Universal Journal of Educational Research 6(3): 556-561, 2018DOI: cal Fitness Profiles of Sitting Volleyball Players ofthe Turkish National TeamMehmet Fatih Yüksel1,*, Tarık Sevindi21Faculty of Education, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey2Faculty of Sports Science, Aksaray University, Aksaray, TurkeyCopyright 2018 by authors, all rights reserved. Authors agree that this article remains permanently open access underthe terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 International LicenseAbstractThis research is conducted to determine thephysical profiles of sitting volleyball players of theTurkish National Team. 12 male players from TurkishSitting Volleyball National Team volunteered toparticipate in the study. The anthropometricmeasurements were taken over dominant extremity. Inorder to determine the physical features of the participantstests and measurements were made regarding stature,bodyweight, BMI, upper body length, upper extremitylength, arm length, forearm length, hand length, armcircumference, forearm circumference, upper body length,modified sit-ups, modified abdominal endurance,modified push-ups, hand grasping power, plate tapping,and shoulder flexibility. SPSS 21.0 program was used inthe analysis of the data, and minimum, maximum,arithmetic mean, and standard deviation values weredetermined. As a conclusion, it can be mentioned that theanthropometric measurements of the players and modifiedbio-motor test results of the disabled individuals willinspire the sports scientists/trainers and this data are vitalwith regards to selection of the players.Keywords Sitting Volleyball, Physically Disabled,Physical Features1. IntroductionProfessional disabled sport has developed rapidly inrecent years. Sport is crucial with regards to helpingdisabled individuals coming out of social isolation.Disabled individuals with a growing number include notonly people born with disabilities, but also many victims oftraffic accidents and war conflicts . Physical activities ofthe disabled individuals are not limited to leisure timeactivities or forms of rehabilitation that improve theirphysical fitness. Being a part of active rehabilitation, sportaims to restore self-confidence of the disabled. Sport is animportant means for that purpose. Competitive sport is alsoa way of satisfying ambitions, presenting high abilities andeven competing with able-bodied people [1-5]. Today,there are numerous sport branches adapted for the disabledindividuals. Sitting volleyball is one of the Paralympicsport branches that the disabled can participate.As a high-level competitive sport, sitting volleyballappeared on the international scene comparatively late, in1980. That year sitting volleyball became an official eventfor the first time at the Paralympic Games in Arnhem, TheNetherlands [6, 7]. We follow the FIVB (FederationInternationale de Volleyball) rules, with additions fromthe WOVD (World Organization Volleyball for Disabled)rules and regulations for sitting volleyball. Somecharacteristics of the game/court: the playing court is a 10m by 6 m rectangle; the attack line is 2 m away from thecenter line axis; the net, which is 0.80 m by 6.50 m, isplaced vertically over the center line and is 1.15 m highwith regards to men’s standards; players use hands formoving and sweeping on the court; buttocks must remainon the floor while playing the ball; block on the service isallowed; for official tournaments a classification onminimum disability is required [1, 6, 8].Sitting volleyball is a sport activity that providesevident positive effects during rehabilitation and generalresocialization of the individuals with physical disability. Sitting volleyball requires moving on the floor byusing hands and quick reactions for getting into positionearly enough to play effectively. This requires sufficientpractice on basic techniques, plenty of play-timeexperience, and development of hand-eye-bodycoordination. For a successful sitting volleyball onelementary level, basic skills must be acquired .Consisting of quick moves and stimuli-responsivereactions, sitting volleyball has a dynamic character, and itis evaluated that the physical fitness of an athlete will be amajor factor for success.This research was carried out in order to examine thephysical fitness levels of Turkish National Team sittingvolleyball athletes.
Universal Journal of Educational Research 6(3): 556-561, 20182. Materials and Methods2.1. Ethical Scope and Official PermitsWritten permit for the study was obtained from“Necmettin Erbakan University, Meram Medical Faculty,Ethics Committee of non-Pharmaceuticals andnon-Medical Device Researches” with the decision dated12/01/2017 and numbered 2017/1107. Necessarypermissions for conducting tests and measurements weretaken from the Turkey Physically Disabled SportsFederation. All the volunteers participating in the researchsigned the informed consent (volunteer) form andcompleted a personal information form.2.2. Study GroupThe subjects of this research were chosen among thevolunteer players. 12 male players participated in theresearch from Turkish Sitting Volleyball National Team.All of the measurements and tests of the volleyballplayers composing the experiment group were carried outin Paralympic camp training center (Aksaray/Turkey).Disability classification of the players was determinedbefore the tests and measurements. When the disabilityconditions of the participant players were examined thefigures below were detected;Disability condition: congenital (n 6), acquired (n 6);Disability type: poliomyelitis (n 3), lower extremityunilateral amputated (n 2), coxae peccetur (n 2), CMT(Charcot-Marie-Tooth) syndrome (n 1) and Les autres(n 3);Mobilization Type: prosthesis (n 2), orthesis (n 1),crutch (n 1), and independent (n 8).Some limitations were applied considering the physicaldisability condition during the tests and measurements.Anthropometric measurements were conducted ondominant extremities. Hand grasping power and platetapping values of a player were not determined due to aproblem in the non-dominant hand. The tests and protocolsthat were conducted to determine the physical features ofthe players are explained below.2.3. Data Collection ToolsHeight and Body weight: In the linear measurements atapeline with 0.01 m sensitivity score was used. Weightmeasurements were made with a digital weighing scalewith a sensitivity level of 0.01 kg .Body mass index: Using body weights and lengths,BMI was determined using the BMI Body weight /(Length)2 formula .Trunk length, upper extremity length, arm length,forearm length, hand length, arm circumference andforearm circumference measurements were made with tapeand recorded in cm [11, 12].557Trunk length: Determined by measuring the distancebetween the C7 and the coccyx.Upper extremity length: Determined by measuring thedistance between the Acromion and the tip of the longestfinger on the hand.Arm length: Determined by measuring the distancebetween the acromion and the olecranon while the shoulderand the arm were loose.Forearm length: Determined by measuring the distancebetween the olecranon and styloid protrusion of radius.Hand length: Determined by measuring the distancebetween the styloid protrusion of radius and the tip of thelongest finger on the hand.Arm circumference: Determined by locating the middlepoint of the distance between the acromion and olecranon,and measured while the muscles were loose.Forearm circumference: Determined by locating themost swollen point of the muscle, and measured while thearm was loose.Modified functional reaching test: The test was used inorder to evaluate trunk balance. The players positioned in aposture that the hip-knee is in flexion position, upper bodyis in a vertical 900 position, leaning to back support of thechair, and there is 5 cm in between popliteal fossa and theside of the chair. Lower extremities were fastened to eachother on the femur shaft distal. The players were sat onhigh chairs in order to prevent foot support. The playerswere asked to do 900 shoulder flexion. The length of thearm was marked on the ulnar styloid level and the playerwas asked to reach out to front as much as possible. Duringthe reaching activity, compensation mechanisms wereavoided such as shoulder protraction and neck flexion. Thelength of the distance that ulnar styloid moved was markedon the maximal reaching point, and the distance in betweenthe first and the second values was recorded in cm .Modified Sit-up Test: The player positions himself lyingon his back on the mat, knees bent, soles of the feet fully onthe mat, hands on each side of the hips, and fingers inextension on the mat. The legs were supported as to keepthe knees bent. The individual was asked for arising untilthe scapula bottom level, and do as many sit-ups as hecould in 30 seconds [14, 15].Modified abdominal endurance: Lying on his back onthe mat, the individual was asked for arising until scapulabottom level and keep this position as much as he could.The time was stopped and recorded, as the participanttouched the scapula bottom level or deformed the position.Modified push up test: The participant was positioned asface down on the mat, and the modified push-up version forthe females was applied. The power of upper extremitymuscles of the subject and the number of rearward movesof upper body was recorded .Hand grasping strength: Beginning from the right hand,the measurement was made with Jamar branddynamometer and recorded in kg, while the subject was on
558Physical Fitness Profiles of Sitting Volleyball Players of the Turkish National Teamfoot, arm straight with a 10-150 angle from the shoulder onone side .Plate tapping test: It was applied to measure the armmove speed. Two plastic discs (A and B) were placed onthe table, 80 cm away from each other. Subject touched A,and B discs 25 times (totally 50) with the dominant hand asfast as possible. The timekeeper started as the subjecttouched disc A, and the value obtained at the end of the testwas recorded in seconds .Shoulder Flexibility: It was measured with Back ScratchTest. The players were sat in a position that their backswere vertical. The players were asked to bond their handsat the back while one of their shoulders were respectivelyin flexion, abduction, external rotation and elbow flexion;and the other shoulders were in extension, adduction, andinternal rotation and elbow flexion. In this phase, thedistances between the 2nd fingers were recorded in cm. Ifthe fingers are touching each other the value is 0, otherwisethe distance was recorded in minus cm. The measurementwas repeated after the positions of the extremities werechanged and the results were recorded in cm as well .2.4. Analyzing of DataSPSS 21.0 program was used in the analysis of the dataobtained in the study and minimum, maximum, arithmeticmean, and standard deviation values were determined.3. ResultsTable 1. Average physical features of the sitting volleyball players.VARIABLESnMinMaxMeanS. D.Age (year)Training age ght (cm)12 163,00 201,00 180,16 11,61Weight (kg)1255,00102,0077,7013,66BMI (kg/m2)Trunk length r extremity length (cm)1274,5097,0084,505,53Arm length (cm)1229,0041,5035,203,03Forearm length (cm)Hand length Arm circumference (cm)1227,5042,5032,37Forearm circumference (cm)1223,0038,5028,753,65Trunk balance (cm)Modified sit-up 7Modified abdominal endurance (s) 1245,00307,00 126,41 75,53Modified push up (number)Dominant hand grasping strength(kg)Non-dominant hand graspingstrength (kg)Dominant hand plate tapping (s)Non-dominant hand plate tapping(s)Right shoulder flexibility 11,121,94Left shoulder flexibility (cm)12-5,0024,008,317,5812-7,0016,503,868,054. Discussion and ConclusionsThis research is conducted to determine the physicalprofiles of sitting volleyball players of the TurkishNational Team. Bringing some preliminary valuesobtained in the research into the literature, it was aimed tocreate a reference guide for the trainers, sport scientistsand other shareholders. In context of the literature reviewcompleted, no researches were found regardingdetermining the physical and bio-motor features of thesitting volleyball players in Turkish national team.Therefore, the findings of this study will be useful andassessable for this sports branch and others. Within thecontext of the research, some tests and measurementswere determined regarding stature, bodyweight, BMI,upper body length, upper extremity length, arm length,forearm length, hand length, arm circumference, forearmcircumference, upper body length, modified sit-ups,modified abdominal endurance, modified push-ups, handgrasping power, plate tapping, and shoulder flexibility.In a study conducted to determine the anthropometricprofiles of sitting volleyball players, the averages of theright and left arm lengths of the players were respectively30,21 and 30,77 cm, while right and left forearm lengthaverages were 21,30 and 21,98 cm, and right and left handlength averages were reported as 13,44 and 13,69 cm .In our research, it was observed that the upper extremitylength values (respectively averages 35,20 cm, 28,33 cm,20,95 cm) were higher. This difference is considered to bestemmed from the study group’s being elite level playersand being composed of national team level players.Moreover İnce et al.  reported that arm length is not adisadvantage for the disabled since the height of the net islower. However, although the height of the net is lower,considering the characteristics of the game, since failureto contact either buttocks to the ground is forbidden byrule, we are of the opinion that both upper extremities andupper body height is vital in all parts of the game,particularly in offence and block positions, and they areimportant criteria in selection of the players. Thisdetermination is supported by the research conducted by[9, 21].A research was reported to be conducted byMahmutovic et al.  to determine the effects ofmorphological features of the sitting volleyball players inBosnia Herzegovina Premier League on conditional-motorskills. According to the results of the research, it wasreported that the players with longer arm lengths, widerpelvis width and upper arm circumference, and lowerabdominal skinfold values have an advantage ogical measurements were dominant in sittingvolleyball. The findings of that research verify thedeterminations obtained by Mahmutovic et al. .In a study conducted to determine the relation betweenthe anthropometric variables of 20 elite level Polish sittingvolleyball players and anaerobic power, field tests, and
Universal Journal of Educational Research 6(3): 556-561, 2018game performances, it was reported that the physicalfitness and game performances are dependent on theanthropometric variables of the players .Hasanbegovic et al.  reported that they determined theeffects of trainings in sitting volleyball on motor skills byfactor analysis. It was mentioned that the explosive powerfactors of the participants are important at the initialmeasurements; however, after the training processes,motor skills primarily develop, rendering mobility andagility the basic component. Although the researches [9,21, 22] include important correlations and usefulinformation regarding anthropometric and motorperformances of the players, it was observed that they didnot provide any averages regarding neither anthropometricnor motor performances. In this respect, this researchdiffers from the existing ones with regards to its findingsproviding average values. This data are considered toprovide contribution to form the standards with regards tositting volleyball and similar disabled sports branches.In a research in Egypt, Amgad  reported that aweight-lifting training composed of 8 moves was appliedto sitting volleyball players during 12 weeks, 3 days aweek, and 60 minutes a day. At the end of the study, itwas reported that the training had statistically significantlyincreased the strength of the arm muscles and had apositive effect. In another research on amputated footballplayers, it was reported that there was a positivecorrelation between stabilization of the upper bodymuscles and upper body flexor strength, and it wassuggested that upper body stabilization, balance, andupper body muscle strength trainings must be included inthe training plans . When the findings obtained by theresearchers are examined, it was evaluated that thebalance and strength of upper bodies of the sittingvolleyball players of Turkish national team are sufficient;however, the abdominal endurance level should bedeveloped. The dominant hand grasping power values(average 53,08 kg) and non-dominant hand graspingvalues (average 50,63 kg) detected during the research areconsidered to be quite high. Those high values verify thedeterminations of Amgad  and Aytar et al.  whichstated that training had a positive effect on muscledevelopment.With regards to the types of disability, it was observedthat the players of this research composed of minimaldisabled (n 2) and disabled (n 10) individuals, whichwas not a homogenous group. It is a known fact that theseplayers have varied pathologies differentiating theirfunctional levels and their functional features could varydespite having similar disabilities. In this respect, sincethe study was conducted on sitting volleyball players ofTurkish national team and the participants were limited to12, being unable to classify considering disabilityconditions or being unable to carry out statistical analysesbased on disability conditions could be accepted as aweakness of the research. However, in a research559conducted on 128 male and 91 female sitting volleyballplayers, Marszalek et al. , it was reported that therewas no difference regarding game efficiency among bothmale and female players who had different types ofdisability. In their research, it was observed that Morres etal.  had focused on the relation between the sportsperformances (service, reception, set, attack, block, anddefense) and classification system (disability, minimaldisability). It was mentioned that the disability levels ofthe participant athletes did not decrease theirperformances. Similarly, Vute , Hayrinen andBlomqvist , Hayrinen et al. , Protic and Valkova had conducted studies based on game efficiency ofsitting volleyball. It was understood that game analyseswere done in order to evaluate the game performances,thus the motivational factors behind participation in thesitting volleyball were examined, and the researchersfocused on game variables in these researches. Therefore,it can be mentioned that it is a necessity that morecomprehensive researches be conducted based ondisability classification and functional features of thevolleyball players.Moving in complete independency is vital for aphysically disabled individual. When disabled individualswho deal or do not deal with sports are compared, it isstated that the ones dealing with sports are moreindependent in daily life in terms of mobility, have highersocial participation, and have higher life quality comparedto individuals who do not deal with sports. Moreover,reported that regular exercises of a disabled individualwere effective on physical fitness [30-32].Considering the available data in literature, there werelimited number of researches on sitting volleyball playersand particularly the physical features of Turkish nationalteam level players were not determined, which motivatedthis rese
reactions, sitting volleyball has a dynamic character, and it is evaluated that the physical fitness of an athlete will be a major factor for success. This research was carried out in order to examine the physical fitness levels of Turkish National Team sitting volleyball athletes.