Liquid Penetrant And Magnetic Particle Testing At Level 2

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TRAINING COURSE SERIES No. 11Liquid Penetrant and MagneticParticle Testing at Level 2Manual for the SyllabiContained in IAEA-TECDOC-628,“Training Guidelines inNon-destructive Testing Techniques”INTERNATIONAL ATOMIC ENERGY AGENCY, 2000

The originating Section of this publication in the IAEA was:Industrial Applications and Chemistry SectionInternational Atomic Energy AgencyWagramer Strasse 5P.O. Box 100A-1400 Vienna, AustriaLIQUID PENETRANT AND MAGNETIC PARTICLE TESTING AT LEVEL 2IAEA, VIENNA, 2000IAEA-TCS-11 IAEA, 2000Printed by the IAEA in AustriaFebruary 2000

FOREWORDThe International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has been active in the promotion of nondestructive testing (NDT) technology in the world for many decades. The prime reason for thisinterest has been the need for stringent standards for quality control for safe operation ofindustrial as well a nuclear installations. It has successfully executed a number of programmesand regional projects of which NDT was an important part. Through these programmes a largenumber of persons have been trained in the member states and a state of self sufficiency in thisarea of technology has been achieved in many of them.All along there has been a realization of the need to have well established trainingguidelines and related books in order, firstly, to guide the IAEA experts who were involved in thistraining programme and, secondly, to achieve some level of international uniformity andharmonization of training materials and consequent competence of personnel.The syllabi for training courses have been published in the form of two TECDOCpublications. The first was IAEA-TECDOC-407 which contained syllabi for the basic fivemethods, i.e. liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographictesting and ultrasonic testing, and the second and revised is IAEA-TECDOC-628 which includesadditional methods of visual testing and leak testing. IAEA-TECDOC-628, as well as most of theinternational standards on the subject of training and certification of NDT personnel includingISO 9712, define three levels of competence, namely, Level 1, Level 2 and Level 3. Among these,Level 1 is the lowest and Level 3 the highest. The intermediate Level 2 is considered to be themost appropriate for persons who, beside other duties, are expected to independently undertakepractical testing in the relevant method of NDT; develop NDT procedures adapted to variousproblems; prepare written instructions; make accept/reject decisions in accordance with relevantstandards and specifications; be able to train and supervise the Level 1 staff under them andorganize and report NDT results.The next logical step is to compile the textbooks and training manuals in accordance withthese syllabi. Work in this regard has been undertaken and the manuals on radiographic testingand ultrasonic testing have already been issued in 1992 and 1999, respectively, in the TrainingCourse Series.Compilation of this book is a continuation of that effort. These methods, in spite of theirapparent simplicity, are the most widely used NDT methods to determine surface discontinuities,even in the most sophisticated of industries, including the nuclear and aerospace industries. Thefirst draft of the book was put together by a group of consultants from Canada, Germany, India,Spain and Romania. It was reviewed by the National Centre for Non-destructive Testing(NCNDT) in Pakistan to bring it as close as possible to the syllabus requirements of IAEATECDOC-628. This has been done by putting in additional material wherever needed and thenrearranging the whole in accordance with the format of Level 2 Surface Method Testing syllabi inIAEA-TECDOC-628.The section on materials, manufacturing processes and defects, which is common to allthe NDT methods, has been adapted from the previous publications in the Training Course Serieson Level 2 Radiographic and Ultrasonic Testing. An extensive bibliography at the end covers allthe publications which were used in the compilation as well as those which can be consulted forfurthering the knowledge of testing of materials using surface methods.

The IAEA wishes to express its appreciation to all those who contributed to theproduction of these Training Course Notes and to the governments and organizations whosefinancial and technical support made this publication possible.The IAEA officer responsible for this publication was A.A. Khan of the Division ofPhysical and Chemical Sciences.EDITORIAL NOTEThe use of particular designations of countries or territories does not imply any judgement by thepublisher, the IAEA, as to the legal status of such countries or territories, of their authorities andinstitutions or of the delimitation of their boundaries.The mention of names of specific companies or products (whether or not indicated as registered) doesnot imply any intention to infringe proprietary rights, nor should it be construed as an endorsementor recommendation on the part of the IAEA.

CONTENTS1.GENERAL KNOWLEDGE . principles of non-destructive testing (NDT). 11.1.1. Definition and importance of NDT . 11.1.2. Types of NDT methods . 11.1.3. Visual testing (VT). 21.1.4. Liquid penetrant testing (PT) . 31.1.5. Magnetic particle testing (MT) . 51.1.6. Eddy current testing (ET) . 71.1.7. Radiographic testing method (RT). 101.1.8. Ultrasonic testing (UT). 141.1.9. Comparison of different NDT methods . 16Materials and defects. 161.2.1. Structure of metals and alloys . 161.2.2. Properties of materials (metallic & non-metallic). 231.2.3. Discontinuities and defects in metallic materials. 27Processing and defects. 281.3.1. Primary processes and related defects. 281.3.2. Manufacturing processes and related defects. 42Materials in service. 801.4.1. Behaviour of materials in service. 801.4.2. Conditions leading to defects and failures . 801.4.3. Concepts of rupture development in metals. 88Quality and standardization . 881.5.1. Quality. 881.5.2. Quality control. 891.5.3. Quality assurance . 891.5.4. Examination and testing. 891.5.5. Inspection . 901.5.6. Process of standardization. 901.5.7. Guides and recommended practices. 901.5.8. Standards . 901.5.9. Codes and specifications . 911.5.10. Procedure. 911.5.11. Protocols. 911.5.12. Report. 911.5.13. Records. 911.5.14. Development of a quality system . 91PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF THE TEST (PT) . 972. description of the method . 97Properties of liquid penetrants. 972.2.1. Viscosity. 972.2.2. Surface tension . 982.2.3. Angle of contact between liquid and solid . 992.2.4. Capillarity. 99Behaviour of liquid penetrants . 1002.3.1. Wettability. 100

trability . 100Washability. 101Retention and bleeding. 101Influence of surface state of the sample, thecontamination and temperature . 101Solutions and dispersions . 1022.4.1. Solvents . 1022.4.2. Dispersive agents. 1022.4.3. Emulsifiers . 102Mechanism of development . 1032.5.1. Granulometry of powders. 1032.5.2. Types and phenomena of fine powder aggregation. 1032.5.3. Suspension of powders in liquids. 104Luminous and ultravoilet spectrum . 1052.6.1. Colour & fluorescence . 1052.6.2. Colours . 1052.6.3. Absorption of light . 1062.6.4. Beer's law . 1062.6.5. Fluorescent pigments. 106Basic formulation of penetrating liquids with oily andnon oily base. 1062.7.1. Additives and conditioners. 106Removers used in the process. 1072.8.1. Basic formulation and properties . 1072.8.2. Emulsifiers . 1072.8.3. Lipophilic and hydrophilic agents. 107PROCESSING (PT). 1093. of the work-pieces, treatment, identification andprotection of the areas not to be examined. 1093.1.1. Treatment . 1093.1.2. Identification . 109Cleaning prior to inspection . 1103.2.1. Various techniques applicable. 1103.2.2. Conditions and limitations of thedifferent cleaning techniques . 1113.2.3. Comparison of the effectiveness of the different techniquesin relation to the surface state of the specimen . 112Conditions and requirements for the different drying stages. 1123.3.1. Use of cold and hot air . 1123.3.2. Temperature and time. 112Inspection process. 1133.4.1. Application of penetrating agent . 1133.4.2. Removal of excess penetrating agent . 1163.4.3. Conditions for the application of lipophilic andhydrophilic emulsifiers. 1193.4.4. Application of the developer . 119Observation of indications. 1223.5.1. Lighting conditions for coloured liquids andUV radiation for fluorescent liquids. 122 EQUIPMENT AND MATERIALS (PT) . 1294. Sequence and time of observation. 1223.5.3. Interpretation of the findings and identification of thetype of defects . 1223.5.4. Spurious or non-relevant indications . 125Recording of findings . 1263.6.1. Test report forms . 1263.6.2. Localization schemes . 1263.6.3. Transfer of findings. 1263.6.4. Photographic techniques . 1263.6.5. Writing reports . 127Testing techniques for detection of leaks by means of liquid penetrants . 128Evaluation of the materials used in the test . 1294.1.1. Penetrating agents . 1294.1.2. Removers. 1354.1.3. Emulsifiers . 1364.1.4. Developers. 136Cleaning equipment. 1414.2.1. Degreasing vapour. 1414.2.2. Ultrasonic cleaning. 142Compressed air equipment . 1434.3.1. Air filters . 1434.3.2. Supply of cold and hot air . 1434.3.3. Compressed air pistols . 1434.3.4. Electrostatic pulverizers . 1444.3.5. Aerosoles. 145Stationary installations for processing by immersion. 1454.4.1. Stations. 1454.4.2. Auxiliary equipment. 1494.4.3. Automatic installations. 150Light sources and light meters. 1524.5.1. Ultraviolet (UV) radiation sources (black light) andmeters for measuring UV radiation intensity . 1524.5.2. Measurement of ultraviolet radiation intensity . 1544.5.3. Checking the efficiency of ultraviolet lamps . 1554.5.4. Cabinets for observation of fluorescent penetrating liquids. 155Standardized work pieces for evaluating processes andqualifying procedures . 1564.6.1. Comparator test blocks. 1564.6.2. Non-standardized test pieces for checking penetrability. 1584.6.3. Equipment for checking fluorescence efficiency ofUV lamps . 158CODES, STANDARDS, PROCEDURES AND SAFETY (PT) . 1615.1.5.2.Standards applicable to liquid penetrant testing. 1615.1.1. Test methods . 1615.1.2. Materials for the test. 1625.1.3. American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) Code . 162Test specifications and procedures . 164 Interpretation . 1655.2.2. Fo

methods, i.e. liquid penetrant testing, magnetic particle testing, eddy current testing, radiographic testing and ultrasonic testing, and the second and revised is IAEA-TECDOC-628 which includes additional methods of visual testing and leak testing.

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