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PRESENTATION OUTLINE1.2.3.4.IntroductionEmpirical Reflections on Ill-DisciplineLegal FrameworkAlternatives to Corporal Punishment:o Continuum 1 – 45. Positive Behaviour Interventions and SupportoooooooSystemic School-wide ApproachesPBIS Preventive and Restorative ApproachesA Meta-cognitive view of PBISPillars that Build PBISTools and Concepts of PBISClearing AmbiguityAction Steps for PBIS6. Conclusion

INTRODUCTION Discipline challenges in schools constitute a major threat to quality education in South Africa.These challenges include disrespect, absenteeism, late coming, neglect of school work, stealing,fighting, drug trafficking and initiation practices are not limited to learners alone.Some ofthe educators, parents and the supposed to be role models in the community are to blame forfuelling the problem because they are not conducting themselves in a manner befitting models ofgood behaviour. Recent research tells us that children are hardwired from birth to connect with others, and thatchildren who feel a sense of connection to their community, family, and school are less likely tomisbehave. To be successful, contributing members of their community, children must learnnecessary social and life skills. Positive Discipline is based on the understanding thatdiscipline must be taught and that discipline teaches – Dr. Jane Nelsen

EMPERICAL REFLECTIONS ON ILL-DISCIPLINE BY LEARNERSThe study that was conducted in six provinces of South Africa by Mncube and Harbor (2012) and whichwas published by Unisa as ‘Unisa 2012 Report’ came up with a number of findings. The findingssuggest that as well as schools being affected by violence in the wider surrounding society, theyare also involved in both reproducing and causing or perpetrating violence and indisciplinethemselves. The report states among other things that indiscipline in schools is aggravated by: Poor or weak school management; Poor levels of teacher professionalism such as absenteeism and late-coming; Weak or absent parental guidance; Teachers using verbal and physical violence towards learners, including corporal punishment; and Poor reporting systems on cases of bullying.

LEGAL FRAMEWORK As a signatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child, South Africa is obliged to passlaws and take social, educational and administrative measures to protect the child from all formsof physical and mental violence, abuse and maltreatment. The African Chapter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child commits its member countries to thesame measures. It further adds that member countries must take steps to ensure that a child whois subjected to school or parental discipline shall be treated with humility and with respect forthe inherent dignity of the child. Section 12 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa stipulates that: Everyone has theright not to be treated or punished in a cruel, inhuman or degrading way. In keeping with theethos of the Constitution, the National Education Policy Act (1996) states that: No person shalladminister corporal punishment or subject a student to psychological or physical abuse at anyeducational institution. According to the South African Schools Act (1996), 10(1) No person may administer corporalpunishment at a school to a learner; (2) Any person who contravenes subsection 1 is guilty of anoffence, and liable on conviction to a sentence which could be imposed for assault .

ALTERNATIVES TO CORPORAL PUNISHMENT THE CONTINUUM - 1The Learning Experience ManualIn 2000 the Department of Education developed the above-named document in an attempt to provideeducators with possible non-punitive measures of maintaining discipline in schools. The measuressuggested include: Giving praise; Leading by example; Being realistic; Avoiding threats and shouting at children; Avoiding words that may hurt the child’s feelings; Respect for children; Negotiating a compromise; Guidance and counselling; Giving children non-abusive tasks to perform; and Restorative justice.

THE CONTINUUM - 2Co-operative Discipline: an Alternative to Corporal Punishment (Facilitator’s Guide) This document was developed in 2003 to be used as a training manual to facilitate theimplementation of Alternatives to Corporal Punishment document.The guide was intended toempower school management teams, educators, representative council of learners and schoolgoverning bodies with skills and knowledge to implement co-operative discipline in schools. Itis designed as both a guide and a workshop manual. The guide attempts to translate the argument for co-operative discipline made in Alternatives toCorporal Punishment: The Learning Experience Manual into activities that will help schoolsreflect on good practice and creatively think of co-operative discipline strategies for schooland classroom management that promote the values of our Constitution. It suggests a wholeschool approach where school discipline is seen as the responsibility of the entire schoolcommunity.Self-discipline is encouraged and a number of non-punitive strategies (to bediscussed later in this document) have been recommended.

CONTINUUM – 3(a) NSSFThe National School safety Framework (NSSF)In 2008 the Department collaborated with the Centre for Justice and Crime Prevention (CJCP) todevelop evidence based programmes that respond to their 2008 National School Violence Study (NSVS).The school safety programmes indicate that achieving low levels of violence and high levels ofdiscipline in schools requires: A well-managed school with a clear School Safety Policy and Plan; A Learner Code of Conduct and Disciplinary Procedure that has clear “rules” and consequences,fair procedures; and Promoting a team approach to discipline and safety by involving all members of the community(educators, parents, learners, principals, administrators, and community services).The NSSF has been designed specifically to focus on the levels of violence in schools by: Managing the school to be a safer place Making sure the appropriate structures, policies and enabling environment is in place, and Directing school management and all within the school towards appropriate remedialand preventative interventions.

CONTINUUM – 3(b) NSSFThe framework suggests an integrated, multi-disciplinary and evidence-based approach to discipline.It has the potential to mobilise stakeholders to participate in a broad network to protect children andtransform all schools into safe, disciplined and child friendly institutions. It is based on the premisethat quality education in schools can only be achieved if learners and teachers feel safe- physically;psychologically and emotionally.Finally, the Framework includes a series of addendums, offering discrete, stand-alone training manualsand materials that cover specific aspects of school safety. These include: The School Bullying module; The Homophobia module; The Xenophobia module; and Additional gangs awareness material.The Framework has been developed to serve as a management tool for provincial and district officialsresponsible for school safety, principals, school management teams, school governing bodies, teachers andlearners to identify and manage risk and threats of violence in and around schools.

CONTINUUM - 4Protocol on the Elimination of Corporal Punishment in South African Schools The Protocol on the Elimination of Corporal Punishment in schools aims to provide procedures forthe abolition of corporal punishment in schools, and may be used to strengthen and complement theimplementation of the National Strategy on Discipline in Schools. It is designed to provide clear guidance to provinces, districts and schools on how to deal withissues of corporal punishment. The protocol is further intended to create a national framework to standardise the educationsector’s response to corporal punishment and to facilitate implementation of the prohibition ofcorporal punishment throughout the education system and to encourage the use of programmes thatwould promote Positive Behaviour Intervention and Supportto respond constructively towards leaner ill-discipline.in order to empower all stakeholders

POSITIVE BEHAVIOUR INITERVENTIONS AND SUPPORT (PBIS)WHAT IS PBIS?It is a systemic methodology in dealing with ill-discipline of learners.It is premised on a range of interventions that are systematically applied to learners based on their demonstratedlevel of need.PBIS is a research based strategy used to teach appropriate skills and behaviour through teaching and reinforcingappropriate behaviour and rewarding the behaviour when used. PBIS addresses the role of the environments/stakeholdersas it applies to development and improvement of behaviour problems whilst focussing on safety in school.PBIS is based on the premise that behavioural change in school will take place if there is systematic positivereinforcement of behaviours based on among other things celebration of successes. It is centred on the followingprinciples:oooooExpected behaviour can be taught;Punitive interventions such as corporal punishment result in short term gains and retard crucial long termbehavioural skills;Expected behaviours can be practised;Meaningful reinforcements can be provided; andLogical consequences for negative behaviours can be enforced.


PBIS IS PREVENTIVE AND RESTORATIVE (premised on levels of misbehaviour)Tertiary Prevention:SpecializedIndividualizedSystems for learners with High-RiskSecondary Prevention:Specialized GroupSystems for learners at Risk BehaviourPrimary Prevention:School/Classroom–Wide Systems for AllStudents, Staff,& Settings

A Meta-Cognitive View of Positive DisciplineMeta-cognitive AspectsPositive Discipline is:Goal of DisciplineCreating circumstances conducive to learning, not restrictive andretaliatoryPersons involvedCo-operative and a team effort, involving and engaging informed SGB,parents, community educators and learners;Co-ordinated by an enabling systems (DBE)Task at handEngendering growth towards a better future while transcending points ofdeparture and boundariesStrategies to fulfil taskConstructive, not only reactive.Based on good and structured relationships, not authoritarianism

Pillars that Build PBISFive Criteria for Positive Disciplineo Is Kind and Firm at the same time. (Respectful and encouraging)o Helps children feel a sense of Belonging and Significance. (Connection)o Is Effective Long-Term. (Punishment works short term, but has negative long-term results.)o Teaches valuable Social and Life Skills for good character. (Respect, concern for others, problemsolving, accountability, contribution, cooperation)o Invites children to discover how Capable they are and to use their personal power in constructiveways.Unique characteristics of the Positive Discipline Model also include:o Teaching adults and students through experiential activities. Creating opportunity to practice newskills and to have fun learning by doing.o Classroom discipline programs and parent education programs that are consistent. Parents, teachers, andchildcare providers can work together to provide a secure, consistent environment for children.o Inexpensive training and ongoing support so members of communities can teach each other PositiveDiscipline skills.o Certified trainers across the country who can work with schools and communities

The Tools and Concepts of Positive DisciplineThe tools and concepts of Positive Discipline include:o Mutual respect. Adults model firmness by respecting themselves and the needs of the situation, andkindness by respecting the needs of the child.o Identifying the belief behind the behaviour. Effective discipline recognizes the reasons kids do whatthey do and works to change those beliefs, rather than merely attempting to change behaviour.o Effective communication and problem solving skills.o Discipline that teaches (and is neither permissive nor punitive).o Focusing on solutions instead of punishment.o Encouragement (instead of praise). Encouragement notices effort and improvement, not just success,and builds long-term self-esteem and empowerment.o Enhance the capacity of those who work with and childreno Promote non-violent values and awareness-raisingo Ensure accountability and end impunity

CLEAR UMBIGUITY – the Three B’sBe sSchool GroundsFollow directionsFollow directionsListen to adultsRespect the privacyof othersKeep hands & feet toyourselfFollowdirectionsFollow adultdirectionsObserve personal spaceListen to thebus driverUse appropriatelanguageUse appropriatelanguageObey all safetydrill proceduresStay seatedwhile the busis movingKeep school groundscleanRaise your handUse appropriatelanguage and toneKeep your hands andyour feet to yourselfExhibit good table manners Keep the bathroomcleanKeep food in the cafeteriaUse your quiet voiceinsideListen to adults orgroup leaders inhallwayRemain silent in thehallwayBe ResponsibleBe prepared to learnClean up afteryourselfUse all equipmentcorrectlyBe SafeKeep your hands andfeet to yourselfRemain in assignedlocationStay at own tableClean up your eating areaWash handsCarry a class passFlush the toiletGo straight to yourdestinationDispose all toiletproductsappropriatelyWait in line for your turn Report problems,vandalism, etc.Walk in and out of thecafeteriaPromptly return toclassRespect hallwaydisplaysWalk on the right sidePromptly return toclassKeep your bodyand yourbelongings toyourselfEnter and exitin an orderlymannerStay in yourseatLine up quickly andcarefullyUse equipmentcorrectlyKeep your hands andfeet to yourself

ACTION STEPS FOR PBIS - LEARNERSBehavioural Contractso Behavioural Contracts are often used as a classroom management technique to help learners withself-control.A learner that shows a repeated negative behaviour pattern in a classroom isrequested to get into agreement (often in writing) with a teacher that he/she will not show thatbehaviour pattern for a set period of time.o If the behaviour is not shown within the agreed period the learner is rewarded and if the learnerdoes not meet his or her obligations under the contract the consequence specified in the contractshould apply.o Support to a learner in this technique is important to assist in adhering to the contractstipulations. A mentoring programme is an essential partner to the behavioural contract as itassists the learner with compliance to the expectations.

CONCLUSIONEnsure participation of Children“If you want to know how to paint, you consult the painter; if you want to eat, consult a chef; ifyou want to know about children’s issues, you have to consult young people ”- Young Person, NGO Panel to theUN Secretary-General’s Study on Violence against Children.

Positive Discipline is based on the understanding that discipline must be taught and that discipline teaches –Dr. Jane Nelsen. EMPERICAL REFLECTIONS ON ILL-DISCIPLINE BY LEARNERS The study that was conducted in six provinces of South Africa by Mncube and Harbor (2012) and which

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