Grow A Secret Garden Butterflies - The Wildlife Trusts

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#wildaboutgardenswildaboutgardens.org.ukGrow asecret gardenfor butterfliesTo celebrate the release ofIN CINEMAS SPRING 2020Green-veined white Jon Hawkins

Why arebutterflies great?We love butterflies. They’re vibrant, eye-catchingadditions to our gardens, but so much more than that.They are helpful pollinators. When butterflies land onflowers to feed on nectar, they transfer pollen.Butterflies, moths and their caterpillarsare important in the food chain, beingprey to many species of birds and bats.You may also see garden birds takingcaterpillars to feed to their young in thespring and summer. It can take up to10,000 caterpillars to rear a brood ofblue tits!They need our helpButterflies are good environmentalindicators. This means that if butterflypopulations are going up or down, weget a good sense of how well the rest ofthe environment is doing. Butterfliesand moths aren’t doing too well at themoment, with many species declining inrecent years.Butterflies cancross continents!Painted ladies migratenorth from Africa everyyear, at a speed of up to30 miles per hour.A secret gardenWe’ve been inspired by thenew movie adaptation of TheSecret Garden and just like usthe filmmakers are passionate aboutbutterflies! Gardening is an essential partof The Secret Garden story andwe’re encouraging everybody togarden with butterflies in mind!Caterpillars cangrow 10,000-foldin just a few weeks– that’s like a babygrowing to the sizeof a sperm whale!The UK has 59species of butterfly andaround 2,500 moths,although there’s actuallyvery little differencebetween butterflies andmoths. In fact, there’s anargument for consideringthem the sameanimal!In the story, the garden eases grief, healsrifts and brings the joy out in all whoexperience it. Make a special place forwildlife – your very own Secret Gardenwhere you can replenish your soul,reconnect with nature and helpwildlife to thrive.The good news is that we can helpbutterflies and moths through gardening!Collectively our gardens can provideimportant places, homes and foodsources for these special creatures.2 www.wildaboutgardens.org.ukDid you know?Red admiral Guy Edwardes/2020VisionThe swallowtailbutterfly is ourlargest butterflywith a wingspanof almost 10cm.Comma Amy LewisThe brimstonecould be the very firstbutterfly. There’s atheory that its brightyellow wings inspiredthe name buttercoloured fly.www.wildaboutgardens.org.uk 3

Planting forbutterflies & mothsTop butterfly plants to lurein the butterfliesSpring: Primroses, sweet William,native bluebells, bugle, forget-menot, cuckoo flower.Summer: Cornflower, Frenchmarigold, knapweed, marjoram,scabious, thistle, purple loosestrife,hemp agrimony, bramble, and manyherbs, including, marjoram, thyme,lavender and sage.A sunny, sheltered garden is ideal for tempting inbutterflies. With the right flowers you could make amini haven for all sorts of wildlife.Many flowers provide both pollen andnectar so will attract a range of visitors,and sometimes the clue is in the shape.Many flowers of the daisy family, suchas sunflowers and asters, help to attractbutterflies and bees with their flat, opentops, perfect for landing. Other flowersin the campion and honeysuckle familieshave narrow tubular centres, whichmoths and butterflies may have exclusiveaccess to by making use of their longtongues. Brush-like flowers, like buddleia,also make for good resting places andnectar access.An ideal butterfly garden would includea wide range of flower shapes, full ofseasonal perennials that offer nectar forearly arrivals such as brimstones, throughto the last red admirals in autumn. But it’salso important to think about caterpillars– even if you spot a few holes in yourplants remember, the more caterpillarsyou can support, the more butterfliesand moths there will be!Autumn: Flowering ivy, asters, iceplant, hebe, buddleia, verbena.Along with the plant options on thefollowing page, you could include an openarea for wildflowers and grasses to attractegg-laying females. A site with low soilfertility is ideal. Seek out butterfly mixesfrom wildflower seed suppliers.Top larval food plantsLady’s-smock, Cardamine pratensis(orange-tip butterfly), good forwetter soil.Bird’s foot trefoil, Lotus corniculatus(common blue butterfly).Planning your butterflygarden.Common sorrel, Rumex acetosa(small copper butterfly).Plant large clumps of larval foodplants together.Fescue grass, Festuca sp(meadow brown butterfly).Aim for year-round flower interest,with early and late sources of nectar.Holly, Ilex aquifolium(holly blue butterfly).Only use peat-free compost to helpprevent damage to rare habitats.Ivy, Hedera helix(holly blue butterfly).Delay cutting back in the autumn,tidying borders in later winter instead.Nasturtium, Tropaeolum majus(large white, small white and greenveined white butterflies).Don’t use pesticides: these canaffect all garden wildlife.Yorkshire fog grass, Holcus lanatus(marbled white, speckled wood andsmall skipper butterflies).Stinging nettles, Urtica dioica (comma,peacock, red admiral and smalltortoiseshell), requires a large area.4 www.wildaboutgardens.org.ukGreen-veined white RHSwww.wildaboutgardens.org.uk 5

Plant a butterfly border.Plant a butterfly box.6 g.uk 7

A butterfly garden in actionA sunny wallprovides asunbathing spotfor butterfliesHops,holly andnettles providefood forcaterpillarsA long seasonof nectar-richflowers means youcan cater for asmany butterflies aspossible.8 www.wildaboutgardens.org.uk

Lifecycle of mothsand butterfliesMany butterflies and moths spend the majority of theirlives in the caterpillar or pupal stages.A good food supply is crucial to allowcaterpillars to turn into adults, so themost valuable gardens leave plenty ofroom for these hungry young!Typically, caterpillars hatch from eggs laidby adult females after two weeks. Oncethe caterpillar has eaten enough, it shedsits skin for the last time and turns intoa pupa. It is within this cocoon that thecaterpillar will metamorphose into theadult butterfly.Seeking shelterThere are 59 species of butterfly andmore than 2,500 moths in Britain.Several species of butterfly – includingbrimstone, comma, small tortoiseshell andpeacock – overwinter as adults and willseek out sheltered spots in late autumnto lay dormant until the spring. Othersoverwinter as eggs, caterpillars or pupae.Pollen collectorsLike bees and other flower visitors, moths and butterfliesare helpful pollinators. By spreading pollen from plantto plant, these insects help plants to reproduce.In fact, our pollinators not only help plantsto reproduce, they ensure that we canenjoy fruits and many vegetables such astomatoes, peppers and courgettes too.While they cannot carry as much pollenas some bees, which have specially created‘sacs’ for storage, butterflies collect pollenon their legs and bodies as they gathernectar, carrying it from flower to flower.Night workersMoths tend to seek out white and lightercoloured flowers as they are easier tosee in the dark. A study carried out withuniversity researchers and ButterflyConservation found that moths are alsoimportant pollinators for agriculturalcrops – carrying pollen over largedistances in the cover of dark.Butterflies on the movePainted ladies leave our shores eachautumn for North Africa. Other exoticspecies, such as the famed monarch,migrate thousands of kilometres at theend of each summer to find suitable areasto overwinter.Movie fact: Magicalbutterflies come to life andflourish in the movie. Theirextraordinary transformationmirrors the emotional journey ofthe key characters. As they feelhappier the magical butterfliesbecome more real and are able to fly.10 www.wildaboutgardens.org.ukAs the climate has warmed in recentyears, some butterflies once understoodto only migrate to Britain for thesummer months are now thoughtto overwinter here, such as redadmirals. This doesn’t mean thatchanging weather patternsare good news for butterfliesthough, as populations can bepushed out of natural rangesand may face steep declines.Common blue Bob CoyleLarge skipper RHSwww.wildaboutgardens.org.uk 11

rtockyPeacockB r id g e s A my Le wisL a rg eBrow n a rg us MeLowega nwhiteFind a quiet spot and close your eyes.Synchronise your breathing with theleaves rustling in the breeze and feel theearth beneath your feet.VillllNaohnMore and more of us are spending muchof our time indoors. We know that timein nature is good for us though, so letmindfulness become “wildfulness” bytaking time out in your garden orgreen space.You’ve probably noticed how spottingbutterflies or birds, or walking throughwoodlands, or alongside rivers andstreams can help to lift your mood. Makesome time for nature today and enjoy therestorative benefits. sheot JSpend a mindful momenteisCinn abar mhGreen spaces make us feel happier and more relaxed, sospend a moment in your garden taking notice of whatinsects and flowers you can see.Match the adult tothe caterpillar.S m all toTake notice of natureAssimo VinceMa5 Ways to WellbeingJohnBrssLearnTry somethingnew outside –find out howto identify thatbutterflyleNoticeThe everydaywildness onyour doorstep,from ‘weeds’to beesEeGiveDo somethingto help yourlocal area andthe people andwildlife thatlive thereBerWith thepeople aroundyou, shareyour wildlifeexperiences PetConnectgeGo outsidefor a walk orexplore yournearest naturereserveidBe ActiveCD Va ugnMEatatsMewnth uVaewsgha tt h e w san M12 www.wildaboutgardens.org.ukhathhaMovie fact:The children and thegarden in the movieboth blossom when theyspend time together.Nature helps us to feelbetter but we can helpnature flourish too Va ugAnswers onthe back cover!Burnet moth caterpillar Vicky Nallwww.wildaboutgardens.org.uk 13

Butterfly identificationOrange-tip (male)Moth identificationHummingbirdhawk-mothBrimstone (male)Common blue(female)Garden tigerRed admiralBurnished brassCinnabarCommaSilver YPainted ladyElephanthawk-mothPeacockAngle shadesSix-spot burnetMeadow brown(female)Large yellowunderwingHolly blue(female)14 www.wildaboutgardens.org.ukLarge white(female)Peppered mothIllustrations not to scalewww.wildaboutgardens.org.uk 15

About UsThe Wildlife Trusts and the RHS set up Wild AboutGardens to celebrate wildlife gardening and toencourage people to act for nature. Over the past 50years we’ve seen declines in two thirds of the UK’splant and animal species. Many of our commongarden visitors are increasingly under threat.wildaboutgardens.org.uk@WildAbtGardensTo discover more about wildlife gardening and whatyou can do to help at home visit us online.facebook.com/groups/WildAboutGardensThe Wildlife TrustsThe Royal Horticultural SocietyWe are a charity that believes thatpeople are a part of nature; everythingwe value ultimately comes from it andeverything we do has an impact on it. Nomatter where you are in the UK, there isa Wildlife Trust inspiring people aboutthe natural world and saving, protectingand standing up for wildlife and wildplaces. More than 850,000 memberssupport our work and help look aftermore than 2,300 diverse and beautifulnature reserves.For more than 210 years, the RHS hasbeen the force behind gardening in theUK. Our aim is to enrich everyone’s lifethrough plants, and to make the UK agreener and more beautiful place. Webelieve everyone in every village, townand city should benefit from growing– for stronger, healthier and happiercommunities.email: info@wildlifetrusts.orgOnline: wildlifetrusts.org@WildlifeTrustsemail: communities@rhs.org.ukOnline: rhs.org.uk@The RHS/rhshomethe rhsrhshomeRegistered Charity No istered Charity No 207238IN CINEMAS SPRING 2020Match the butterfly:Small tortoiseshell - DPeacock - ECinnabar moth - BBrown argus - CLarge white - ACover image: Green-veinedwhite, Jon Hawkins, SurreyHills Photography 2020 Studiocanal S.A.S, All Rights ReservedFrom the producers of Paddington, Harry Potterand Fantastic Beasts comes a visionary newadaptation of one of the world’s most enduringchildren’s stories – The Secret Garden. When 10year old orphan Mary Lennox is sent to live withher reclusive uncle Archibald (Colin Firth) and hisstrict housekeeper Mrs Medlock (Julie Walters) in amysterious manor, she discovers an enchanted andboundless garden that has been hidden for years thesecretgardenfilm.co.uk#thesecretgarden

A secret garden We’ve been inspired by the new movie adaptation of The Secret Garden and just like us the filmmakers are passionate about butterflies! Gardening is an essential part of The Secret Garden story and we’re encouraging everybody to garden with butterflies in

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