Young Bird DiseasesIF Convention - Long Island, NYOctober 30, ‘14
Young Bird Diseases Adeno Virus Paramyxo Virus(PMV) Circo Virus Salmonella Herpes Virus Parasites– Worms– Coccidia– Canker
The Young Bird Immune System Why do young birds get infectious disease ?A weak immune system: Inadequate immunity The key to young bird health is to manage theyoung bird’s immune system. Note that the young bird’s immunecapacity is very low the few (3 to 10)weeks after weaning. The young bird’s immune system has twocomponents: Passive and On-Board.
The Young Bird Immune SystemPassive (from Parents)On-Board Highest at weaning Declines/depletes as birdages (in weeks) Received from Parents Depends on parentsimmune status Consists of Antibodies frommother (through yolk) andboth (through crop milk) At weaning: very primitiveand ineffective (lowest) Develops and strengthensas the bird ages Development is dependenton immune systemstimulation (vaccination) Is not fully developed untilthe bird is mature Note: No Cellular component
The Young Bird Immune System12108Passive Immunity6Effective ImmunityOn-Board ImmunityTotal Immunity420WeaningAge(Weeks)
Young Bird Diseases Adeno Virus Primarily affects digestive system (intestines)– Can also affect other systems (chronic in Liver) Birds regurgitate whole grain; also diarrhea Treatment: Fight dehydration - provide plentyof water with electrolytes; reduce stress Freeze regurgitated grain, and feed to nextyear’s young birds Mix with other young birds before racing Often accompanied by a bacterial enteritis:E.coli, Salmonella Treat as appropriate.
Young Bird DiseasesParamyxo Virus (PMV) Vaccinate:– Young birds (twice) before training– All birds once in fall (before breedingseason; annual booster) Virus primarily affects Kidneys and Nerves During an active break, support kidneys withplenty of water w electrolytes (fight dehydrat) Birds will recover; possible nerve damage Carried by feral pigeons - always exposed
Young Bird Diseases - Circo Virus Primarily attacks the young bird’s immunesystem: Bursa, Thymus, Spleen, Bone Marrow Depletes lymphocytes; weakens immunity Bird develops a variety of secondary infections Attacks fast rapidly dividing cells (young birds) Latent commensal in parents (no disease) Parental immunity tends to wane as time goeson; passive immunity passed to babies drops. Tends to recur in cycles of a few years Affected birds will recover immune capacity Histo: Botryoid Basophilic inclusions in bursal B-cells and Mφ.
Young Bird Diseases - Salmonella A widespread bacteria – Exposure quite likelyNumerous carriers: Rodents, Reptiles, FishSubtle sources: Rodent damaged Feed, LitterSymptoms: Joints (swollen), digestive and/orreproductive problems, pale/cloudy eye Goes into hidden places in the bird: joint, eye Prevention: Vaccine KM-1; twice a year Treatment: Antibiotics (get a sensitivity), musthave good tissue penetration.
Young Bird Diseases - Parasites Young birds are very susceptible to parasites;symptoms: weight loss; going light; poorperformance (lack stamina, slow), dull plumage. Determine worm and coccidia parasite load byfecal floatation at your local Vet. Treatments are only effective at certain stages inthe parasites’ life cycle; hence, severaltreatments, 3 weeks apart, are often necessary. Parasites cannot be completely eliminated; onlyreduced to minimal levels.
Young Bird Diseases - Parasites Fecal – Oral Transmission: Worm eggs, Coccidia – Can live in the litter, water, environment, etc.– Can tolerate heat, cold, moisture, dryness, etc.– Resistant to disinfectants: Not killed by chlorox orother disinfectants.– Intermediate host (bug, worm) in some cases Treatments are only effective at certain stages inthe parasites’ life cycle; hence, severaltreatments, 3 weeks apart, are often necessary. Parasites cannot be completely eliminated; onlyreduced to minimal levels.
Parasites - Worms Numerous types: Round worms, Capillaria, Treat at 3 to 4 week intervals with:– Fenbendazole: Caution - Toxic at high doses– Ivermectin(1%): 3 – 5 drops in the mouth– Thiabendazole,– Levamisole, In chronic cases, larvae migrate into othertissues outside intestines, causing damage.
Parasites - Coccidia Protozoan parasite of the intestineShort life cycle: Builds up rapidlyCan be quite devastating, debilitatingFecal Oral transmissionTreatment:– Sulfa Medications (Sulmet, Albon, et al.),medication is liquid (mixes easily in water).– Several other medications also available.
Parasites - Canker Flagellated Protozan: Trichomonas, Hexamitis Fecal-oral transmission, often in water Symptoms: Mouth/Throat – Yellow, caseousplaque in mouth; mouth sore, hurts; birdswallows a lot, stops eating, may drink more.– Liver: raised, yellow ‘bulls eye’ lesions throughout– Other locations: Hard yellow caseous plugs. Treatment: Metronidazole, Dimetridazole (CA) Test: OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test oral swab
Young Bird Diseases - Herpes Virus Latent in adults; many birds carry it, andintermittently shed the virus Young birds easily pick up the virus at the lowpoint in their immunity if left in with adults To avoid: Separate age classes; get young birdsout of the breeding pen as soon as weaned Symptoms: Purulent pseudo-membrane inmouth; sticky, milky mucus in trachea; eye lids Treatment: Supportive care; mouth isextremely sore and painful
Young Bird Diseases To reduce young bird diseases:– Wean young birds at 30 to 35 days (separate)– Vaccinate parents before breeding season– Vaccinate young birds after breeding season, andbefore they are mixed with other (feral) pigeons– Minimize stress: crowding, environment, training– Think in terms of the young bird’s immune system– Treat bacterial infections and parasites as needed
Health Maintenance Program – Spring Breeding June – (after breeding and Old Bird racing) - Vaccinate EVERYbird for Salmonella, Paramyxovirus (PMV), possibly Pox. July – (before moult and YB racing) - Repeat Salmonella, andPMV in Young Birds and unvaccinated Old Birds (Booster). Check young birds for canker (Throat Swab), and worms(Cloacal Swab or Fecal Float) Treat as necessary December – (after all racing; before breeding)-Vaccinate everybird for Salmonella; vaccinate any birds unvaccinated for PMV Check breeders, racing team, feeders for canker (ThroatSwab), and worms (Cloacal Swab or Fecal Float) Treat as necessary When vaccinating, avoid breeding, training, racing and moult.
Oct 30, 2014 · Young Bird Diseases To reduce young bird diseases: –Wean young birds at 30 to 35 days (separate) –Vaccinate parents before breeding season –Vaccinate young birds after breeding season, and before they are mixed with other (feral) pigeons –Minimize stress: crowding, environment, training –Think in terms of the young birds immune system
BeLux October 2015 vat incl. Little Bird 1x Little Bird piece 100 Bird 1x Bird piece 150 Super Bird 1x Super Bird piece 250 Sub AIR Wireless subwoofer piece 600 Bird pack 2 stands L&B 2x stand for Little or Bird pack 140 Bird pack 2 stands Super 2x stand for Super pack 180 iTransmitter High definition wireless piece 90 USB Transmitter Wireless transmitter piece
Base Controller Brand Base Controller Model Add-on Brand Add-on Model Based Controllers Add-on Qualifying Products List as of Aug 01, 2021 . Rain Bird ESP-LXME Rain Bird IQ4G-USA Rain Bird ESP-LXME Rain Bird IQNCC4G Rain Bird ESP-LXME Rain Bird IQNCCEN Rain Bird ESP-LXME Rain Bird IQNCCRS. Page 5 of 5
Bird Care Tips Keep the bird in a warm room. Feed your bird food it is used to eating. Give your bird twelve hours of quiet and darkness each day. Do not handle your bird for the first few weeks. Except during playtime, keep the bird in its cage. Avoid loud noises around your bird.
Various species of birds have unique bird calls. These bird calls are distinct based on inflection, length, and context, meaning the same bird may have more than one call. A device that would analyze the signal and identify the bird based on the bird call could be of tremendous help to an ornithologist.
Behavior: How a bird acts can be a great clue for identification. Being a careful observer of bird behavior can help you take your bird identification to the next level. How is the bird sitting, eating, or flying? For example, when looking at the bird's posture, note if the bird is upright or horizontal. These traits can help
the bird-scarer must be justified and you must be able to demonstrate you are complying with best practice at all times. National Farmers Union leaflet: 'Bird Deterrents and Bird Scarers Bird-scarers must only be used to protect crops and be used only where there is a reasonable expectation of being effective. Although the use of bird-
8 Sleep-wake disorders 2 1 1 9 Diseases of the eye and adnexa 117 93 24 10 Diseases of the nervous system 257 232 25 11 Diseases of the ear and mastoid process 22 21 1 12 Diseases of the circulatory system 107 93 14 13 Diseases of the respiratory system 107 95 12 14 Diseases of the digestive system 264 236 28 15 Diseases of the skin 341 284 57 .
2nd Grade . ELA Priority Standards Grade 2 CCSS PA Core Foundational Skills RF.2.3 CC.1.1.2.D Know and apply grade level phonics and word analysis skills in decoding words. Distinguish long and short vowels when reading regularly spelled one- syllable words. Decode two-syllable words with long vowels and words with common prefixes and suffixes. Read grade level high-frequency .