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Main & Minor Characters The most important characters in a story are calledmain characters. Events in the story center on the livesof these characters. Therefore, the writer usuallyincludes many details about their circumstances,appearance, actions, and feelings. The less important characters are called minorcharacters. These characters exist to interact with themain characters and help move the story along.

Protagonist and Antagonist PROTAGONIST- Is the central character.Always the main character with whom thestory is about. ANTAGONIST- Opposes the protagonist andcreates conflict for our main character.

Round & Flat Characters Characters that are complexand fully developed are said tobe round characters. Round characters tend todisplay strengths, weaknesses,and a full range of emotions. The writer provides enoughdetail for the reader tounderstand their feelings andmotives. Flat characters are not complex.They have few emotions. Has one kind of personality, oftenreferred to as “two-dimensional”because they lack dimension. They show a little bit of characterthrough reactions and emotions,but everything they reveal is of aone-track nature that’sundeveloped

Static & Dynamic Characters A character who growsemotionally, learns alesson, or alters his or herbehavior is calledDYNAMIC CHARACTER.Read the following:The sniper looked at his enemy falling and heshuddered. The lust of battle died in him. Hebecame bitter by remorse. The sweat stood out inbeads on his forehead His teeth chattered. Hebegan to gibber to himself, cursing the war,cursing himself, cursing everybody. A static character is theopposite of a dynamiccharacter. The personality of thatcharacter when he isintroduced is the samepersonality when the storycomes to a close. And all hisactions in-between stay trueto that personality.

Characterization Characterization is theprocess by which thewriter reveals theimage and personalityof a character.Which words createcharacterization to clarify yourimage of Tommy?Tommy McSweeney really hated being thetallest boy in the eighth grade. Everyoneassumed he was a good basketball player,but he had no athletic interest or skill.Instead, his talent emerged far from a court orball field. No one beyond Tommy’s familyknew that the pale, muscular kid with curlyhair and freckles was a classical pianist—andTommy intended to keep it that way.

Characterization: Creating Characters There are two types ofcharacterization: directcharacterization and indirectcharacterization.

Direct Characterization If a writer tells you what acharacter is like the method isdirect characterization When a writer uses directcharacterization, you don’t haveto do any detective work tofigure out the character. Example: “The patient boy and quiet girl wereboth well mannered and did not disobey theirmother.” Explanation: The author is directly telling theaudience the personality of these two children.The boy is “patient” and the girl is “quiet.” Which words directly showyou Amaya’s qualities? When Amaya brought homea pet rabbit, her mother didnot object. She knew Amayawas a caring, responsible girlwho would take excellentcare of the animal.

Dr. Chang was the best dentist in the practice. He had acharming smile, a gentle manner, and a warm personality.He made a trip to the dentist a pleasant experience—despite the discomfort.Whatwords giveyou directinformationabout Dr.Chang’scharacter?

Indirect Characterization Indirect characterization shows things that reveal thepersonality of a character. When writers use indirect characterization, they givereaders the chance to decide for themselves what acharacter is like. There are five methods of indirect characterization.

Indirect CharacterizationSTEALSpeechWhat does the character say? How does the characterspeak?ThoughtsWhat is revealed through the character’s privatethoughts and feelings?Effect onothersWhat is revealed through the character’s effect on others? How do othercharacters feel or behave in reaction to the character? How does thecharacter make other characters feel?ActionsWhat does the character do? How does the character behave? What isher/his attitude?LooksWhat does the character look like? How does the character dress? Wemight be told the color of hair, or something about the clothing of the character. Howthe character dresses might reveal something about the character. Does thecharacter wear old, dirty clothing, or stylish, expensive clothing?

Read the following text. What might thischaracter’s appearance say about hispersonality? The man seated inthe parked limousinehad short hair,piercing eyes, and aserious gaze. He wasdressed neatly in astarched white shirtand striped tie.

Read the following passage, payingattention to the character’sappearance. The girl in the fancy dress andhigh-heeled shoes squirmeduncomfortably on the hardwooden bench. Her eyes,lips, and hands wereclenched. Her head droopedand her chin hung low. Atear slid down her face.How does this girlfeel? What detailssuggest this feeling? She feels sad.

What do Karisti’s actions imply abouther character? It was a cold October day whenKaristi’s alarm buzzed at 6:00 a.m. Shepulled on her clothes and headed forthe door. She carefully adjusted herheadphones; then she pulled thesleeves of her turtleneck over herhands to keep out the cold. Here goes10 miles, she thought as she began herrun. I have to be ready for the springmarathon. What actions doesKaristi take? Karisti is getting up early to run on acold morning as she prepares for amarathon. She’s probably a dedicatedathlete.

What indirect character trait isshown?After class, Deija asked Dana aquestion, “I’m sorry, Dana, but my littlebrother was sick and my parents mademe stay home and watch him yesterday.Can I see your reading notes?” Danahuffed and rolled her eyes. She repliedto Deija, “Uh, I don’t know where theyare right now.” Dana is rude, uncaring, and unhelpful. Explanation: Deija asks Dana for somethingreasonable. Rather than politelydeclining, Dana does a bunch of rudestuff.

What indirect character trait isshown?Tim was walking around thestore when he bumped into a display ofsoup cans, knocking them all over. Timbought two cartons of eggs then got hitby the automatic door on the way out.It almost broke the eggs. Tim let out asigh of relief. While walking through theparking lot, Tim tripped over the curband landed on the eggs, getting themall over his shirt. Tim is clumsy or accident-prone. Explanation: Tim can’t even go to the grocery storewithout getting into several accidents.He is either clumsy or unlucky.

Indirect Characterization I’m tired of being ignored, Maurathought. When I walk into a room, it’slike no one sees me. No more—I’mgoing to get noticed at the dance. Which three methods of indirectcharacterization appear in thispassage? When the big night came, though,nothing went right. Maura’s dress didn’tfit correctly, and her shawl had a holein it. Worst of all, as she walked into thegym, the heel broke on her right shoe,sending her sprawling across the floor.1. Thoughts & feelings2. Appearance3. Actions

Motivation Motivation is the reason whypeople do the things theydo. In real life, we may neverknow why some people actin certain ways— In literature, you will findplenty of clues to characters'motivations. Use the clues tofind out what makes acharacter tick. Uncover a characters motivations bypaying attention towhat thecharactersays what thecharacterdoescluesaboutmotivation

Motivation “Hey Sheila,” said Jesuka. “I haven’tseen you at the mall all week. Wherehave you been?” Sheila shrugged. “I’m babysitting forMrs. Davies.” “Babysitting? Why are wasting yourtime with some crying kid? You shouldbe with your friends.” “My parents said that if I want to takeballet lessons, I have to pay for themmyself.” Which words revealSheila’s motivation forworking after school? Sheila’s words show thatshe wants to earn moneyto pay for ballet lessons.

characterization: direct characterization and indirect characterization. Direct Characterization If a writer tells you what a character is like the method is . Dr. Chang was the best dentist in the practice. He had a charming smile, a gentle manner, and a warm personality.

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