Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors For Inverter Operation

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Permanent magnetsynchronous motors forinverter operation

ContentsContentsIndroduction5Technical explanations6Energy saving motors19High-power motors21Torque motors23Dimensions263


IntroductionInnovative drives made in GermanyThe reduction of CO2-emission is the big challenge of our time.Thus the reduction of energy consumption is the main topic inmany applications. Especially modern speed-controlled electricdrives offer the chance to save maximum energy. A solutionwith remarkable energy efficiency is offered by using permanent magnet synchronous motors (PM motors).They are operated exclusively with frequency inverters and arecharacterised by a significantly higher efficiency ( IE3) and animproved part load behaviour than asynchronous motors.In addition PM-motors can reach a higher output than asynchronous motors of the same size. Because of the rotor following exactly the rotating field, PM-motors can be used forexample in conveyor belts with several drives that are operatedsynchronously. All types of constructions and a multitude ofmodifications of standard motor design are available.With the three new design seriesPM synchronous energy saving motorsPM synchronous high-power motorsPM synchronous torque motorsVEM has entered into technology of permanent magnet synchronous motors. These products combine the establisheddesign principles of the series K21R/WE1R with this new technology.Technical characteristicsSynchronous energy saving motors PE1R/PE0R--------Power range 0,09 to 75 kW4-, 6- and 8-pole design750 to 3.000 r.p.m.Torque 0,6 Nm to 860 NmSizes 56 to 315Degree of protection IP55Thermal class 155 [F/B]The application range and usage of this new design series iscomparable to asynchronous motors for pumps, ventilators,compressors and process technology.Advantages-------Highest energy efficiencyApproved robust and low-vibration grey cast iron designCompact design with minimised dimensionsLow-noise operationModern modular system complying with series K21R/K22RColour systems for climate groups „moderate“ and „worldwide“ according to IEC 721-2-1-- High operational reliability by modern production technologiesTechnical characteristicsSynchronous torque motors P2.F/P2.B--------Power range 12 to 471kW12-pole design200 to 600 r.p.m.Torque 573 Nm to 7.500 NmSizes 200 to 355Degree of protection IP55Thermal class 155 [F/B]The motors comply with the relevant national and internationalregulations.Design, construction, production and test are done according tothe requirements of DIN ISO 9001 and are certified by GermanLloyd Certification GmbH.The products contained in this printed information are also listed in the interactive electronic catalogue of the VEM group,edition V 7.0 and newer.More information about the company and the products of theVEM group can be found in the internet: www.vem-group.comTechnical characteristicsSynchronous high-power motors P21R/P20R--------Power range 0,25 to 75 kW4-, 6-, 8- and 12-pole design500 to 3.000 r.p.m.Torque 0,55 Nm to 700 NmSizes 56 to 280Degree of protection IP55Thermal class 155 [F/B]5

Technical explanationsTechnical explanationsStandards and regulations7Adjustable drive systems with permanentRating plates7magnet synchronous motorsDimensions and types of construction7Special features of the calculation of a controlledAmbient temperature7drive system with PM synchronous motorRated output7What information must be contained in aRated voltage and frequency8motor inquiry?13Motor torque8Motors with forced ventilation13Type designation8Start of operation and parameterisationMotor protection8of the inverterBearings/bearing lubrication8Modular design of motor series andBearing monitoring9modifications14Use of insulated bearings9Fits15Winding and insulation9Tolerances15Bearings16Motors for inverter operationin VIK design (VIK 04.2005)9Output voltages at the inverter 690 V9Wiring, grounding and EMC9Types of construction9Overview of types of construction10Design version11Cooling and ventilation12Hints for calculation of drive design and foroperation of motors in connection withfrequency inverters12Motor cable12Output chockes12du/dt-Filter12Sine filter12Motor limits for continuous operation612121313

Technical explanationsStandards and regulationsThe motors comply with the relevant standards and regulations, particularly with the following:TitleEN / DIN VDEIECRotating electrical machines, rating and performanceEN 60034-1IEC 60034-1IEC 60085Efficiency classes of single-speed, three-phase, cageinduction motorsIEC 60034-30Rotating electrical machines, methods for determininglosses and efficiencyDIN EN 60034-2-1IEC 60034-2-1Three-phase asynchronous motors for general use,with standardised dimensions and outputs,frame sizes 56 – 315EN 50347IEC 60072Terminal markings and direction of rotation for rotatingelectrical machinesEN 60034-8IEC 60034-8Rotating electrical machines,symbols for types of construction and erectionEN 60034-7IEC 60034-7Built-in thermal protection-IEC 60034-11Rotating electrical machines, methods of coolingEN 60034-6IEC 60034-6Rotating electrical machines, degrees of protectionEN 60034-5IEC 60034-5Rotating electrical machines, mechanical vibrationsEN 60034-14IEC 60034-14Rotating electrical machines, noise limitsEN 60034-9IEC 60034-9Rotating electrical machines, starting performance ofinduction cage motors up to 660 V, 50 HzEN 60034-12IEC 60034-12IEC standard voltages-IEC 60038VEM motors conform furthermore to various foreign regulationswhich are aligned to IEC 60034-1 or else have taken over thelatter’s stipulations as European standard EN 60034-1.Rating platesIn standard design, the motor rating plate is normally marked inthe German and English languages.Other languages may be used with non-EU languages available against extra price.The rating plate indicates the most important design data suchas type designation and motor number, output, rated voltageand frequency, rated current, type of construction, degree ofprotection, power factor, speed, thermal class.For PM motors this information is extended with data necessaryfor inverter parameterisation (e.g. rating plate for inverter parameterisation for FC302/Danfoss).VEM motors GmbHD 38855 WernigerodeMade in 155(F/B)IP55Synchronmotor mit Permanentmagnetläufer / Permanent magnet synchron motoro3 Mot.NPE1R 132M 4 KR NS TWS WEUmrichterbetriebInverter operationUV347NominalYMax.U P0 2 0 (1000 min-1) 229 VL 8,46 mHFett/Grease Staburags NBU 8EP26 cm 3DE 3308 C3 DIN 62517 cm 3NE 6308 C3 DIN 625fHz501530kgIEC/EN 60034-1181449/0001 FIM B5MPIcos NmAkW7,5 13,3 0,9942,8150060kgm2J 0,024R 1 20 0,482 nr.p.m.4000 h04.10The data may vary according to type. In the case of motors withrelubricating device, the quantity of grease per lubrication eventand the relubricating intervals are also indicated on the ratingplate or an additional plate. The rating plates are fastened onthe housing with grooved drive studs and cannot be lost. Theymay be made of aluminium or stainless steel (extra price).Dimensions and types of constructionThe motors are available in types of construction IM B3, IM B35and IM V1 and related types taking into account all constraintsvalid for the basic design.Ambient temperatureThe standard versions of all VEM motors are suitable for useunder ambient temperatures from -20 C to 40 C. The motorscan be used at ambient temperatures as low as -40 C, but theyhave to be ordered accordingly.If frequent moisture condensation is to be expected at the placeof installation of a motor, we recommend the use of anti-condensation heating devices or other appropriate precautions.Rated outputThe rated output applies to continuous operation as specified inDIN EN 60034-1, related to a coolant temperature of 40 C andan altitude of 1000 m above sea level.7

Technical explanationsRated voltage and frequencyMotor protectionIn the basic version, motors are supplied for mains power systems with 400 V and 50 Hz (complies with inverter input voltage). The motors can only be operated in connection with afrequency inverter.Rated voltage and frequency will be adjusted to the technicalrequirements of the drive. The rated voltage (fundamental waveoutput voltage) of the PM synchronous motors is always smaller than the mains voltage. The rated frequency complies withthe required rated speed.The following variations of motor protection are possible, ifordered:-- motor protection with thermistor temperature sensors in thestator winding-- bimetal temperature sensor as opener or closer in the statorwinding-- silicon diodes KTY-- resistance thermometer to monitor winding or bearing temperature-- bearing vibration diagnosisMotor torqueBearings/bearing lubricatioThe design torque in Nm given at the motor shaft will bePM 9550 ·nwhereP design output in kWn speed in rpmType designationPE1R160MX4KTY1234567891Design versionP Permanent magnet synchronous motor2Design condition2 Series 2E Energy saving motor3Standard characteristic numberm0 IEC, progressive design series1 DIN design2 Transnorm design, IEC4Degree of coolingR . Fin cooled, IC 411F Forced-air cooled, IC 416B Water cooled, IC 31W5Shaft height in mm56, 63, 71, 80, 90, 100, 112, 132, 160, 180, 200, 250,280, 315, 3556Foot lengthK smallG largeS . shortM . mediumL . long7Symbols for different outputX, Y, Z .8Pole number4, 6, 8, 129Special designsKTY Temperature detector KTY for further symbols refer to Modifications summaryBase catalogue 01-20108VEM motors are equipped with anti-friction bearings from respected manufacturers. The rated bearing lifetime is at least20,000 h with the exploitation of the maximum permissible load.The rated bearing lifetime for motors installed in a horizontalposition without additional axial loading is 40,000 h in the caseof coupling service.The versions fixed bearing at N-end, without fixed bearing(floating bearing arrangement), permanent lubrication, relubrication device, heavy bearing on D-end (for increased lateralforces), easy bearing arrangement and the bearing schedulesdisk spring or wave washer types, V-ring types and figures ofbearing arrangement can be taken from the overviews of thebearing arrangements.The respective flat grease nipples are contained in the tablesof the design drawings. Motors in the normal versions with twodeep groove ball bearings have preloaded bearings, where thepreloading is implemented by a disk spring or a wave washer.Versions with cylindrical roller bearings on the D-end (heavybearing arrangement VL) are excepted from the preloading.The “fixed bearing N-end” version is possible in the case of motors without a “fixed bearing”. Fixed bearing at D-end possibleon request.The most important prerequisite for achieving the normal bearing lifetime is correct lubrication, i.e. the use of the right kind ofgrease according to the application, the filling with the correctamount of grease and the maintenance of the subsequent relubrication periods.The frame sizes 56 to 160 are equipped with life-lubricatedbearings. These bearings are to be changed promptly in accordance with the usable grease life.In the case of motors from size 180, the bearings must be relubricated promptly in accordance with the usable grease life.Under normal operating conditions, the lubrication filling will allow 10,000 operating hours for the 2-pole version and 20,000operating hours for the 4-pole version without relubrication.Under normal service conditions, for version with relubricationdevice, 2,000 or 4,000 operational hours will apply. A greaseof type KE2R-40 as specified in DIN 51825 will be used asstandard grease. The used grease is to be removed from thelubrication chamber in the external bearing cover after five relubrications.A change of bearings is only possible when using suitableequipment. The best solution is to ask an authorized servicecentre (see also installation, operation and maintenance manual). Information about bearing sizes, grease types and quantities and times for relubrication are to be taken from an additional plate attached to the motor.

Technical explanationsBearing monitoringThe motors can be prepared for equipment of or equipped withtemperature detectors, shock pulse and vibration detectors forbearing monitoring. PT100 can be fitted on the bearings astemperature sensors.They can be designed in 2-, 3- or 4-wire circuit. The connectionis either done in the main terminal box or in a separate auxiliaryterminal box that is fixed at the main terminal box or on themotor housing depending on the design. For wear monitoringof the anti-friction bearings it is possible for size 132 and biggerto install shock pulse sensors (SPM) at the end shields. Thus amonitoring with mobile recorders is possible. For remote monitoring it is also possible to use permanently wired shock pulseor vibration sensors.Use of insulated bearingsMagnetic unbalances induce a voltage in the shaft of the motors. This shaft voltage results in equalising currents betweenrotor and stator leading through the bearings. If the voltage rises above a limit value of 500 mV, bearings can be damaged.Because of the design this value will not be exceeded in anycase for VEM standard motors at mains operation. Howeverthese effects can be amplified by frequency inverter operation,whereas the design of the inverter is one of the most importantinfluences. Pulse inverters generate especially high frequencyvoltages and currents depending on the pulse frequency andthe pulse modulation. Output filters in the inverter minimise these effects.To avoid bearing damages motors in size 315 and above arefitted with insulated bearings on N-end as standard.Winding and insulationVEM motors of design series P2./PE. are produced in thermalclass 155 [F] as standard. High quality enamelled copper wiresand insulation materials combined with an impregnation treatment based on low-solvent varnish are used. These materialsoffer a high mechanical and electrical strength and guarantee along life time of the motors. A design in thermal class 180 [H/F]is available (additional charge).Inverter supply means higher voltage loads for the motor winding than sinusoidal mains supply. Therefore the winding insulation of the motor must be selected according to the . permitted valuesUdu/dt[V][kV/µs] 1,000 0.556-132T acc. to 1,350Sp.2945 1.0132[P20. 112]to 355 1,350 1.556-132T acc. to 1,560Sp.9382 3.0132 [PU0. 112]to 355 1,850 5.0 2,500 5.056-132TPV1./PV0. 132[PV0. 112]to 355Motors for inverter operation in VIK design(VIK 04.2005)Output voltages at the inverter 690 VAccording to VIK recommendation 04.2005, no. 6.7 / NAMURrecommendation NE38, motors are permitted to be operatedwith a maximum peak voltage of1,350 V complying with DIN IEC 60034-17 and a voltage risetime du/dt of 1.5 kV/µs at the motor terminals. Higher peak voltages must be agreed separately. This means VIK motors forinverter operation are produced in design PE./P2. if no othervoltage peak values are agreed. It is not allowed to use permanent magnet motors in zone 2.Wiring, grounding and EMCAll motors must be connected with shielded, symmetric cablesand EMC cable glands (glands with 360 -shield contacting) toassure a proper grounding and design complying with the EMCregulation. The 360 grounding has to be done for all cable entries according to the product related information for the cableglands. It must be assured to have the best available potentialequalisation between motor housing and inverter. Thus it is prevented to induce a grounding current through the motor shaft inthe working machine.Types of constructionThe most frequently used types of construction are shown inthe following table. Other types of construction on request. Thetype of construction is designated on the nameplate accordingto Code I, DIN EN 60034-7. Standard motors in sizes 56 – 200that are ordered in the basic types of construction can also beused in the following other types of construction:IM B3 in IM B5, IM B7, IM B8 und IM V6IM B35 in IM 2051, IM 2061, IM 2071 und IM V36IM B34 in IM 2151, IM 2161, IM 2171 und IM2131IM B5 in IM V3IM B14 in IM V19Motors of types IM V5, IM V1 or IM V18 may optionally be fittedwith a protective roof to prevent smaller parts from falling intotheir interior. For types with the shaft end pointing upward theuser must provide a suitable covering to prevent smaller partsfrom falling into the fan cover.The cooling air flow must not be obstructed by the covering. Asfrom frame size 225, consultation with the manufacturer will benecessary for the types IM V5, IM V6, IM B6, IM B7 and IM B8.In the frame size range as of 315L, the types IM B5 and IM V3are not available.9

Technical explanationsOverview of types of constructionBasic types ofconstruction10Derived types of constructioIM B3IM 1001IM V5IM 1011IM V6IM 1031IM B6IM 1051IM B7IM 1061IM B8IM 1071IM B35IM 2001IM V15IM 2011IM V36IM 2031IM 2051IM 2061IM 2071IM B34IM 2101IM 2111IM 2131IM 2151IM 2161IM 2171IM B5IM 3001IM V1IM 3011IM V3IM 3031IM B14IM 3601IM V18IM 3611IM V19IM 3631

Technical explanationsDesign versionShaft heightSeriesMaterial forHousingEnd shieldsFeet63 to 132TP.1Rbolted on100 LXP.1Rcast on132 to 280P.1Rbolted on315, 355P2.R56 to 100P20R112 to 250P20Rbolted on280 to 315P20Rcast onGrey castironFoot mountingcast oncast onFigure 1: principle design of PM motorFigure 2: principle design of PM motorFigure 3: PM rotor complete, with bandageFrom the outside PM motors don’t differ from asynchronousmotors (ASM). The design is based on the robust and reliable VEM standard motors in grey cast iron housing. The statorcomplies with the basic series K2.R. In addition the squirrelcage of the ASM is used as basis for the magnet wheel (rotor).The rotor body of the squirrel cage motor is turned after diecasting, then the neodymium magnets are fixed by gluing andafterwards they will be bandaged (see figure 2 and 3).11

Technical explanationsCooling and ventilationThe motors are equipped with radial plastic or aluminium alloyfans, which cool independently of the direction of rotation of themotor (IC 411 as specified in DIN EN 60034-6).Attention is to be paid that a minimum distance of the fan coverfrom the wall is maintained (dimension Bl) when the motor isbeing installed.Hints for calculation of drive design and for operation ofmotors in connection with frequency invertersMotors are only one part of a complex electric drive system.However a poor design of the drive system will mainly showin motor operation, whereas a faulty parameterisation will benoticed at the mechanical transmission elements like couplingsand belt drives. Modern inverters mostly protect themselvesand the motor against thermal overload. But unacceptable highvoltage peaks at the motor terminals will not be recognized.The drive can have problems if the output circuit is missing atthe inverter and/or the cables are too long. In addition this oftenresults in serious damage of the motor insulation.There are several options to optimise the drive system:-- Output filter circuits at the inverter (choke, du/dt filters or sinefilters)-- Motor with reinforced insulation system-- Combination of both optionsThe planning of whole drive systems is bound to the knowledgeof the interaction of all used components.The planning engineer has to select the different componentsvery carefully. It is mainly his responsible decision that, at themotor terminals, the permissible voltages are not exceeded.This includes also the decision about the motor insulation system, always taking the effects of the other components into account.Examples for drive components having decisive influences onthe motor insulation system:Motor cable(Length, type, wiring, shielding, etc. )Long motor cables can induce unacceptable pulse voltages atthe motor terminals. The impact of long motor cables can bereduced by the following components that ar

nent magnet synchronous motors (PM motors). They are operated exclusively with frequency inverters and are characterised by a significantly higher efficiency ( IE3) and an improved part load behaviour than asynchronous motors. In addition PM-motors can reach a higher output than asyn-chronous motors of the same size. Because of the rotor fol-

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