Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

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semesterArt, Crafts andCalligraphyCOURSE GUIDEAssociate Degree in Education/B.Ed. (Hons) Elementary20123

This product has been made possible by the support of the American People through the United States Agency forInternational Development (USAID). The contents of this report are the sole responsibility of the authors, and donot necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the United States Government.Technical Support: Education Development Centre (EDC); Teacher’s College, Columbia University

ForewordTeacher education in Pakistan is leaping into the future. This updated Scheme of Studies is the latestmilestone in a journey that began in earnest in 2006 with the development of a National Curriculum,which was later augmented by the 2008 National Professional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan andthe 2010 Curriculum of Education Scheme of Studies. With these foundations in place, the HigherEducation Commission (HEC) and the USAID Teacher Education Project engaged faculty across thenation to develop detailed syllabi and course guides for the four-year B.Ed. (Hons) Elementary andtwo-year Associate Degree in Education (ADE).The syllabi and course guides have been reviewed by the National Curriculum Review Committee(NCRC) and the syllabi are approved as the updated Scheme of Studies for the ADE and B.Ed. (Hons)Elementary programs.As an educator, I am especially inspired by the creativity and engagement of this updated Scheme ofStudies. It offers the potential for a seismic change in how we educate our teachers and ultimately ourcountry’s youngsters. Colleges and universities that use programs like these provide their studentswith the universally valuable tools of critical thinking, hands-on learning, and collaborative study.I am grateful to all who have contributed to this exciting process; in particular the faculty and stafffrom universities, colleges, and provincial institutions who gave freely of their time and expertise forthe purpose of preparing teachers with the knowledge, skills, and dispositions required for nurturingstudents in elementary grades. Their contributions to improving the quality of basic education inPakistan are incalculable. I would also like to thank the distinguished NCRC members, who helpedfurther enrich the curricula by their recommendations. The generous support received from theUnited States Agency for International Development (USAID) enabled HEC to draw on technicalassistance and subject-matter expertise of the scholars at Education Development Center, Inc., andTeachers College-Columbia University. Together, this partnership has produced a vitally importantresource for Pakistan.PROF. DR. SOHAIL NAQVI,Executive Director,Higher Education Commission,Islamabad.ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARYii

How this course guide was developedAs part of nation-wide reforms to improve the quality of teacher education, theHigher Education Commission (HEC) with technical assistance from the USAIDTeacher Education Project engaged faculty across the nation to develop detailedsyllabi and course guides for the four-year B.Ed. (Hons) Elementary and two-yearAssociate Degree in Education (ADE).The process of designing the syllabi and course guides began with a curriculumdesign workshop (one workshop for each subject) with faculty from universitiesand colleges and officials from provincial teacher education apex institutions.With guidance from national and international subject experts, they reviewed theHEC scheme of studies, organized course content across the semester, developeddetailed unit descriptions and prepared the course syllabi. Although the coursesyllabi are designed primarily for Student Teachers, they are useful resource forteacher educators too.In addition, participants in the workshops developed elements of a course guide.The course guide is designed for faculty teaching the B.Ed. (Hons) Elementaryand the ADE. It provides suggestions for how to teach the content of eachcourse and identifies potential resource materials. In designing both the syllabiand the course guides, faculty and subject experts were guided by the NationalProfessional Standards for Teachers in Pakistan 2009 and the National Curriculum2006. The subject experts for each course completed the initial drafts of syllabiand course guides.Faculty and Student Teachers started using drafts of syllabi and course guides andthey provided their feedback and suggestions for improvement. Final drafts werereviewed and approved by the National Curriculum Review Committee (NCRC).iiiHOW THIS COURSE GUIDE WAS DEVELOPED

The following faculty were involved in designing this course guide: NaurinKanwal GECE (W) Hyderabad; Shahnaz Begum, RITE (F) Abbottabad;Neelam Shezadi GCET Faisalabad; Sadaf Raza, Allama Iqbal OpenUniversity, Islamabad; Muhammad Rauf, IER University of Peshawar; SyedaNadia Raza, Allama Iqbal Open University, Islamabad; Dr. Sanaullah, AllamaIqbal Open University, Islamabad; Zahida Mubeen, GCEE (F) Pishin; TahseenZehra, GECE (W) Hussainabad, Karachi; Dr. Mussarat Anwar Sheikh, FatimaJinnah Women University, Rawalpindi; Rubina Mushair GECE, Hussainabad,Karachi; Abida Manzoor, GCET (F) DG Khan; Dr. Abdul Hafeez, GCET (M)Faisalabad; Mamoona Zahid, Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi;Rukhsana Said, University of AJK; Tehseen Muhammad, IER University ofthe Punjab, Lahore; Mahmood Jan, GCEE, Panjgoor; Wasina Talat, SardarBahadur Khan Women University, Quetta; Ayaz Mughal, Sindh University;Muhmmad Amin, GCE (M) Gilgit; Asia Shah, Hazara University, Mansehra.Subject expert guiding course design: Ms Afshan Razzaque, Sindh EducationFoundation.Date of NCRC review: 3 March 2011NCRC Reviewers: Dr. Uzma Qureshi, Chairperson Lahore College WomenUniversity; Dr. Mumtaz Akhtar Director IER, University of the Punjab,Lahore; Dr. Mussaret Sheikh, Chairperson Education Department, FatimahJinnah Women University, Rawalpindi.ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARYiv

Table of ContentsSyllabus08UNIT 1Course introduction21UNIT 2History and culture31UNIT 3Elements and principles of design39UNIT 4Crafts44UNIT 5Assessing art, crafts, and calligraphy in the classroom,and exhibition57Course Resources61

SyllabusART, CRAFTS AND CALLIGRAPHY

ART, CRAFTS AND CALLIGRAPHYYear/semesterYear 2, Semester 3Credit value3 creditsPrerequisitesNoneCourse descriptionThe Art, Crafts, and Calligraphy course will help prepare Student Teachers to teachthese subjects in the elementary grades. It provides Student Teachers with an opportunity to develop their knowledge and understanding of art, crafts, and calligraphy(with a focus on Pakistani artists, calligraphers, and craftsmen and women) and topractice making their own works using a variety of techniques. Given that this isa teacher education course, Student Teachers also examine the role of art in childdevelopment; the importance of art, craft, and calligraphy in the curriculum; and thelinks between art, crafts, and calligraphy and other subjects such as science, math,and social studies. Student Teachers will have learned about lesson planning, classroom assessment, and classroom management in other courses; in this course theywill focus on these three skills as they apply to teaching and learning art, crafts, andcalligraphy in the elementary grades.Course goalsBy the end of the semester, Student Teachers will be able to: explain the importance of art education and its role in child development recognize and appreciate artists, art styles, and artwork explain the origins and development of a variety of crafts in Pakistan use a variety of tools and materials to make art, crafts, and calligraphy explain and apply elements and principles of design identify links between art and other school subjects assess children’s work in art, crafts, and calligraphy plan appropriate art, craft, and calligraphy activities for children inelementary grades present a portfolio of their work that conveys their appreciation and interestin art, crafts, and calligraphy and presents evidence of their knowledge, skills,and dispositions for teaching these subjects.09COURSE SYLLABUS: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

Learning and teaching approachesAs with other courses in the ADE/B.Ed (Hons) Elementary program, the Art, Crafts,and Calligraphy course encourages a variety of teaching and learning approaches.Instruction should aim to provide opportunities for Student Teachers to develop theirown understanding of course content and to experiment with their own ideas andnew techniques. Collaboration and interaction with peers and with the Instructor todiscuss art, crafts, and calligraphy will be encouraged.Although Student Teachers are encouraged to pursue their own interests in art, crafts,and calligraphy, the intent of the course is to prepare for teaching, and so the teaching-learning approaches used should model the approach to art, crafts, and calligraphyin an elementary classroom.Depending on where your college or university is located, this course may involvevisits to museums and/or art galleries. All Student Teachers, no matter where they arelocated, should aim to meet local craftsmen and women.An important element of the course is the portfolio. All Student Teachers are requiredto make a portfolio that will be assessed at the end of the course. The portfolio andhow it will be graded should be discussed in the first unit of the course.Semester outline1UNIT 1:Introduction to the Art, Crafts, and Calligraphy courseWeek #Topics/themesIntroduction to art education1 Overview of the course What is art? What is craft? The course portfolioApproaches to art teaching2 Art and child development Why teach art and craft in elementary grades The role of the teacher in teaching art, crafts, and calligraphyUnit learning goalsAt the end of the unit, Student Teachers will be able to:llcritically discuss the question ‘what is art’?llexplain ways in which art and craft are similar and different from each otherllanalyse and discuss examples of children’s art with reference to children’sdevelopmental stages in artllidentify the attributes required to teach art in the elementary grades.ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY10

Essential questions What is art? What is craft? What are children’s developmental stages in art? Why is art, crafts, and calligraphy education important? What attributes do teachers require to teach art, crafts, and calligraphy inthe elementary grades? How can teachers interact with children to support their creative development?2UNIT 2:History and cultureWeek #Topics/themesArt and culture in ancient Indus Valley civilizations3 Art and crafts (the development of pottery and metalwork, printing oncloth, bead making) Planning teaching and learning based on the art and culture of ancientIndus Valley civilizationsApproaches to art teaching4 Art and child development Why teach art and craft in elementary grades The role of the teacher in teaching art, crafts, and calligraphyCalligraphy5 Calligraphy in different cultures and traditions around the world Persian artists and their calligraphy Pakistani calligraphers (Anwar Jalal Shemza, Syed Sadequain Ahmed Naqvi,Ismail Gulgee, and Shakir Ali) Making calligraphy using different tools and mediums20th-century art in Pakistan611 Introduction to Cubism (Pakistani artists Shakir Ali and Mansoor Rahi) Introduction to realism (Pakistani artists Ali Imam, Iqbal Hussain, KhalidIqbal, and Anna Molka Ahmed) Introduction to abstraction (Pakistani artists Ahmed ParvezCOURSE SYLLABUS: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

Unit learning goalsAt the end of the unit, Students Teachers will be able to:llgive examples of how art is a product of the particular culture in whichis producedlldiscuss the key features of Islamic artllexplain the significance of calligraphy in Islamic art and culture,and how it developedllexplore how manipulating and embellishing letters, words, and textcan enhance, or change, meaningllrecognize and appreciate artists, art styles, and artworklldescribe Cubism, realism, and abstraction.Essential questions Does art reflect culture or shape it? How is culture and tradition expressed through art? What is Islamic art? How can I use Islamic art to teach math and other subjects? How can writing be manipulated and embellished to convey meaningthrough its appearance (beyond its literal meaning)? What are Cubism, realism, and abstraction in art?3UNIT 3:Elements and principles of designWeek #Topics/themesThe elements and principles of design (lines and colour)7 Elements of art and their importance: line, shape, form, space, texture,value, and colour Lines and what they do in art Types of lines: vertical, horizontal, diagonal, zigzag, and curved Line variation, length, width, and texture Colour and the colour wheel (primary, secondary, and tertiary colours) Characteristics of colour: hue, value, and intensityThe elements and principles of design (size, shape, and texture)8 Use of spaceTwo dimensions and three dimensions in artGeometric shapes and formsOrganic shapes and formsTextureASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY12

3UNIT 3:Elements and principles of designWeek #Topics/themes9Printing and patterns Printing: vegetable printing, leaf printing, and block printing Pattern making: geometrical and organic patternsDrawing and painting 10 and 11Pencil drawing, graphite drawing, crayons, pastels, etc.Shading techniquesPaintingStill lifeLandscapeUnit learning goalsAt the end of the unit, Students Teachers will be able to:llanalyse how the elements of art and design principles are used to communicateideas and feelingsllcreate art for specific purposes using the elements of art to communicate ideasllexperience using different mediums for expression in artllapply art vocabulary in daily work.Essential questions What are the elements and principles of design? How do I use the elements and principles of design to create and critiqueartwork? How can the elements and principles of design influence the viewer’sperception of work?13COURSE SYLLABUS: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

4UNIT 4:CraftsWeek #Topics/themesCrafts in Pakistan12 Crafts practiced and made in Pakistan Crafts and technology Doing craftwork and making handicrafts (for example, puppets and puppetry,textiles, making beads, making mosaics and mirror work, and pottery). 1Doing crafts with children in the elementary grades13 Doing craftwork and handicrafts Crafts across the curriculum Doing crafts with children in the elementary gradeUnit learning goalsllAt the end of the unit, Students Teachers will be able to:lldescribe the variety of crafts produced in Pakistanllexplain links between locations and crafts produced, and broader links to the cultureand communities that produce themlldiscuss ways in which developments in technology have changed the way craftsare madellreflect on and critique crafts that they and their peers produce.lldesign craft activities for children in elementary gradesllgive examples of links between crafts and other areas of the curriculum.Essential questions How are crafts linked to the places where they are produced? Who are the craftsmen and craftswomen of Pakistan? What crafts are produced locally and by whom? What can children learn from doing and making crafts? How are craft activities linked to learning across the curriculum?These are examples. You shouldchoose crafts appropriate to your location and resources available.1ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY14

5UNIT 5:Assessing art, crafts, and calligraphy in the classroom, andexhibitionWeek #Topics/themesPreparing to teach art, crafts, and calligraphy Connecting art, crafts, and calligraphy across the curriculum Managing art, crafts, and calligraphy in the classroom What is assessment in art, crafts, and calligraphy education?14Preparing to teach art, crafts, and calligraphy, continued Assessing children’s learning during an art activity Assessment rubrics Planning for art, crafts, and calligraphy1516Exhibition and portfolios Arts and crafts exhibition Display and assessment of Student Teacher projects and portfoliosUnit learning goalsAt the end of the unit, Students Teachers will be able to:llcritically discuss the value of assessing learning in art education inelementary gradesllidentify opportunities for assessment in an art, crafts, or calligraphyactivity or lessonllplan for assessment in an art, crafts, or calligraphy activity or lesson.Essential questions What planning is required for teaching and learning art, crafts, orcalligraphy? How can I integrate art, crafts, and calligraphy with other subjects? How is assessment in art, crafts, and calligraphy the same as in othersubjects? How is it different? What art, crafts, and calligraphy knowledge, skills, and attitudes ordispositions should I be assessing? How can I establish effective criteria for assessment in arts?15COURSE SYLLABUS: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

Possible references and resourcesWeb resourcesThis selection of websites is just a small fraction of what is available on the Internetabout teaching art, crafts, and calligraphy. Websites change and are updated, so goonline to create your own list of useful websites.General websitesWhat is an art sparker? It’s a creative prompt that excites your imagination. For a listof art sparkers:ØØ /Generating art ideas:ØØ http://www.bartelart.com/arted/ideas.htmlKinder Art has many ideas around which to plan arts and crafts activitiesfor young children:ØØ http://www.kinderart.com/Principles of art and design‘The Elements and Principles of Art’ is a useful PowerPoint presentation:ØØ 497/elements and principles.pptNational CurriculumNational Curriculum for Drawing Curriculum, Grades V1–V111.Search for the title of this document to download a soft copy (or search http://unesdoc.unesco.org)Child development and art, children’sartistic developmentCaroline Sharp, ‘Developing Young Children’s Creativity: What Can We Learn fromResearch?’ National Foundation for Education Research (2004), available at:ØØ 2.pdfGrace Hwang Lynch, ‘The Importance of Art in Child Development’:ØØ e-importance-of-art-inchild-development/ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY16

Assessment and lesson planningThe following website provides guidance on planning an art lesson:ØØ http://www.getty.edu/education/teachers/building lessons/guide.htmlExample rubrics for the arts:ØØ sess3.htm#singingAssessment resources for art teachers:ØØ r-art-teachers/ØØ ent.htmlIslamic Art and calligraphyThe website of the Jameel Gallery of Islamic Art at the Victoria and Albert Museumincludes images from its extensive collection and ideas for teaching:ØØ allery-of-islamic-art/ØØ http://www.calligraphyislamic.com/ØØ http://www.patterninislamicart.com/Ancient civilizations in the Indus ValleyThe following websites provide information and ideas for teaching about art andcrafts created by ancient civilizations of the Indus Valley:ØØ http://www.harappa.com/har/har0.htmlØØ http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/primaryhistory/indus valley/ØØ http://www.ancientindia.co.uk/indus/home set.htmlØØ to-indus-valley-civilizationblogArt across the curriculumCrayola Dream-Makers is a series of curriculum resources that contain lesson plansfor educators teaching primary grades. Each guide uses visual art lessons to stimulate critical thinking and problem-solving for individual subject areas such as math,language arts, science, and social studies.ØØ tani artistsØØ http://pakistanartreview.net/index.htmlPuppetsØØ hat-types-of-puppets-arethere17COURSE SYLLABUS: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

BooksRob Barnes, Teaching Art to Young Children, 4–9, 2nd ed.(London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2002).Gillian Clements, Indus Valley City (Mankato, MN: Sea-to-Sea Publications, 2009).John Dewey, Art as Experience (New York: Capricorn Books, 1958).E. Eisner, The Arts and the Creation of Mind, chapter 4, ‘What the Arts Teach and HowIt Shows’ (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002).Jamal J. Elias, On Wings of Diesel: Trucks, Identity and Culture in Pakistan(Oxford: Oneworld Publications, 2011).Robert Fisher, Teaching Juniors (Oxford: Blackwell, 1991).Keith Gentle, Teaching Painting in the Primary School (London: Cassell, 1993).Pat Gura, Resources for Early Learning: Children, Adults and Stuff.London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1996).Ijaz Hassan, Painting in Pakistan (Lahore: Ferozsons, 1996).Marjorie Husain, Aspects of Art: An Essential Textbook for Students of Art in Pakistan(Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1997).Peggy Davison Jenkins, Art for the Fun of It: A Guide for Teaching Young Children(Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1986).John Lancaster, Art in the Primary School (London: Routledge, 1990).Viktor Lowenfeld and W. Lambert Brittain, Creative and Mental Growth (New York:The Macmillan Company, 1947).John Matthews, Helping Children to Draw and Paint in Early Childhood: Children andVisual Representation (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1994).M. Hanif Raza, Portrait of Pakistan (Lahore: Ferozsons, 1994).A. Razzak, Children and Art: The Status of Art Education in Pakistan(VDM Verlag Dr. Müller, 2011).A. Razzak, Fun with Paper Bag (Lahore: Ferozsons, 2009).Hazel Richardson, Life in the Ancient Indus River Valley (New York: CrabtreePublications, 2005).ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY18

Marcella Nesom Sirhandi, Contemporary Painting in Pakistan(Lahore: Ferozsons, 1992).Rafya Tahir, Calligraphic Art in Pakistan: Some Myths Uncovered, Jamal, vol. 1 2012(College of Art and Design: University of the Punjab).Pauline Tambling, Performing Arts in the Primary School(Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1990).S. H. Vandal, Art Education in Pakistan: A Case Study of Bringing Art to School Childrenat the Informal Level Pakistan. Paper presented at the UNESCO Regional ExpertSymposium on Arts Education in Asia, Hong Kong, 2004 at: 668582913pakistan.pdf/pakistan.pdfFiona Watt, Art Skills (London: Usborne Publishing, 2008).Fiona Watt, Complete Book of Art Ideas (London: Usborne Publishing, 2009).Saima Zaidi, ed., Mazaar, Bazaar: Design and Visual Culture in Pakistan (Karachi:Oxford University Press, 2010).Course grading policyMultiple techniques of assessment will be used in the course. By using multipleforms of assessment, the Instructor will have an in-depth picture of the knowledge,skills, and dispositions of Student Teachers. The total grade determined by examinations should not exceed 30 per cent of the course grade. Student Teachers are expected to be present in class, engage with activities and discussion, and complete courseassignments. The course Instructor will tell you how the course will be graded andwhich assignments will be graded.One of the best ways to assess this course is via a portfolio. Your course Instructorwill advise you about making a portfolio if one is required.19COURSE SYLLABUS: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

Planning guideThe planning guide is organized by unit.Each unit includes an overview of the unit and a selection of ideas for Instructorsteaching the course. Ideas for teaching are organized by week. The ideas are startingpoints only, and there are many other ideas that Instructors (and Student Teachers)may want to pursue.For units 1 and 5, a complete set of example session plans is provided. Example session plans are also provided for units 2 and 4. Session plans are provided as examplesfor Instructors to try or adapt as needed. Example session plans are designed for aperiod of 50 to 60 minutes.ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY20

UNIT1INTRODUCTION TOTHE ART, CRAFTS, ANDCALLIGRAPHY COURSE

UNIT 5UNIT 4UNIT 3UNIT 2UNIT 1Unit overviewThis unit begins with an overview of the course and the question ‘what is art, whatis craft’, as well as a consideration of the role of calligraphy. The two words (artsand craft) fit together—like cup and tea—and both require creativity. They mightalso use similar materials and the same elements and principles of design. However,a craft is an activity that uses specific materials with a certain goal in mind. Usuallya craft has a set of directions and skills to make to a finished product, and when achild makes a craft, he or she learns to follow directions and solve problems whileworking toward a goal. Art is generally much less directed and more creative—thegoals of a piece of art are less well defined. The difference may also be in the handsof the craftsman or woman and the artist: it depends on the purpose of the piece.There is no correct answer!In the second week of this unit, Student Teachers learn about child development andart, and the importance of art education. They will identify the attributes required forteaching these subjects in elementary grades and consider how teachers promote orhinder creative and artistic development through their interactions with children.Week 1: Introduction to art education Overview of the course What is art? What is craft? The course portfolioWeek 2: Approaches to art teaching Art and child development Why teach art and craft in elementary grades The role of the teacher in teaching art, crafts, and calligraphyUnit learning goalsAt the end of the unit, Student Teachers will be able to:llcritically discuss the question ‘what is art’?llexplain ways in which art and craft are similar and different from each otherllanalyse and discuss examples of children’s art with reference to children’sdevelopmental stages in artllidentify the attributes required to teach art in the elementary grades.ASSOCIATE DEGREE IN EDUCATION/B.ED (HONS) ELEMENTARY22

UNIT 1UNIT 2UNIT 3UNIT 4UNIT 5Essential questions What is art? What is craft? What are children’s developmental stages in art? Why is art, crafts, and calligraphy education important? What attributes do teachers require to teach art, crafts, and calligraphy inthe elementary grades? How can teachers interact with children to support their creative development?Unit 1: Session plansWeek 1, session 1: Overview and introductionto the courseIntroduction to the course (20 minutes) Provide a brief overview of the art course, itscontents, and learning goals. Respond to any questions that Student Teachers have anddiscuss the ways in which the course will be assessed. Note that this course is mostlyfocused on the visual arts, and dance, music, and drama are not included.Brainstorming (10 minutes)Ask Student Teachers what comes to their mind when they think about art. Ask them tojot down key words, ideas, and feelings that represent art. Ask them to share their ideaswith a partner.Visualization (10–15 minutes)Now ask Student Teachers to close their eyes for a few moments to think of a worldwithout art. Ask them to draw their mental image in their notebooks. Discuss their ideasabout a world without art (what do they imagine?) and invite Student Teachers to sharethe images they made.Conclusion (10 minutes)Have Student Teachers consider the following quotes. Based on their discussions, dothey agree with the quotes? Why? Why not?Art is not what you see, but what you make others see. (Edgar Degas)Art is literacy of the heart. (Elliot Eisner)Quotes from the ‘Incredible Art Department’:ØØ http://www.incredibleart.org23COURSE GUIDE: Art, Crafts And Calligraphy

UNIT 5UNIT 4UNIT 3UNIT 2UNIT 1Week 1, session 2: What is art? What is craft?Classification activity (20–30 minutes, depending on the number of items)Present a variety of images and artefacts of art, crafts, and calligraphy to StudentTeachers. You could put the images on cards or display them on PowerPoint slides.Examples could include a piece of mirror embroidery from Balochistan; a woodenspoon from Gilgit; a painting by Abdur Rahman Chughtai; calligraphy by AnwarJalal Shemza, Sadequain, Ismail Gulgee, and Shakir Ali; tiles from Masjid Wazir Khanin Lahore, pottery from Multan; a sculpture by Huma Mulji; a decorated truck; etc.Present as many images and artefacts as possible.Ask Student Teachers to work in small groups to categorize the items into art or craft.They should keep a note about why they put a particular item into the category.Reporting (30 minutes)Item by item, ask each group to say which category they put the item in and why.Note points of disagreement. Make notes on the board or chart about the criteria theymention; for example, purpose, value, or an item’s rarity.Use the discussion and criteria listed to develop an understanding of how art, craft, andcalligraphy are the same but different. Defining craft is perhaps easier than defining art:craft is an activity that uses specific materials with a certain goal in mind. Usually a crafthas a set of directions and skills to get to a finished product. Art is generally much lessdirected and more creative; the goals of a piece of art are less well defined. The difference between the two may be in the hands of the craftsman or woman and the artist: itdepends on the purpose of the piece. Calligraphy is difficult to categorize: if the vieweris looking at the technique that was used, then it might seem like a craft; if they aremoved or affected deeply by the calligraphy, it might seem more like art.Week 1, session 3: The course portfo

discuss art, crafts, and calligraphy will be encouraged. Although Student Teachers are encouraged to pursue their own interests in art, crafts, and calligraphy, the intent of the course is to prepare for teaching, and so the teach-ing-learning approaches used should model the approach to art, crafts, and calligraphy in an elementary classroom.

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