Young Bird Diseases

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Young Bird DiseasesIF Convention - Long Island, NYOctober 30, ‘14

Young Bird Diseases Adeno Virus Paramyxo Virus(PMV) Circo Virus Salmonella Herpes Virus Parasites– Worms– Coccidia– Canker

The Young Bird Immune System Why do young birds get infectious disease ?A weak immune system: Inadequate immunity The key to young bird health is to manage theyoung bird’s immune system. Note that the young bird’s immunecapacity is very low the few (3 to 10)weeks after weaning. The young bird’s immune system has twocomponents: Passive and On-Board.

The Young Bird Immune SystemPassive (from Parents)On-Board Highest at weaning Declines/depletes as birdages (in weeks) Received from Parents Depends on parentsimmune status Consists of Antibodies frommother (through yolk) andboth (through crop milk) At weaning: very primitiveand ineffective (lowest) Develops and strengthensas the bird ages Development is dependenton immune systemstimulation (vaccination) Is not fully developed untilthe bird is mature Note: No Cellular component

The Young Bird Immune System12108Passive Immunity6Effective ImmunityOn-Board ImmunityTotal Immunity420WeaningAge(Weeks)

Young Bird Diseases Adeno Virus Primarily affects digestive system (intestines)– Can also affect other systems (chronic in Liver) Birds regurgitate whole grain; also diarrhea Treatment: Fight dehydration - provide plentyof water with electrolytes; reduce stress Freeze regurgitated grain, and feed to nextyear’s young birds Mix with other young birds before racing Often accompanied by a bacterial enteritis:E.coli, Salmonella Treat as appropriate.

Young Bird DiseasesParamyxo Virus (PMV) Vaccinate:– Young birds (twice) before training– All birds once in fall (before breedingseason; annual booster) Virus primarily affects Kidneys and Nerves During an active break, support kidneys withplenty of water w electrolytes (fight dehydrat) Birds will recover; possible nerve damage Carried by feral pigeons - always exposed

Young Bird Diseases - Circo Virus Primarily attacks the young bird’s immunesystem: Bursa, Thymus, Spleen, Bone Marrow Depletes lymphocytes; weakens immunity Bird develops a variety of secondary infections Attacks fast rapidly dividing cells (young birds) Latent commensal in parents (no disease) Parental immunity tends to wane as time goeson; passive immunity passed to babies drops. Tends to recur in cycles of a few years Affected birds will recover immune capacity Histo: Botryoid Basophilic inclusions in bursal B-cells and Mφ.

Young Bird Diseases - Salmonella A widespread bacteria – Exposure quite likelyNumerous carriers: Rodents, Reptiles, FishSubtle sources: Rodent damaged Feed, LitterSymptoms: Joints (swollen), digestive and/orreproductive problems, pale/cloudy eye Goes into hidden places in the bird: joint, eye Prevention: Vaccine KM-1; twice a year Treatment: Antibiotics (get a sensitivity), musthave good tissue penetration.

Young Bird Diseases - Parasites Young birds are very susceptible to parasites;symptoms: weight loss; going light; poorperformance (lack stamina, slow), dull plumage. Determine worm and coccidia parasite load byfecal floatation at your local Vet. Treatments are only effective at certain stages inthe parasites’ life cycle; hence, severaltreatments, 3 weeks apart, are often necessary. Parasites cannot be completely eliminated; onlyreduced to minimal levels.

Young Bird Diseases - Parasites Fecal – Oral Transmission: Worm eggs, Coccidia – Can live in the litter, water, environment, etc.– Can tolerate heat, cold, moisture, dryness, etc.– Resistant to disinfectants: Not killed by chlorox orother disinfectants.– Intermediate host (bug, worm) in some cases Treatments are only effective at certain stages inthe parasites’ life cycle; hence, severaltreatments, 3 weeks apart, are often necessary. Parasites cannot be completely eliminated; onlyreduced to minimal levels.

Parasites - Worms Numerous types: Round worms, Capillaria, Treat at 3 to 4 week intervals with:– Fenbendazole: Caution - Toxic at high doses– Ivermectin(1%): 3 – 5 drops in the mouth– Thiabendazole,– Levamisole, In chronic cases, larvae migrate into othertissues outside intestines, causing damage.

Parasites - Coccidia Protozoan parasite of the intestineShort life cycle: Builds up rapidlyCan be quite devastating, debilitatingFecal Oral transmissionTreatment:– Sulfa Medications (Sulmet, Albon, et al.),medication is liquid (mixes easily in water).– Several other medications also available.

Parasites - Canker Flagellated Protozan: Trichomonas, Hexamitis Fecal-oral transmission, often in water Symptoms: Mouth/Throat – Yellow, caseousplaque in mouth; mouth sore, hurts; birdswallows a lot, stops eating, may drink more.– Liver: raised, yellow ‘bulls eye’ lesions throughout– Other locations: Hard yellow caseous plugs. Treatment: Metronidazole, Dimetridazole (CA) Test: OSOM Trichomonas Rapid Test oral swab

Young Bird Diseases - Herpes Virus Latent in adults; many birds carry it, andintermittently shed the virus Young birds easily pick up the virus at the lowpoint in their immunity if left in with adults To avoid: Separate age classes; get young birdsout of the breeding pen as soon as weaned Symptoms: Purulent pseudo-membrane inmouth; sticky, milky mucus in trachea; eye lids Treatment: Supportive care; mouth isextremely sore and painful

Young Bird Diseases To reduce young bird diseases:– Wean young birds at 30 to 35 days (separate)– Vaccinate parents before breeding season– Vaccinate young birds after breeding season, andbefore they are mixed with other (feral) pigeons– Minimize stress: crowding, environment, training– Think in terms of the young bird’s immune system– Treat bacterial infections and parasites as needed

Health Maintenance Program – Spring Breeding June – (after breeding and Old Bird racing) - Vaccinate EVERYbird for Salmonella, Paramyxovirus (PMV), possibly Pox. July – (before moult and YB racing) - Repeat Salmonella, andPMV in Young Birds and unvaccinated Old Birds (Booster). Check young birds for canker (Throat Swab), and worms(Cloacal Swab or Fecal Float) Treat as necessary December – (after all racing; before breeding)-Vaccinate everybird for Salmonella; vaccinate any birds unvaccinated for PMV Check breeders, racing team, feeders for canker (ThroatSwab), and worms (Cloacal Swab or Fecal Float) Treat as necessary When vaccinating, avoid breeding, training, racing and moult.

Oct 30, 2014 · Young Bird Diseases To reduce young bird diseases: –Wean young birds at 30 to 35 days (separate) –Vaccinate parents before breeding season –Vaccinate young birds after breeding season, and before they are mixed with other (feral) pigeons –Minimize stress: crowding, environment, training –Think in terms of the young birds immune system

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