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Career Technical EducationFramework for CaliforniaPublic SchoolsGrades Seven Through TwelveAdopted by the California State Board of EducationPublished by the California Department of EducationSacramento, 2007

Career Technical Education Frameworkfor California Public SchoolsGrades Seven Through TwelveDeveloped by theCalifornia CTE Standards andFramework Advisory GroupAdopted by theCalifornia State Board of EducationPublished by theCalifornia Department of Education

iiPublishing InformationWhen the Career Technical Education Framework for California Public Schools, GradesSeven Through Twelve, was adopted by the California State Board of Education onJanuary 10, 2007, the members of the State Board of Education were as follows:Kenneth Noonan, President; Ruth Bloom, Vice President; James Aschwanden; AlanBersin; Yvonne Chan; Don Fisher; Ruth E. Green; David Lopez; Joe Nuñez; Johnathan Williams; and Andrew Estep, Student Member.The framework was developed by the California CTE Standards and FrameworkAdvisory Group. (See pages vii–ix for the names of the members of the advisory groupand others who made significant contributions to the framework.)This publication was edited by Ed O’Malley of CDE Press, working in cooperationwith Education Program consultants Jim Greco and Karen Shores, High School Initiatives and Career Education Office, Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult LeadershipDivision, and Anthony Monreal, Deputy Superintendent, Curriculum and InstructionBranch, California Department of Education. It was prepared for printing by the staffof CDE Press under the direction of Anne Jackson. The artwork was designed andprepared by Cheryl McDonald, Juan Sanchez, and Tuyet Truong. Typesetting wasdone by Jeannette Reyes. The framework was published by the California Departmentof Education, 1430 N Street, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901, and distributed under theprovisions of the Library Distribution Act and Government Code Section 11096. 2007 by the California Department of EducationAll rights reservedISBN 978-0-8011-1677-3Ordering InformationCopies of this publication are available for sale from the California Department ofEducation. For prices and ordering information, please visit the Department’s Web siteat or call the CDE Press Sales Office at 1-800-995-4099.An illustrated Educational Resources Catalog describing publications, videos, and otherinstructional media available from the Department can be obtained without charge bywriting to the CDE Press Sales Office, California Department of Education, 1430 NStreet, Suite 3207, Sacramento, CA 95814-5901; FAX (916) 323-0823. Or you maycall the CDE Press Sales Office at 1-800-995-4099.NoticeThe guidance in the Career Technical Education Framework for California PublicSchools, Grades Seven Through Twelve, is not binding on local educational agencies orother entities. Except for the statutes, regulations, and court decisions that are referenced herein, the document is exemplary, and compliance with it is not mandatory.(See Education Code Section 33308.5.)

iiiContentsA Message from the State Superintendent of Public Instructionand the State Board of Education vAcknowledgmentsviiIntroduction xPart I: Career Technical Education for California’s Twenty-first Century 1Chapter 1: Structuring a Standards-based Curriculum 13Chapter 2: Lesson Planning and Instruction in Standards-based Education 39Chapter 3: Administrative and Support Services70Chapter 4: Community Involvement and Collaboration98Chapter 5: Applications of CTE Foundation Standards115Part II: Industry Sectors137Agriculture and Natural Resources Industry SectorArts, Media, and Entertainment Industry Sector139173Building Trades and Construction Industry Sector 196Education, Child Development, and Family Services Industry SectorEnergy and Utilities Industry Sector 234Engineering and Design Industry Sector252Fashion and Interior Design Industry Sector 274Finance and Business Industry Sector285Health Science and Medical Technology Industry SectorHospitality, Tourism, and Recreation Industry SectorInformation Technology Industry Sector298325343Manufacturing and Product Development Industry Sector 363Marketing, Sales, and Service Industry SectorPublic Services Industry Sector409Transportation Industry Sector428Glossary 446Abbreviations 453Selected References 455389212

A Message from the State Superintendentof Public Instruction and the State Boardof EducationThe California Department of Education and the California State Boardof Education are pleased to present the California Career TechnicalEducation Framework for California Public Schools, Grades Seven ThroughTwelve. The framework is a guide for implementing the California Career Technical Education Model Curriculum Standards, Grades Seven Through Twelve,adopted by the State Board in 2005 and published by the Department in 2006.It serves as a how-to manual for teachers, school and district administrators,curriculum specialists, and school boards in developing standards-based careertechnical education (CTE) pathways, courses, curricula, and assessments. It demonstrates how curricula can be integrated to provide our students with rigor andrelevance in both academic and CTE knowledge and skills. The CTE standardsare recognized as a model for excellence throughout California, in many otherstates, and even in other countries. This eagerly awaited CTE framework willcontinue the impressive improvements under way throughout the CTE systemand will be a key tool in improving CTE in our middle schools, high schools,regional occupational centers and programs, and adult education programs.In today’s world CTE is important so that our children can understandresponsibility; learn what is required to get and keep a job; receive informationabout and gain experience in careers of interest; and make informed choices forpostsecondary education and life. All of California’s students need knowledgeand skill for success in postsecondary education and employment and need to beprepared to make choices and manage their careers throughout their lifetimes.The CTE model curriculum standards and the CTE framework provide thefoundation and strategies for designing educational programs that make theseimportant goals possible.This document also makes evident that rigor in CTE must be derived fromtwo primary sources, academic knowledge and skill and industry-specific workplace knowledge and skill. Academic rigor is found in the application of academicconcepts as they relate to the understanding of and practice in a particular industry. Workplace rigor is found in the knowledge and skill necessary for students toachieve, maintain, and advance in employment in a particular industry. The levelof academic and workplace rigor is a function of the degree to which each CTEprogram prepares its youths for high-skill, high-wage, or high-demand careers. Ifwe want our children to become successful citizens in the twenty-first century, weas a society have to provide the means and the environment for them not only todevelop academically but also to become productive members of society. As the

viglobal economy has eliminated boundaries in commerce, it is time to eliminatethose barriers in education that prevent too many of our children from fulfillingtheir potential.Linking rigorous curricula to real-world skills enhances learning, no matterwhat direction students take. California’s students deserve the advantage thatearly consideration of career choices and preparation for tomorrow’s workforceand economy can provide. Please join us in this mission to provide California’syouths with the crucial advantage of rigorous and relevant career preparation.JACK O’CONNELLState Superintendent of Public InstructionKEN NOONANPresident, California State Boardof Education

viiAcknowledgmentsThe Career Technical Education Framework for California Public Schools,Grades Seven Through Twelve, is the only state curriculum frameworkdeveloped under the authority of the California Legislature and guidedin its design and development by a legislatively mandated advisory group. Participating in the development of the framework as members of the California CTEStandards and Framework Advisory Group were the following:Zeny Agullana, Special Assistant, Office of the California Attorney GeneralPatrick Ainsworth, Director, Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of EducationBeverly Alexander, Vice President, Rates and Account Services, Pacific Gasand Electric CompanyGordon Allman, Representative, California Teachers AssociationCurt Augustine, Vice President, California Coalition for Construction in theClassroomCatherine Barkett, Executive Director, California State Board of EducationRae Belisle, Executive Director, California State Board of EducationGerald Blackburn, Boeing Space SystemsDona Boatright, Interim Vice Chancellor, Educational Services, Chancellor’sOffice, California Community CollegesRichard Bogart, Chief Executive Officer, Capistrano-Laguna Beach ROPSkip Brown, Teacher, Redlands High SchoolWilliam Callahan, Executive Director, Associated Roofing Contractors ofthe Bay Area Counties, Inc.John Chocholak, Teacher, Ukiah High SchoolLaura Choi, President, California DECAChristine Collins, Literacy Content Expert, Los Angeles Unified SchoolDistrictSonny Da Marto, Superintendent, Burlingame Elementary School DistrictYvonne de la Pena, Program Director, California Firefighter Joint Apprenticeship CommitteeJan Harp Domene, President, California State PTAJaime Fall, Director, California Labor and Workforce Development AgencyTim Gilles, Instructor, Santa Barbara City CollegeJackie Goldberg, Member, California State AssemblyDavid Goodreau, Chairman of the Board, Small Manufacturers Associationof CaliforniaJanet Gower, Instructor, Ygnacio Valley High SchoolNote: Titles and locations of all persons listed in the Acknowledgments were current when this document was being prepared.

viiiMelissa Green, Member, Arbuckle-Pierce FFA ChapterGail Grimm, Executive Director, California Building Industry FoundationJay Hansen, State Building Trades Council of CaliforniaSam Hassoun, Director, California Construction Education and ResearchFoundationPatrick Henning, Jr., Legislative Advocate, California State Council ofLaborersMarty Isozaki, President, InfowaveCris Johnson, California Teachers AssociationLonnie Kane, President, Karen Kane, Inc.Rick Lawrance, President and CEO, California Lodging Industry AssociationJo Loss, Vice President for Education, California State PTAKerry Mazzoni, Secretary for Education, Office of the Secretary for EducationAnne McKinney, Assistant Secretary for Higher Education, Office of theSecretary for EducationJeff Merker, Building Trades Instructor, Sheldon High SchoolKathleen Milnes, President and CEO, Entertainment Economy InstituteChristy Moustris, Director, Alternative Education, Elk Grove Unified SchoolDistrictBarbara Nemko, County Superintendent of Schools, Napa County Office ofEducationKenneth O’Brien, Executive Director, California Commission on PeaceOfficers Standards and TrainingGeorge Plescia, Member, California State AssemblyRussell Postell, President and General Manager, News 10/KXTV, SacramentoFrank Pugh, Member, Board of Directors, California School BoardsAssociationLee Angela Reid, Consultant, Senate Office of ResearchBruce Robeck, Executive Vice President, California Coalition for Construction in the ClassroomBarbara Ross, Manager, Strategic Relations, Apple ComputerJoni Samples, County Superintendent of Schools, Glenn County Office ofEducationFrank Schipper, President, Frank Schipper Construction CompanyAnne Sheehan, Executive Director, California Building Industry FoundationSabina Sobinina, President, California DECASue Stickel, Deputy Superintendent, Curriculum and Instruction Branch,California Department of EducationLane Therrel, Public Affairs Executive, Elysian FieldsKathleen Valentine, Director, Patient Care Services, Kaiser PermanenteTom Vessella, Teacher, Glendale High SchoolSusan Wilbur, Director, Undergraduate Admissions, Office of the President,University of CaliforniaKimberly Yee, Deputy Cabinet Secretary, Governor’s Office

ixThrough a competitive-bid process, the California Institute on Human Services (CIHS), Sonoma State University, was selected to manage the CTE standards and framework development process. The contractor worked collaborativelywith the CTE Advisory Group, the California Department of Education’s CTEProject Team, the Framework Review Committee, and 15 Framework TechnicalWriting Teams to develop a quality framework. Staff from CIHS included thefollowing: Tony Apolloni, Director; Mary Grady, Publication Specialist; Jill Martin, Support Staff; Nara Nayar, Project Coordinator; Ivy Smith, Special Consultant; George Triest, Associate Director; Lynne Vaughan, Consultant; and EileenWarren, Principal Investigator.Staff from the Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Leadership Division, California Department of Education, who served on the CTE Project Team includedthe following: Cindy Beck, Orv Buesing, Richard Dahl, Janice DeBenedetti,Don Doyle, Dara Dubois, Linda Gaylor, Dennis Guido, Paul Gussman, BobHeuvel, Lloyd McCabe, Rick Mejia, John Merris-Coots, Clay Mitchell, BernieNorton, Julie Parr, Chris Rury, Karen Shores, Al Tweltridge, Kathryn Whitten,and Elizabeth Williams.Thanks are also extended to the many individuals who contributed to thedevelopment of the framework as members of the Framework Review Committeeand the Framework Technical Writing Teams.

IntroductionIn 2004 State Superintendent of Public Instruction Jack O’Connell stated thefollowing:The job of K–12 education in California must be to ensure that all our students graduate with the ability to fulfill their potential—whether that takesthem to higher education or directly to their careers. Unfortunately, . . . toomany of our students are not adequately prepared for either. By raising ourexpectations for our students, we can and will begin to change that.1The California Career Technical Education Model Curriculum Standards, GradesSeven Through Twelve, adopted by the State Board of Education (SBE) in 2005,was designed to help achieve that goal by providing educators with rigorous,balanced standards reflecting both the essential knowledge needed to achievea seamless transition to careers or postsecondary education or training and thespecific skills required for each of the state’s 58 career pathways.2This publication, the Career Technical Education Framework for California Public Schools, Grades Seven Through Twelve, is the blueprint for educators to use inimplementing the career technical education (CTE) model curriculum standardsadopted by the SBE. It provides a context for the content laid out by the standards, discusses best practices, and explores important issues in the implementation of those standards.Overview of the FrameworkThe development and adoption of the framework were mandated by the passage in 2002 of Senate Bill 1934 (McPherson), a companion bill to the earlier Assembly Bill 1412 (Wright), passed in the same year, which required the development of the CTE model curriculum standards. The Senate bill also required thatthe framework be developed in consultation with an advisory group “broadlyreflective” of the state. The group was to consist of persons representing businessand industry, labor, the California Community College System, the University ofCalifornia, the California State University, classroom teachers, school administrators, students, parents and guardians, the California Legislature, the CaliforniaDepartment of Education, and the California Labor and Workforce Development Agency.In response to the legislation, the State Superintendent of Public Instructionformed the California CTE Standards and Framework Advisory Group in late2003. The Advisory Group was consulted throughout all phases of the development of the standards and framework. In April 2004 it developed the state’s CTEvision and mission statements and a set of guiding principles for CTE in California. The statements and guiding principles are described as follows:

xiVision StatementCareer technical education engages all students in a dynamic and seamlesslearning experience resulting in their mastery of the career and academic knowledge and skills necessary to become productive, contributing members of society.Mission StatementCalifornia’s education system delivers high-quality programs, resources, andservices to prepare all students for career and academic success, postsecondaryeducation, and adult roles and responsibilities.Guiding Principles1. Inclusion—CTE provides all students with full access to high-quality offerings in career technical education.2. Students and the economy—CTE serves the career preparation needs andinterests of students, industry, labor, and communities while promotingworkforce and economic development.3. Preparation for success—CTE prepares students to master the necessarytechnical, academic, employability, decision-making, and interpersonal skillsto make the transition to meaningful postsecondary education and employment.4. Career planning and management—CTE provides students with opportunities to develop and apply the skills needed for planning and managing theircareers.5. Integration—CTE incorporates instructional strategies to improve teachingand learning through rigorous academic content standards applied in realworld situations.6. Programs of study—CTE provides sequenced curricular pathways that includecareer-related and academic content standards to prepare students for successin postsecondary education, careers, and lifelong learning.7. Innovation and quality—CTE fosters innovation and continuous improvement of instructional content and delivery.8. Future orientation—CTE demonstrates a forward-looking perspective thatmeets the contemporary and emerging needs of individuals, communities,and the economy.9. Collaboration—CTE partners with business, industry, labor, postsecondaryeducation, and the community to provide classroom and work-based learningopportunities that prepare all students for success.This framework was developed to align with the CTE vision and missionstatements and guiding principles. Previous SBE-adopted curriculum frameworks were consulted to ensure that this framework would be consistent with theothers. However, unlike the other curriculum frameworks, the Career TechnicalEducation Framework addresses a wide range of subjects for significantly diversestakeholder groups. It is a hands-on tool for education professionals and others

xiiinterested in implementing standards-based CTE statewide. Because the framework is the blueprint for implementing the CTE standards, a brief discussion ofthe conceptual model follows.Conceptual Model for CTE StandardsJohn R. Anderson, a cognitive specialist at Carnegie Mellon University,theorizes that students learn through the interaction of declarative memory andprocedural memory.3 The declarative memory is where information is stored, andthe procedural memory is where the production rules and processes, the dataon how to use the information, reside. Anderson and other researchers believethat humans learn how to attain, use, transmit, and manage knowledge throughthe interaction of procedural knowledge and declarative knowledge. Therefore,standards must identify the underlying information (declarative knowledge) andprocesses (procedural knowledge) in a given content area to help students developcomplex cognition and higher-order thinking skills.At the Mid-continent Regional Education Laboratory (McREL), John Kendallapplied Anderson’s work, categorizing information and skills as declarative andprocedural statements creating strong knowledge- and skills-based standards.Kendall’s work in this format includes the development of standards for academicsubjects, life skil

technical education (CTE) pathways, courses, curricula, and assessments. It dem-onstrates how curricula can be integrated to provide our students with rigor and relevance in both academic and CTE knowledge and skills. The CTE standards are recognized as a model for excellence throughout California, in many other states, and even in other countries.