Carmen Fariña, Chancellor 6-12Science Scope & Sequence

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Carmen Fariña, ChancellorNew York City6-12The New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & Sequence2015–2016ScienceScope & SequenceGrade X Unit X: Title i

NYC Department of Education6-12 Science Scope & SequenceCarmen FariñaChancellorPhil WeinbergDeputy ChancellorDivision of Teaching & LearningAnna CommitanteSenior Executive DirectorCurriculum, Instruction & Professional LearningLinda Curtis-Bey, Ed.D.Executive DirectorSTEM52 Chambers StreetNew York, NY 10007The New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceGrade X Unit X: Title ii

AcknowledgmentsDenise McNamara, Ph.D.Director of ScienceIngrid BuntschuhCitywide Instructional Lead, High School ScienceAdaliz GonzalezCitywide Instructional Lead, Middle School ScienceNadya AwadallahCitywide Instructional Lead, Elementary School ScienceTeneika Benn, Ed.D.Citywide Instructional Lead, MSP ScienceSpecial thanks to George Georgilakis, Tracy Fray-Oliver, and Rosanna Castro.Supportive services and technical help were given by the Science Common Core Fellows:Daniel Babauta, Benjy Blatman, Aja Brown, Claudine Conover, Daphne Fequiere, Theresa Gilkes,Rubilyn Gitgano, Diane Kelly, Christie Minjeong Kim, Ingrid Lafalaise, Jite Lark, Mariuxi Luna-Bautista,Christina Luzzi, Amanda McFee, Pamela Mudzingwa-Makina, Nicholas Mullally, Marlyn Orque Claro,Jessica Patron, Kathy Pham, Jeanne Salchli, Miriam Stanford-Cusack, Esther Stark, Jeffrey Utz,Catrina Williams, Michelle WilliamsTable of ContentsIntroduction Letter – Anna Commitante . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2The Enhanced Science Scope & Sequence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Next Generation Science Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Common Core Learning Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4Excellence in Environmental Education:Guidelines for Learning (K–12) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5NYSED State-Instruction in Science New York StateEducation Law: Article 17, Sections 809–810 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Limitations and Expectations – Linda Curtis-Bey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6Annotated Unit Template/Overviewof Document StructureGrades 6–8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9Grades 6–8 Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10Grades 6–8 Cross-Cutting Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57Grades 6–8 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59LE Living Environment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61LE Living Environment Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62ES Earth Science . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93ES Earth Science Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94CH Chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125CH Chemistry Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126PH Physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159PH Physics Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160Grades 9–12 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187Grades 9–12 Cross-Cutting Concepts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187Grades 9–12 Engineering Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189Appendix A – NYSED Mandated Instruction in Science –New York State Education Law: Article 17, Sections 809–810 . . . . . . . 191Appendix B – Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Earth Science . . . . . 193Appendix C – Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Chemistry . . . . . . 209Appendix D – Reference Tables for Physical Setting/Physics . . . . . . . .221The New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & Sequence 1

The New York City Department of Education6–12 Science Scope & Sequence 2015–2016Science is everywhere and our students are naturally curious, which makes themnatural scientists. A strong science program helps them make sense of the physicalworld around them, it can explain the how and why things work, like complex systems,from the human body to our planet Earth. In our science classrooms, students candevelop an understanding of the inter-dependency of living things as well as a respectfor nature.We live in a natural learning laboratory made up of a combination of uniqueecosystems in which our students can connect to the nature that is all around themin city parks, gardens, green spaces, beaches, and waterways, and the amazingenvironment of New York City. Through inquiry approaches and project-based learningstudents can potentially address real-world problems in their communities and takeaction. Students engaged in scientific inquiry are keen observers and active explorerswho pose questions, theorize, hypothesize, predict, conduct experiments, reachconclusions, and communicate their discoveries. These skills will help them developinto scientifically literate and responsible adults.The Enhanced NYC Science Scope & Sequence is a revision of an earlier Scope& Sequence published in 2008. The Enhanced NYC Science Scope & Sequenceincludes the current NYS MST standards that all schools should continue to followas well as new resources. The new resources include: An alignment to the NGSS Science and Engineering Practices and the CrossCutting Concepts.An alignment to the Common Core Learning Standards in English Language Artsand the Common Core Learning Standards in Mathematics given the relevancebetween the skills needed in all three disciplines (ELA, Math, and Science).The volume of science content in each grade can present some challenges. Teachersare faced with large amounts of content to be “covered” yet want to provide theirstudents with opportunities for in-depth scientific exploration and inquiry. This issueof “depth versus breadth” will require teachers to accept that not all content iscreated equal. Teachers will also need to accept that it is often not possible to covereverything. The amount of content covered rarely correlates to the amount of contentthat students learn because students rarely retain all of the content that is taught. Thechallenge teachers face is how to teach enough content yet still make time for handson, inquiry-driven, extended learning. Teachers will need to decide which contentmerits deep exploration and which content merits familiarity or exposure. Teachers willneed to make these decisions based on their knowledge of the content, assessments,instructional goals and, most importantly, an understanding of students’ learningneeds, readiness, and interests. Teachers may need to differentiate and provideadditional scaffolding and support based on individual student needs, not limited to butespecially for our English language learners, students with special needs and studentswho are significantly below or above grade level. The Scope & Sequence can serve asa valuable resource for teachers in planning appropriate individual, group and wholeclass instruction. We trust that this resource will provide teachers with useful guidance,help them make important instructional decisions, and help them develop engagingscience experiences for their students.Anna CommitanteSenior Executive DirectorCurriculum, Instruction & Professional LearningAn alignment to the Excellence in Environmental Education: Guidelines for Learning(K–12) published by the North American Association of Environmental Education tosupport the environmental education of NYC students and to encourage them tofind innovative solutions to environmental problems and issues in their communities.The New York State Education Law – Article 17, Sections 809 – Instructions for theHumane Treatment of Animals and 810 – Conservation DayThe Reference Tables that are used most often in Regents science courses areincluded (in the Grades 6–12 Scope & Sequence only).The New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & Sequence 2

LELiving Environment

UnitLE 1Scientific InquiryRECOMMENDED TIME: 10 DAYSUnit Overview:Science relies on logic and creativity. Science is both a body of knowledge and a way of knowing—an intellectualand social process that applies human intelligence to explaining how the world works. Scientific explanations aredeveloped using both observations (evidence) and what people already know about the world (scientific knowledge).All scientific explanations are tentative and subject to change. Good science involves questioning, observing andinferring, experimenting, finding evidence, collecting and organizing data, drawing valid conclusions, and undergoingpeer review. Understanding the scientific view of the natural world is an essential part of personal, societal, and ethicaldecision making. Scientific literacy involves internalizing the scientific critical attitude so that it can be applied in everydaylife, particularly in relation to health, commercial, and technological claims. [Refer to Appendix A for the HumaneTreatment of Animals and Conservation Day]Essential Question:How do scientists pose questions,seek answers, and develop solutions?Key Ideas:This unit is focused on all of the key ideas in Standard 1: Students will use mathematical analysis, scientific inquiry, and engineering designs,as appropriate, to pose questions, seek answers, and develop solutions.Key Idea 1: The central purpose of scientific inquiry is to develop explanations of natural phenomena in a continuing and creative process.Key Idea 2: Beyond the use of reasoning and consensus, scientific inquiry involves the testing of proposed explanations involving the use of conventional techniques and proceduresand usually requiring considerable ingenuity.Key Idea 3: The observations made while testing proposed explanations, when analyzed using conventional and invented methods, provide new insights into natural phenomena.NYS SCIENCE uments/livingen.pdfMST STANDARDSNGSS CROSS-CUTTING ta1 2.pdfhttp://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/mst/pub/mststa6 AL%20edited%204.10.13.pdfMajor Understandings:Standard 2: Information SystemsPatterns:Quoted from the New York State Performance Indicators (Standard 1:1.1a-c,1.2a, b, 1.3a, b, 1.4a, 2.1, 2.2a, 2.3a-c, 2.4, 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4a-c, 3.5a, b)Students will access, generate, process, and transferinformation using appropriate technologies.Observed patterns in nature guide organization andclassification and prompt questions about relationshipsand causes underlying them. Scientific explanations are built by combining evidencethat can be observed with what people already knowabout the world. (1.1a)Key Idea 1: Information technology is used to retrieve,process, and communicate information as a tool toenhance learning.continuedThe New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequencecontinuedcontinuedLE Unit 1: Scientific Inquiry 62

NYS SCIENCE uments/livingen.pdf Learning about the historical development of scientificconcepts or about individuals who have contributed toscientific knowledge provides a better understanding ofscientific inquiry and the relationship between scienceand society. (1.1b)Science provides knowledge, but values are alsoessential to making effective and ethical decisionsabout the application of scientific knowledge. (1.1c)Interpretation of data leads to development ofadditional hypotheses, the formulation of generalizations,or explanations of natural phenomena. (3.1a)Apply statistical analysis techniques when appropriateto test if chance alone explains the results. (3.2)MST STANDARDSNGSS CROSS-CUTTING ta1 2.pdfhttp://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/mst/pub/mststa6 AL%20edited%204.10.13.pdfStandard 6: Interconnectedness: Common ThemesKey Idea 3: The grouping of magnitudes of size, time,frequency, and pressures or other units of measurementinto a series of relative order provides a useful way todeal with the immense range and the changes in scalethat affect the behavior and design of systems.Key Idea 4: Equilibrium is a state of stability due eitherto a lack of changes (static equilibrium) or a balancebetween opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).Key Idea 5: Identifying patterns of change isnecessary for making predictions about future behaviorsand conditions.Assess correspondence between the predicted resultcontained in the hypothesis and actual result, and reacha conclusion as to whether the explanation on which theprediction was based is supported. (3.3)Inquiry involves asking questions and locating,interpreting, and processing information from a varietyof sources. (1.2a)Inquiry involves making judgments about the reliabilityof the source and relevance of information. (1.2b)Scientific explanations are accepted when they areconsistent with experimental and observational evidenceand when they lead to accurate predictions. (1.3a)All scientific explanations are tentative and subject tochange or improvement. Each new bit of evidence cancreate more questions than it answers. This leads toincreasingly better understanding of how things workin the living world. (1.3b)Devise ways of making observations to test proposedexplanations. (2.1) Classifications or explanations used at one scale mayfail or need revision when information from smaller orlarger scales is introduced; thus requiring improvedinvestigations and experiments.Mathematical representations are needed to identifysome patterns.Empirical evidence is needed to identify patterns.Cause and Effect: Mechanism and Prediction:Events have causes, sometimes simple, sometimesmultifaceted. Deciphering causal relationships, and themechanisms by which they are mediated, is a majoractivity of science and engineering. Empirical evidence is required to differentiate betweencause and correlation and make claims about specificcauses and effects.Scale, Proportion, and Quantity:In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize whatis relevant at different size, time, and energy scales, andto recognize proportional relationships between differentquantities as scales change. Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific data andpredict the effect of a change in one variable on another(e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).Stability and Change:For both designed and natural systems, conditions thataffect stability and factors that control rates of changeare critical elements to consider and understand. Much of science deals with constructing explanationsof how things change and how they remain stable.continuedThe New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceLE Unit 1: Scientific Inquiry 63

NYS SCIENCE uments/livingen.pdf Development of a research plan involves researchingbackground information and understanding the majorconcepts in the area being investigated. Recommendationsfor methodologies, use of technologies, proper equipment,and safety precautions should also be included. (2.2a) Hypotheses are predictions based upon both researchand observation. (2.3a)Hypotheses are widely used in science for determiningwhat data to collect and as a guide for interpreting thedata. (2.3b)Development of a research plan for testing a hypothesisrequires planning to avoid bias (e.g., repeated trials, largesample size, and objective data-collection techniques).(2.3c)Carry out a research plan for testing explanations,including selecting and developing techniques,acquiring and building apparatus, and recordingobservations as necessary. (2.4) Hypotheses are valuable, even if they turn out not tobe true, because they may lead to further investigation.(3.4a)Claims should be questioned if the data are based onsamples that are very small, biased, or inadequatelycontrolled or if the conclusions are based on the faulty,incomplete, or misleading use of numbers. (3.4b) Claims should be questioned if fact and opinionare intermingled, if adequate evidence is not cited,or if the conclusions do not follow logically from theevidence given. (3.4c)One assumption of science is that other individualscould arrive at the same explanation if they hadaccess to similar evidence. Scientists make the resultsof their investigations public; they should describe theinvestigations in ways that enable others to repeatthe investigations. (3.5a)Scientists use peer review to evaluate the results ofscientific investigations and the explanations proposedby other scientists. They analyze the experimentalprocedures, examine the evidence, identify faultyreasoning, point out statements that go beyond theevidence, and suggest alternative explanations for thesame observations. (3.5b)Well-accepted theories are ones that are supportedby different kinds of scientific investigations ofteninvolving the contributions of individuals fromdifferent disciplines. (1.4a)Also see Laboratory Checklist in NYSED CoreCurriculum Appendix A.The New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceLE Unit 1: Scientific Inquiry 64

COMMON CORE STATE STANDARDSENVIRONMENTAL GUIDELINES FOR loads/ELA nt/uploads/Math -e630-42b0-ad9a-91f0bc55c72d.pdfELA/LiteracyStrand 1: Questioning, Analysis, and Interpretation SkillsRST.9-10.1: Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of science and technicaltexts, attending to the precise details of explanations or descriptions. RST.9-10.3: Follow precisely a complex multistep procedure when carrying outexperiments, taking measurements, or performing technical tasks, attending to specialcases or exceptions defined in the text. RST.9-10.7: Translate quantitative or technical information expressed in words in atext into visual form (e.g., a table or chart) and translate information expressed visuallyor mathematically (e.g., in an equation) into words. RST.9-10.8: Assess the extent to which the reasoning and evidence in a text supportthe author’s claim or a recommendation for solving a scientific or technical problem.RST.9-10.9: Compare and contrast findings presented in a text to those from othersources (including their own experiments), noting when the findings support or contradictprevious explanations or accounts. WHST.9-10.1: Write arguments focused on discipline-specific content.WHST.9-10.2: Write informative/explanatory texts, including the narration of historicalevents, scientific procedures/experiments, or technical processes.WHST.9-10.4: Produce clear and coherent writing in which the development,organization, and style are appropriate to task, purpose, and audience. (Grade-specificexpectations for writing types are defined in standards 1–3 above.)WHST.9-10.5: Develop and strengthen writing as needed by planning, revising, editing,rewriting, or trying a new approach, focusing on addressing what is most significant for aspecific purpose and audience. Guideline A—Questioning—Learners are able to develop, modify, clarify, and explainquestions that guide environmental investigations of various types. They understandfactors that influence the questions they pose.Guideline B—Designing investigations—Learners know how to design investigationsto answer particular questions about the environment. They are able to developapproaches for investigating unfamiliar types of problems and phenomena.Guideline C—Collecting information—Learners are able to locate and collect reliableinformation for environmental investigations of many types. They know how to usesophisticated technology to collect information, including computer programs thataccess, gather, store, and display data.Guideline D—Evaluating accuracy and reliability—Learners can apply basic logic andreasoning skills to evaluate completeness and reliability in a variety of information sources.Guideline E—Organizing information—Learners are able to organize and displayinformation in ways appropriate to different types of environmental investigationsand purposes.Guideline F—Working with models and simulations—Learners are able to create, use,and evaluate models to understand environmental phenomena.Guideline G—Drawing conclusions and developing explanations—Learners are ableto use evidence and logic in developing proposed explanations that address their initialquestions and hypotheses.WHST.9-10.6: Use technology, including the Internet, to produce, publish, and updateindividual or shared writing products, taking advantage of technology’s capacity to link toother information and to display information flexibly and dynamically.WHST.9-10.7: Conduct short as well as more sustained research projects to answera question (including a self-generated question) or solve a problem; narrow or broadenthe inquiry when appropriate; synthesize multiple sources on the subject, demonstratingunderstanding of the subject under investigation.continuedThe New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceLE Unit 1: Scientific Inquiry 65

COMMON CORE STATE ploads/ELA nt/uploads/Math Standards.pdfWHST.9-10.9 : Draw evidence from informational texts to support analysis, reflection,and research.WHST.9-10.10: Write routinely over extended time frames (time for research, reflection,and revision) and shorter time frames (a single sitting or a day or two) for a range of tasks,purposes, and audiences.MathematicsHSN.Q.A.1: Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution ofmultistep problems; choose and interpret units consistently in formulas; choose andinterpret the scale and the origin in graphs and data displays.HSN.Q.A.2: Define appropriate quantities for the purpose of descriptive modeling.HSN.Q.A.3: Choose a level of accuracy appropriate to limitations on measurementwhen reporting quantities.The New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceLE Unit 1: Scientific Inquiry 66

UnitLE 2EcologyRECOMMENDED TIME: 25 DAYSUnit Overview:The fundamental concept of ecology is that living organisms interact with and are dependent on their environment andeach other. These interactions result in a flow of energy and a cycling of materials that are essential for life. Competitioncan occur between members of different species for an ecological niche. Competition can also occur within species.Competition may be for abiotic resources, such as space, water, air, and shelter, and for biotic resources, such as foodand mates. Students should be familiar with the concept of food chains and webs. [Refer to Appendix A for the HumaneTreatment of Animals and Conservation Day]Essential Question:Why doesn’t any one type of living thingtake over the world?Key Ideas:Key Idea 1: Living things are both similar to and different from each other and from nonliving things.Key Idea 6: Plants and animals depend on each other and their physical environment.NYS SCIENCE uments/livingen.pdfMST STANDARDSNGSS CROSS-CUTTING ta1 2.pdfhttp://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/mst/pub/mststa6 AL%20edited%204.10.13.pdfMajor Understandings:Standard 6: Interconnectedness: Common ThemesPatterns:Quoted from the New York State Performance Indicators (1.1a-f, 6.1a-g,6.2a, b, 6.3a-c)Key Idea 1: Through systems thinking, people canrecognize the commonalities that exist among allsystems and how parts of a system interrelate andcombine to perform specific functions.Observed patterns in nature guide organization andclassification and prompt questions about relationshipsand causes underlying them. In all environments, organisms compete for vitalresources. The linked and changing interactionsof populations and the environment compose thetotal ecosystem. (1.1c)The interdependence of organisms in an establishedecosystem often results in approximate stability overhundreds and thousands of years. For example, as onepopulation increases, it is held in check by one or moreenvironmental factors or another species. (1.1d)continued Key Idea 2: Models are simplified representationsof objects, structures, or systems used in analysis,explanation, interpretation, or design.Scale, Proportion, and Quantity:Key Idea 3: The grouping of magnitudes of size, time,frequency, and pressures or other units of measurementinto a series of relative order provides a useful way todeal with the immense range and the changes in scalethat affect the behavior and design of systems.continuedThe New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceEmpirical evidence is needed to identify patterns.In considering phenomena, it is critical to recognize whatis relevant at different size, time, and energy scales, andto recognize proportional relationships between differentquantities as scales change. The significance of a phenomenon is dependent onthe scale, proportion, and quantity at which it occurs.continuedLE Unit 2: Ecology 67

NYS SCIENCE uments/livingen.pdf Relationships between organisms may be negative,neutral, or positive. Some organisms may interact withone another in several ways. They may be in a producer/consumer, predator/prey, or parasite/host relationship;or one organism may cause disease in, scavenge, ordecompose another. (6.1g)MST STANDARDSNGSS CROSS-CUTTING ta1 2.pdfhttp://www.p12.nysed.gov/ciai/mst/pub/mststa6 AL%20edited%204.10.13.pdfKey Idea 4: Equilibrium is a state of stability due eitherto a lack of change (static equilibrium) or a balancebetween opposing forces (dynamic equilibrium).Key Idea 5: Identifying patterns of change is necessaryfor making predictions about future behavior andconditions.As a result of evolutionary processes, there is a diversityof organisms and roles in ecosystems. This diversityof species increases the chance that at least somewill survive in the face of large environmental changes.Biodiversity increases the stability of the ecosystem.(6.2a)Biodiversity also ensures the availability of a rich varietyof genetic material that may lead to future agricultural ormedical discoveries with significant value to humankind.As diversity is lost, potential sources of these materialsmay be lost with it. (6.2b)The interrelationships and interdependencies oforganisms affect the development of stable ecosystems.(6.3a)Populations can be categorized by the function theyserve. Food webs identify the relationships amongproducers, consumers, and decomposers carrying outeither autotropic or heterotropic nutrition. (1.1a)An ecosystem is shaped by the nonliving environment aswell as its interacting species. The world contains a widediversity of physical conditions, which creates a variety ofenvironments. (1.1b)The interdependence of organisms in an establishedecosystem often results in approximate stability overhundreds and thousands of years. For example, as onepopulation increases, it is held in check by one or moreenvironmental factors or another species. (1.1d) Algebraic thinking is used to examine scientific dataand predict the effect of a change in one variable onanother (e.g., linear growth vs. exponential growth).Systems and System Models:A system is an organized group of related objects orcomponents; models can be used for understandingand predicting the behavior of systems. Models (e.g., physical, mathematical, computer models)can be used to simulate systems and interactions—including energy, matter, and information flows—withinand between systems at different scales.Energy and Matter: Flows, Cycles, and Conservation:Tracking energy and matter flows into, out of, and withinsystems helps one understand their system’s behavior. Energy cannot be created or destroyed—only movedbetween one place and another place, between objectsand/or fields, or between systems.Changes of energy and matter in a system can bedescribed in terms of energy and matter flows into,out of, and within that system.Energy drives the cycling of matter within andbetween systems.Stability and Change:For both designed and natural systems, conditions thataffect stability and factors that control rates of changeare critical elements to consider and understand. Much of science deals with constructing explanationsof how things change and how they remain stable.continuedThe New York City Department of Education 6–12 Science Scope & SequenceLE Unit 2: Ecology 68

NYS SCIENCE uments/livingen.pdf Ecosystems, like many other complex systems, tendto show cyclic changes around a state of approximateequilibrium. (1.1e)Every population is linked, directly or indirectly, with manyothers in

The Enhanced NYC Science Scope & Sequence is a revision of an earlier Scope & Sequence published in 2008. The Enhanced NYC Science Scope & Sequence includes the current NYS MST standards that all schools should continue to fo

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