BrownieCybersecurityExplore cybersecurity by earningthese three badges!Badge 1:Cybersecurity BasicsBadge 2:Cybersecurity SafeguardsBadge 3:Cybersecurity InvestigatorThis Cybersecurity badge booklet for girls provides the badge requirements,background information, and fun facts about cybersecurity for all three BrownieCybersecurity badges. It does not include all the information needed to complete thebadges. Volunteers may access the full meeting plans—including detailed activityinstructions—on the Volunteer Toolkit (VTK) or by contacting their local council.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y1
Welcome to the world of cybersecurity!We use computers every day to send emails, watch videos,and shop online. Computers are also a part of our lives inmany other ways that aren’t as easy to see. Computerspower up skyscrapers and streetlights, keep air conditionersand security systems humming, run medical devices inhospitals, control cars and planes, and much more.Cybersecurity is the way we protect all those computers—and ourselves—from crime.When you’ve earned these three badges, you’ll know thebasics of cybersecurity, what privacy means, and how toprotect yourself when you’re on a computer.Volunteers please see the Volunteer Toolkit (VTK) or contact your local council forthe full meeting plans, including detailed activity instructions.2
Badge 1:Cybersecurity BasicsWe use digital devices such as laptops, tablets, and smartphones towork, shop, and play. Technology is such a big part of our lives that we don’tusually stop to think about it. In this badge, you’ll find out more about howyou use technology and how you can keep your technology safe.Steps220.127.116.11.5.Find out how you use technologyDiscover what your technology can doFind out how to create layers of securityFind out how to use real-life safety rules when you go onlineFind out how messages travel on the internetPurposeWhen I’ve earned this badge, I’ll know the basics of cybersecurity andunderstand the role technology plays in my life.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y3
My Smart CityDid you knowthat traffic lights,elevators, streetlights,fire alarms, and theenergy grid can all berun by computers?1STEPFind out how youuse technologyThe first step to understanding cybersecurity?Realizing that technology is all around us and that you useit every day—even in ways that may surprise you! Once youknow how you use technology, you can learn more about howto keep yourself and your information safe.Do you think computers are a big or small part of your life?Circle the ways in which you use your computer,mobile phone, or tablet. Play games Do homework Talk to my family members or friends Watch a video, TV show, or movie Listen to music Learn fun facts about something I’m interested in Take a photo or video OtherHere are some appliances that can be connected toa computer or to the internet. Take a look aroundyour home. Are any of these appliances connectedto your computer or the internet? Dryers Stoves Televisions Heaters Refrigerators Other4
Did you know that computers are also used in these places? Banks Schools Hospitals Police stations Fire stations Trains PlanesThe Internet of ThingsMore and more devices—from coffee makers andwashing machines to lightbulbs and headphones—canbe connected to the internet.This network of connected devices is called the Internetof Things or IoT for short. It allows objects to becontrolled remotely and is getting bigger every day.What Doesthe Word“Cybersecurity”Mean?The word “cybersecurity”means computer safety.Cyber is another wordfor computer andsecurity means safety.We all need to protectour computers andourselves from peoplewho want to know toomuch about us.Billions of connected devices can make life easier forpeople, but can also make those devices less secure.That’s why cybersecurity experts are working to makethe IoT as safe as possible.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y5
2STEPDiscover what yourtechnology can doIn Step 1, you found out how you use technology.Now you know just how often you use it. You know that youuse technology at home and at school. You also use it at thebank, the mall, and the grocery store. In this step, you’ll findout how many everyday tasks you can do using your digitaldevices. Your devices hold all your important information.They also can do important tasks for you. What are some waysyou can keep your devices safe?The IncredibleShrinking ComputerOne of the first digitalcomputers was called ENIAC.That odd name stood forElectrical Numeric Integratorand Computer. It was so bigthat it filled an entire room. Itwas built in 1945 with almost18,000 vacuum tubes. Itweighed more than 30 tons—the same as six elephants.Today, you can put a computerin your pocket! A smartphone isa computer with tiny microchipsinside it. Those microchips canhold a lot of information andthey are powerful—1,300 timesmore powerful than ENIAC.6
PUTTING THEPARTS TOGETHERIt’s important to know about computer parts so you can understandwhich parts need protection. Can you identify all of the parts in your computerand the digital add-ons?Match the parts to the names by looking at the numbers in the boxes.11. CPU: This stands for Central Processing Unit,which is the main chip in a computer responsible forcarrying out all the tasks. It is often referred to as the“brain” of the computer. Laptops, phones, and eventelevisions have CPU chips inside them.232. Power supply: The source that delivers power orenergy. In a computer, the cord and plug are the powersource that turns it on and off.43. Webcam: A digital camera that can take and sendimages. Your webcam might be built into your computeror it might be something separate that you attach toyour computer.4. Monitor: A screen that shows pictures and words.5. Keyboard: A panel of keys with letters and numbers5that lets you type messages.66. Mouse: A little device that you move with yourhand—it helps you move the arrow on the computer screen.(If you have a laptop, you use a trackpad instead of a mouse.A trackpad is a surface you touch with your finger. It helpsyou move the arrow on the computer screen.)7. Speakers or headphones: Devices that let youhear sounds from your computer.7B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y7
3STEPCyberScrambleLook at the scrambledwords below. Each wordis a computer part.Unscramble each one.Then read the circledletters in order to answerthis riddle: What is anastronaut’s favoriteplace on a computerkeyboard?1 ASREKEP2 CESENRFind out how to createlayers of securityWhen you want to keep something safe, you needto protect it. When it comes to cybersecurity, many layersof protection work better than just one.What is a layer of security? Imagine that you were asked toprotect an egg so that it doesn’t break if it falls off a table.You might put the egg in a small box filled with cotton balls. Tobe even safer, you could seal the box with lots of tape. Then youcould wrap the box in bubble wrap and put it in a larger box.That’s five layers of protection: cotton balls, small box, tape,bubble wrap, and large box.The egg would be much better protected inside all those layers.In cybersecurity, many layers of protection work better thanone layer, just like in real life.3 SEMOU4 EKBYODARTHE4STEPFind out how to usereal-life safety ruleswhen you go onlineIn real life, you have rules that you follow so youdon’t get hurt or lost. For example, when you go out in public,your parents might tell you to stay close to them so you don't get!lost in a crowd, to look both ways when you cross a street, or toobey traffic lights.Answer on page 10It’s the same when you go online. The safety rules we follow inreal life can be used in the digital world too.8
5STEPFind out howmessages travelon the internetWhat Is theInternet?Every message, text, or picture that is sent on theinternet is broken down into pieces called packets.Imagine you’re shipping a large object, such as a playhouse.If the playhouse is put together, it will be too large to ship—unless you had a very big box! So you would probably decideto ship all the pieces of the playhouse in separate boxes.That’s how it works on the internet too. When you sendinformation on your computer—like an email, a photo,a meme, or a text—it’s too big to send in one piece. It’sbroken into smaller packets of information that can shipfrom computer to computer.OLLHE!The word “internet”comes from twowords: interconnectedand network.Interconnected meanslinked together. Anetwork is a group ofpeople or objects thatare connected. Forexample, your Brownietroop is a network—and you’re also apart of a network thatincludes all Girl Scoutsaround the country andaround the world!The internet is manydifferent computersand networks allaround the world.Your computersends informationto another computerin another location.That computer sendsinformation back toyour computer. That’show you connectto websites and getinformation. Theinternet has billions ofconnected computers.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y9
Now that I’ve earned this badge,I can give service by: Telling my family and friends the rules to stay safe online. Doing a show-and-tell at school demonstratinglayers of security, using the egg-in-a-box activity. Teaching others the basics of cybersecurity by usinga cybersecurity game I played while earning this badge.I’m inspired to:Answers: Page 8: 1. SPEAKER, 2. SCREEN, 3. MOUSE, 4. KEYBOARD, Riddle: SPACE BAR10
Badge 2:Cybersecurity SafeguardsThe internet connects people and computers all over the world. A lot ofinformation passes through computers: names, addresses, bank accountnumbers, and credit card numbers. This information needs to be protectedso private information doesn’t end up in the hands of someone who willuse it to cause harm. Find out how you can be safe when you go online.Steps18.104.22.168.5.Create your identityFind out what information to keep private when you go onlineFind out about sharing information safely onlineFind out why you have to be careful about who you trust onlineTest your knowledge of online safety rulesPurposeWhen I’ve earned this badge, I will know what information about me isprivate and how to share information safely.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y11
1STEPCreateyour identityWhat makes you you? The way you look, your favoritemovies, books, games, what you like and don’t like. Youridentity includes all of this information and more—it’s whatFunFingerprintFacts1 Your fingerprintsstart to form beforeyou’re even born.2 Your fingerprintsmakes you different from other people. No one is exactly likeyou, right down to your fingerprints.Fingerprints are used to identify people. They can also beused to unlock computers and phones.Fingerprint Typesare ridges that help yougrab onto objects.3 Scientists groupfingerprints accordingto their patterns: whorls,loops, and arches.4 Koalas have ridgeson their fingers thatlook a lot like humanfingerprints.5 Identical twins maylook exactly alike buttheir fingerprints aredifferent.Whorl2STEPLoopArchFind out whatinformation to keepprivate when yougo onlineWhere you live, what you like and dislike, whoyour family is, and where you go to school say alot about who you are. Some of that information—suchas where you live and go to school—is private. It should not beshared online where everyone can see it. That’s because cybercriminals can steal your information and use it to cause harm.12
3STEPFind out aboutsharing informationsafely onlineWords to KnowThere is a lot of information that describes you.You now know that some of it is private. Imagine if you putinformation about you on a T-shirt that you would wear inpublic. What would you want people to know about you? Someinformation that describes you is just fine to wear on a T-shirt.Other information could never go on a T-shirt because itwouldn’t be safe.Are these T-shirts OK to wear in public? X XI live at50 MainStreetX ILOVEPIEPrivate informationare facts about youthat you don’t wanteveryone to know.Private informationincludes your homeaddress or the nameof your school.I’m a3rd graderat SilverElementaryin Mr. Moore’sclassI likebooks!Go Wildcats!Soccerpracticeis everyWednesdayat 3:30.GREENis myfavoritecolor!XMy phone# is555-5555Your identity includesall the informationabout you that makesyou different fromother people. Forexample, your name,age, family members,beliefs, favorite colorsor hobbies formyour identify.Protect means to keepyou or your informationfrom harm. Forexample, you put onsunscreen to protectyourself from sunburnand you wear a bikehelmet to keep fromgetting hurt if you fall.Safety means tobe free from dangeror harm. You followsafety rules to avoiddanger and to keepfrom being hurt orlosing something.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y13
4STEPFollow TheseTen Rules toStay SafeOnline Don’t talk toTo trust is to believe in something or someone. Youstrangers online.trust your parents to pick you up from school when they say Always check withthey will. You trust your teacher to help you learn. You trustan adult before goingon a computer. Always have an adultwith you when you’reon a computer. Tell an adult ifyou feel scaredor uncomfortablewhen you are ona computer. Don’t shareyour passwordwith anyone. Never give yourprivate informationto anyone online. Never open emails,files, or webpageswithout an adult’spermission. Follow your parents’or school’s rulesfor going online. Be careful aboutwho and what youtrust online. Be careful when youuse your school’sdevices or yourfriends’ devices.14Find out why you haveto be careful about whoyou trust onlineyour best friend to keep promises. When you trust someone,you know it’s OK to share something private.In real life, you have to be careful who you trust. That’s truewhen you’re online, too.Cool Cybersecurity JobsIf you decide to work as a cybersecurity expert some day,here’s what you could do: Outsmart the bad guys: Hack your way into a computernetwork so you can find the system’s weak spotsand fix them. Carry out digital detection: Investigate cyber attacks andgather evidence. Keep people safe: Set up secure computer networksto defend schools, hospitals, businesses, andgovernment offices from cyber attacks.5STEPTest your knowledge ofonline safety rulesNow that you know more about technology, youknow that you have to be careful when you goonline. Not to worry, though! When you follow common senserules online—in the same way you follow rules in real life—you and your information will be safe.
Now that I’ve earned this badge,I can give service by: Telling my friends and family what informationis safe to share online. Sharing what I’ve learned about online safetywith my parents and grandparents. Making posters of online safety rules formy classroom or library.I’m inspired to:B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y15
Badge 3:Cybersecurity InvestigatorDo you enjoy doing puzzles and solving mysteries? Cybersecurityinvestigators are people who solve crimes that happen on digital devicesand the internet. In this badge, you’ll put on your detective hat and explorecyber crimes.Steps22.214.171.124.5.Crack a code to solve a problemInvestigate what’s real and fake in photosFind out about digital footprintsInvestigate how a computer virus can spreadExplore a cyber attackPurposeWhen I’ve earned this badge, I will know how to use investigative skills tospot problems in the cyber world.16
1STEPCrack a codeto solve a problemComputers use codes to send information. Thecode uses numbers to stand for different letters. That’sbecause numbers are much easier to transmit and send thanletters. Once you know the code, you can figure out what themessages mean.CybersecuritySavvyCould you be acybersecurityinvestigator? Take thisquiz to find out!1 Do you like usingcomputers?2 Do you love to learnnew things? Are youalways asking “why?”3 Are you alwaysready to solve a puzzle,whether it’s a jigsawpuzzle, crosswordpuzzle, or puzzle app?4 Do you dream ofspotting clues andsolving mysteries?5 Do you want to helpand protect people?If you answered “yes”to any of the questionsabove, you might wantto think about havinga cybersecurity jobsomeday!B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y17
MISSION POSSIBLE:CRACKING CODESOne way of keeping private messages private is to use a code.Try your hand at cracking this code.If A 1, B 2, and so on, can you figure out the coded messageand answer this riddle?Why did the computer show up late for work?9 208 1 418 1 18 4A 1H 8O 15V 22B 2I 9P 16W 23C 3J 10Q 17X 24D 4K 11R 18Y 25E 5L 12S 19Z 26F 6M 13T 20G 7N 14U 21Answer on page 2318!4 18 9 22 5
2STEPInvestigate what’s realand fake in photosIt’s easy to look at a photo and think that what itshows is real. But photos can be easily changed with editingsoftware. You can often spot how a photo is changed—usingyour cybersecurity investigation skills!Truth or HoaxGuess which ones arereal and which are fake: You can charge aniPod with an onion. Bill Gates wants togive you money! Bananas are berriesbut strawberriesare not.Answer on page 23Pasta PrankIn 1957, a British news network broadcasta fake report to celebrate April Fool’sDay. They showed a family in Switzerlandpicking spaghetti from a spaghetti tree.This was before the internet existed.People couldn’t search online to find outwhere spaghetti comes from. (It’s madefrom flour and water.)British viewers believed the report!Hundreds of people called the BBC thenext day to find out how they could growtheir own spaghetti trees.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y19
3STEPFind out aboutdigital footprintsWhen you walk along a sandy beach, you leave atrail of footprints. When you use a computer, you alsoleave a trail of footprints.These footprints are called digital footprints. They are made upof information that you leave behind. Some of this informationis OK to leave behind, but there is some private informationthat’s not OK to include in your digital footprint.Follow the FootprintsAlejandra, Campbell, and Jamilahave been busy online!To see where each girl went,follow their footprints (yellow forAlejandra, red for Campbell, bluefor Jamila). Take a look at thelocations they visited. Which onesare safe places to leave a digitalfootprint? Which ones aren’t?KEY online banking online shoppingUnited Kingdom(double decker bus)Mexico(maracas)Zimbabwe(lion)Sweden(Little viking girl) web searchfor homeworkItaly(pizza) watching a movie checking the soccerteam’s schedule checking the weather20United Kingdom(double decker s)Mexico(maracas)Sweden(Little viking girl)Italy(pizza)
4STEPInvestigate howa computer viruscan spreadIf you have ever had a cold, you have had a virus.A virus is a tiny germ. When it gets inside your body, it makescopies of itself. Your body reacts. You sneeze, cough, and blowyour nose until you fight off the virus. Viruses can make us sick.They can also spread to other people and make them sick.Computers get viruses, too! A computer virus isn’t a germ. It’s asoftware program that was made by someone to cause harm.How does it get on your computer? If you click on a link in anemail from someone you don’t know or download informationfrom a website you don’t know, the computer virus can sneakinto your computer. Then it can spread bad code or destroyinformation on your computer. Once your computer has avirus, it can spread to other computers you are linked to.You protect yourself from colds by washing your hands. In thesame way, you can protect your computer from viruses by onlyclicking on links andemails that youknow. You can alsoput anti-virussoftware on yourcomputer. Thissoftware looks forviruses and gets ridof them before theycan cause harm.B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y21
5STEPExplorea cyber attackWhen one computer attacks another computer, wecall it a cyber attack. A cyber attack can also be a groupof computers attacking another group of computers. Sometimesthe goal is to disrupt—or interrupt—the other computers’connection to the internet. Other times, the goal is to find theprivate information on the other computers. Companies andgovernments have big computers that hold a lot of importantdata. The people who work there are always thinking of ways tostop cyber attacks. That’s because they want to protect the data.You’ll find out more about the disruptions cyber attacks cause.Battle of the BugsTwenty-five viruses have sneaked into your computer! Don’t worry—you havedifferent protection software programs that can help. The software programs arecalled Scour Power, Virus Muncher, Bug Blaster, and Cyber Clear.How many viruses out of the 25 were left for you to destroy?SCOUR POWERScour Powerzapped threetimes as manyviruses asCyber Clear.VIRUS MUNCHERVirus Munchergobbled up twiceas many virusesas Bug Blaster.BUG BLASTERBug Blaster gotrid of three.CYBER CLEARTogether CyberClear and BugBlaster zappedjust as manyviruses as VirusMuncher did.Answer on page 2322
Now that I’ve earned this badge,I can give service by: Helping my family understand how viruses work and howwe can avoid them. Asking my school’s computer teacher to talk to our classabout cybersecurity. Connecting with younger girls and telling them what I foundout about cybersecurity investigations.I’m inspired to:B R OW N I E C Y B E R S E C U R I T Y23Answers: Page 18: IT HAD A HARD DRIVE; Page 19: The first two statements are false—butthe last one is true! Page 22: There were 4 viruses left to destroy: Scour Power devoured 9,Virus Muncher ate 6, Bug Blaster gobbled up 3 and Cyber Clear blasted 3. Together they tookcare of 21 viruses. You started with 25 viruses so there are 4 left.
Made possible by a generous grant from Palo Alto Networks 2018 Girl Scouts of the United States of America.All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, distributed, or transmitted in any form or by any means,including photocopying, recording, or by any other electronic or mechanical methods now known or hereinafter invented,without the prior written permission of Girl Scouts of the United States of America, except in the case of brief quotationsembodied in critical reviews and certain other noncommercial uses permitted by copyright law. For permissions requests,write to Girl Scouts of the United States of America at the address below or visit the www.girlscouts.org website to accesspermission request forms.Links to third-party websites are provided for convenience only. Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) does not endorse nor supportthe content of third-party links and is not responsible for the content or accuracy, availability, or privacy/security practices ofother websites, and/or services or goods that may be linked to or advertised on such third-party websites. By clicking on athird-party link, you will leave the current GSUSA site whereby policies of such third-party link may differ from those of GSUSA.First published in 2018 by Girl Scouts of the USA420 Fifth Avenue, New York, NY 10018-2798www.girlscouts.orgPrinted in the United StatesStock images by: Adobe StockSpecial thanks to the Cybersecurity badge content partner, the Cyber Innovation Center.24
Brownie Cybersecurity Explore cybersecurity by earning these three badges! Badge 1: Cybersecurity Basics Badge 2: Cybersecurity Safeguards Badge 3: Cybersecurity Investigator This Cybersecurity badge booklet for girls provides the badge requirements, background information, and fun facts about cybersecurity for all three Brownie
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Explore mechanical engineering by earning these three badges! Badge 1: Leap Bot Design Challenge Badge 2: Fling Flyer Design Challenge Badge 3: Race Car Design Challenge This Mechanical Engineering badge booklet for girls provides the badge requirements, information, and fun facts about engineering for all three (LEVEL) mechanical engineering .
scouts/traditions.html. Bridge to Brownie Award Bridging Step Two: Look Ahead! Spend some time with Brownie Girl Scouts. Do one or more of the following or create your own: Say the Girl Scout Promise together. Then find out if the Brownie Girl Scouts have a favorite part of the Girl Scout Law. Were they friendly and helpful, or courageous .
ANATOMI & HISTOLOGI JARINGAN PERIODONTAL Oleh: drg Ali Taqwim . terbentuk dari tulang haversi (haversian bone) dan lamela tulang kompak (compacted bone lamellae). drg Ali Taqwim/ KG UNSOED 29 Lamina dura Alveolar bone proper GAMBARAN HISTOLOGIS GAMBARAN RADIOGRAFIS It appears more radiodense than surrounding supporting bone in X-rays called lamina dura . drg Ali Taqwim/ KG UNSOED 30 1. Cells .