important new tools involving infinitesimal analysis based on Liealgebraic ideas became available for the study of a very wide range of geometric problems. Even today, the thinking behind these ideas continues to guidedevelopments in important areas of mathematics. Kinematic mechanisms are,of course, more than just geometry; they need to accelerate, avoid collisions,etc., but first of all they are geometrical objects and the ideas of Klein and Lieapply. The groups of rigid motions in two or three dimensions, as they appearin robotics, are important examples in the work of Klein and Lie.In the mathematics literature the representation of elements of a Lie group interms of exponentials usually takes one of two different forms. These are knownas exponential coordinates of the first kind and exponential coordinates of thesecond kind. For the first kind one has X e(A1 x1 A2 x2 ··· ) . For the second kindthis is replaced by X eA1 x1 eA2 x2 · · · . Up until now, the first choice has foundlittle utility in the study of kinematics whereas the second choice, a special casehaving already shown up in Euler parametrizations of the orthogonal group,turns out to be remarkably well-suited for the description of open kinematicchains consisting of the concatenation of single degree of freedom links. Thisis all nicely explained in Chapter 4 of this book. Together with the fact that 1P eA P 1 eP AP , the second form allows one to express a wide variety ofkinematic problems very succinctly. From a historical perspective, the use ofthe product of exponentials to represent robotic movement, as the authors havedone here, can be seen as illustrating the practical utility of the 150-year-oldideas of the geometers Klein and Lie.In 1983 I was invited to speak at the triennial Mathematical Theory of Netix

xForewordworks and Systems Conference in Beer Sheva, Israel, and after a little thoughtI decided to try to explain something about what my recent experiences hadtaught me. By then I had some experience in teaching a robotics course thatdiscussed kinematics, including the use of the product of exponentials representation of kinematic chains. From the 1960s onward eAt had played a centralrole in system theory and signal processing, so at this conference a familiarity,even an affection, for the matrix exponential could be counted on. Given this, itwas natural for me to pick something eAx -related for the talk. Although I hadno reason to think that there would be many in the audience with an interestin kinematics, I still hoped I could say something interesting and maybe eveninspire further developments. The result was the paper referred to in the prefacethat follows.In this book, Frank and Kevin have provided a wonderfully clear and patientexplanation of their subject. They translate the foundation laid out by Kleinand Lie 150 years ago to the modern practice of robotics, at a level appropriatefor undergraduate engineers. After an elegant discussion of fundamental properties of configuration spaces, they introduce the Lie group representations ofrigid-body configurations, and the corresponding representations of velocitiesand forces, used throughout the book. This consistent perspective is carriedthrough foundational robotics topics including forward, inverse, and differentialkinematics of open chains, robot dynamics, trajectory generation, and robotcontrol, and more specialized topics such as kinematics of closed chains, motionplanning, robot manipulation, planning and control for wheeled mobile robots,and control of mobile manipulators.I am confident that this book will be a valuable resource for a generation ofstudents and practitioners of robotics.Roger BrockettCambridge, Massachusetts, USANovember, 2016Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

Foreword by MatthewMasonRobotics is about turning ideas into action. Somehow, robots turn abstractgoals into physical action: sending power to motors, monitoring motions, andguiding things towards the goal. Every human can perform this trick, but itis nonetheless so intriguing that it has captivated philosophers and scientists,including Descartes and many others.What is the secret? Did some roboticist have a eureka moment? Did somepair of teenage entrepreneurs hit on the key idea in their garage? To the contrary, it is not a single idea. It is a substantial body of scientific and engineering results, accumulated over centuries. It draws primarily from mathematics,physics, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, and computer science,but also from philosophy, psychology, biology and other fields.Robotics is the gathering place of these ideas. Robotics provides motivation.Robotics tests ideas and steers continuing research. Finally, robotics is theproof. Observing a robot’s behavior is the nearly compelling proof that machinescan be aware of their surroundings, can develop meaningful goals, and can acteffectively to accomplish those goals. The same principles apply to a thermostator a fly-ball governor, but few are persuaded by watching a thermostat. Nearlyall are persuaded by watching a robot soccer team.The heart of robotics is motion – controlled programmable motion – whichbrings us to the present text. Modern Robotics imparts the most importantinsights of robotics: the nature of motion, the motions available to rigid bodies,the use of kinematic constraint to organize motions, the mechanisms that enablegeneral programmable motion, the static and dynamic character of mechanisms,and the challenges and approaches to control, programming, and planning motions. Modern Robotics presents this material with a clarity that makes it accessible to undergraduate students. It is distinguished from other undergraduatetexts in two important ways.xi

xiiForewordFirst, in addressing rigid-body motion, Modern Robotics presents not onlythe classical geometrical underpinnings and representations, but also their expression using modern matrix exponentials, and the connection to Lie algebras.The rewards to the students are two-fold: a deeper understanding of motion,and better practical tools.Second, Modern Robotics goes beyond a focus on robot mechanisms to address the interaction with objects in the surrounding world. When robots makecontact with the real world, the result is an ad hoc kinematic mechanism, withassociated statics and dynamics. The mechanism includes kinematic loops, unactuated joints, and nonholonomic constraints, all of which will be familiarconcepts to students of Modern Robotics.Even if this is the only robotics course students take, it will enable themto analyze, control, and program a wide range of physical systems. With itsintroduction to the mechanics of physical interaction, Modern Robotics is alsoan excellent beginning for the student who intends to continue with advancedcourses or with original research in robotics.Matthew T. MasonPittsburgh, PA, USANovember, 2016Dec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

PrefaceIt was at the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation inPasadena in 2008 when, over a beer, we decided to write an undergraduatetextbook on robotics. Since 1996, Frank had been teaching robot kinematics toSeoul National University undergraduates using his own lecture notes; by 2008these notes had evolved to the kernel around which this book was written. Kevinhad been teaching his introductory robotics class at Northwestern Universityfrom his own set of notes, with content drawn from an eclectic collection ofpapers and books.We believe that there is a distinct and unifying perspective to mechanics,planning, and control for robots that is lost if these subjects are studied independently, or as part of other more traditional subjects. At the 2008 meeting,we noted the lack of a textbook that (a) treated these topics in a unified way,with plenty of exercises and figures, and (b), most importantly, was writtenat a level appropriate for a first robotics course for undergraduates with onlyfreshman-level physics, ordinary differential equations, linear algebra, and a little bit of computing background. We decided that the only sensible recoursewas to write such a book ourselves. (We didn’t know then that it would takeus more than eight years to finish the project!)A second motivation for this book, and one that we believe sets it apart fromother introductory treatments on robotics, is its emphasis on modern geometrictechniques. Often the most salient physical features of a robot are best capturedby a geometric description. The advantages of the geometric approach have beenrecognized for quite some time by practitioners of classical screw theory. Whathas made these tools largely inaccessible to undergraduates—the primary target audience for this book—is that they require an entirely new language ofnotations and constructs (screws, twists, wrenches, reciprocity, transversality,conjugacy, etc.), and their often obscure rules for manipulation and transformation. On the other hand, the mostly algebraic alternatives to screw theoryoften mean that students end up buried in the details of calculation, losing thexiii

xivPrefacesimple and elegant geometric interpretation that lies at the heart of what theyare calculating.The breakthrough that makes the techniques of classical screw theory accessible to a more general audience arrived in the early 1980’s, when RogerBrockett showed how to mathematically describe kinematic chains in terms ofthe Lie group structure of the rigid-body motions [20]. This discovery allowedone, among other things, to re-invent screw theory simply by appealing to basiclinear algebra and linear differential equations. With this “modern screw theory” the powerful tools of modern differential geometry can be brought to bearon a wide-ranging collection of robotics problems, some of which we explorehere, others of which are covered in the excellent but more advanced graduatetextbook by Murray, Li and Sastry [122].As the title indicates, this book covers what we feel to be the fundamentalsof robot mechanics, together with the basics of planning and control. A thorough treatment of all the chapters would likely take two semesters, particularlywhen coupled with programming assignments or experiments with robots. Thecontents of Chapters 2-6 constitute the minimum essentials, and these topicsshould probably be covered in sequence.The instructor can then selectively choose content from the remaining chapters. At Seoul National University, the undergraduate course M2794.0027 Introduction to Robotics covers, in one semester, Chapters 2-7 and parts of Chapters10, 11, and 12. At Northwestern, ME 449 Robotic Manipulation covers, in an 11week quarter, Chapters 2-6 and 8, then touches on different topics in Chapters9-13 depending on the interests of the students and instructor. A course focusing on the kinematics of robot arms and wheeled vehicles could cover chapters2-7 and 13, while a course on kinematics and motion planning could additionally include Chapters 9 and 10. A course on the mechanics of manipulationwould cover Chapters 2-6, 8, and 12, while a course on robot control wouldcover Chapters 2-6, 8, 9, and 11. If the instructor prefers to avoid dynamics(Chapter 8), the basics of robot control (Chapters 11 and 13) can be covered byassuming control of velocity at each actuator, not forces and torques. A coursefocusing only on motion planning could cover Chapters 2 and 3, Chapter 10 indepth (possibly supplemented by research papers or other references cited inthat chapter), and Chapter 13.To help the instructor choose which topics to teach and to help the studentkeep track of what she has learned, we have included a summary at the end ofeach chapter and a summary of important notation and formulas used throughout the book (Appendix A). For those whose primary interest in this text isas an introductory reference, we have attempted to provide a reasonably comprehensive, though by no means exhaustive, set of references and bibliographicDec 2019 preprint of updated first edition of Modern Robotics, 2017. http://modernrobotics.org

Prefacexvnotes at the end of each chapter. Some of the exercises provided at the end ofeach chapter extend the basic results covered in the book, and for those whowish to probe further, these should be of some interest in their own right. Someof the more advanced material in the book can be used to support independentstudy projects.Another important component of the book is the software, which is writtento reinforce the concepts in the book and to make the formulas operational. Thesoftware was developed primarily by Kevin’s ME 449 students at Northwesternand is freely downloadable from http://modernrobotics.org. Video lecturesthat accompany the textbook are also be available at the website. The intent ofthe video content is to “flip” the classroom. Students watch the brief lectureson their own time, rewinding and rewatching as needed, and class time is focused more on collaborative problem-solving. This way, the professor is presentwhen the students are applying the material and discovering the gaps in theirunderstanding, creating the opportunity for inter

Modern Robotics: Mechanics, Planning, and Control Kevin M. Lynch and Frank C. Park Cambridge University Press, 2017 This updated rst edition, rst available for purchase from Cambridge Univer-sity Press in late 2019, includes several corrections and minor additions to the original rst edition, rst published in May 2017, ISBN 9781107156302. The

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