CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL

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CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN ANDDETAILING MANUALMinistryofTransportationQUALITY AND STANDARDSTRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING BRANCHBRIDGE OFFICEST. CATHARINES, ONTARIOAugust, 2003ISBN 0-7729-4279-X The Queen’s Printer of Ontario, 2000.Reproduced with permission.

ISBN 0-7794-5308-5 The Queen’s Printer for Ontario.Reproduced with permission.Although the contents of this manual have been checked no warranty, expressed or implied, is made bythe Ministry of Transportation as to the accuracy of the contents of this manual, nor shall the fact ofdistribution constitute any such warranty, and no responsibility is assumed by the Ministry ofTransportation in any connection therewith. It is the responsibility of the user to verify its currency andappropriateness for the use intended, to obtain the revisions, and to disregard obsolete or inapplicableinformation.

To all users of the:CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILINGMANUALEnquiries regarding the purchase and distribution of this manual should be directed to:Publications Ontario880 Bay StreetToronto, OntarioCanada, M7A 1N8www.publications.gov.on.caPhone:TTY:Fax:416 326 5300800 668 9938800 268 7095613 566 2234Enquires regarding amendments, suggestions or comments should be directed to:Ministry of TransportationPolicy, Planning and Standards DivisionEngineering Standards BranchBridge Office2nd Floor, 301 St. Paul StreetSt. Catharines, OntarioL2R 7R4orPhone:Fax:905 704 2406905 704 2060

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 08 08TABLE OF CONTENTSPage i11.11.21.31.41.51.61.7INTRODUCTION .General.Divisions.Numbering System .Existing Handbook and Drawings .Distribution .Revisions.Standard Drawings 94.34.3.14.3.24.3.34.44.4.14.5GENERAL INFORMATION .Introduction .Scope.Design Criteria .Limitations .Standard Concrete Culverts .Rigid Frame Concrete Culverts .Non-Rigid Frame Concrete Culverts .Fill Heights for Standard Culverts .Culvert Extensions .Skewed End Culverts .Use of Culvert Header Walls .Use of Culvert Apron Walls .Use of Retaining Walls .Use of Traversable Safety Grating .Standard Drawings .Professional Engineers Stamping .Information to be Added to Standard Drawings .Scales for Added Details .Designation of Reinforcing Steel .Reinforcing Steel Schedule .Contract Preparation System 25.2.35.2.45.2.5RIGID FRAME OPEN FOOTING CULVERTS .Culvert Dimensions and Reinforcement .Footing Design .General Information .Calculation of Bearing Pressure .Determination of Lateral Sliding Resistance .Modification of Footing Concrete Quantities .Modification of Footing Steel Quantities .1616191920202121

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 08 08TABLE OF CONTENTSPage ii5.35.3.15.3.25.3.35.3.45.3.55.4Detailing of Open Footing Culvert Drawings .Details for Standard Drawings .Steel Table for Culvert .Steel Table for Header Wall .Adjustment of Concrete Quantities .Quantity Tables .Detailing Tables 6.4RIGID FRAME BOX CULVERTS .Culvert Dimensions and Reinforcement .Foundation Investigation .Detailing of Box Culvert Drawings .Details for Standard Drawings .Steel Table for Culvert .Steel Table for Apron Wall and Header Wall .Adjustment of Concrete Quantities .Quantity Tables .Detailing Tables 47.3.57.4NON-RIGID FRAME BOX CULVERTS .General.Culvert Dimensions and Reinforcement .Detailing of Box Culvert Drawings .Details for Standard Drawings .Steel Table for Culvert .Steel Table for Apron Wall .Adjustment of Concrete Quantities .Quantity Table .Detailing Table 8.28.2.18.2.28.2.38.38.3.18.3.28.3.3CULVERT DETAILS .Reinforcing Steel Details .Vertical and Transverse Bars .Longitudinal Bars .Reinforcing Steel Quantity Adjustment for R and W Bars .Apron Walls .Details of Apron Walls .Concrete Quantity for Apron Wall .Reinforcing Steel Quantity for Apron Wall .Header Walls .Details of Header Walls .Concrete Quantity for Header Wall .Reinforcing Steel Quantity for Header Wall .131131131131132133133133134135135135136

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 28.6.38.6.48.799.19.29.39.49.5TABLE OF CONTENTSPage iiiSkewed End Culverts .Details of Skewed End Culverts .Concrete Quantity Adjustment for Skewed End Culverts .Reinforcing Steel Quantity Adjustment for Skewed EndCulverts .Extension of Culverts .Intersecting Drains, Catch Basins or Manholes .Hole Diameter or Side Dimension Not Exceeding 300mm .Holes 301mm to 760mm Diameter or Rectangular Holes with301mm to 600mm Side Dimension .Retaining Walls for Culverts .General.Plan View of Culvert with Retaining Wall .Modification of Culvert to Suit Retaining Walls .Retaining Wall Details .Special Treatment of Culvert Ends X .Appendix A: Half-Size Prints of Standard Drawings .Appendix B: Reduced Print of Design Data Form for ConcreteCulverts .Appendix C: Deviations From CHBDC .Appendix D: Material and Construction Specifications for PrecastReinforced Concrete Box Culverts and BoxSewers .Appendix E: Methodology Used for Rigid Frame CulvertDesign .161162INDEX175.166168169170

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN ANDDETAILING MANUALDIVISION 1 – INTRODUCTIONAugust 2003

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 14INTRODUCTION1INTRODUCTION1.1GENERALPage 1The Concrete Culvert Design and Detailing Manual have been prepared tofacilitate the design and detailing of standard rectangular concreteculverts.1.2DIVISIONSThis Manual is divided up into the following divisions:Division 1 IntroductionDivision 2 DefinitionsDivision 3 NotationDivision 4 General InformationDivision 5 Rigid Frame Open Footing CulvertsDivision 6 Rigid Frame Box CulvertsDivision 7 Non-Rigid Frame Box CulvertsDivision 8 Culvert DetailsDivision 9 Appendix1.3NUMBERING SYSTEMWithin each of the above-described divisions, the material is subdividedinto sections and subsections. The standard drawings corresponding tothe various divisions are numbered independently of the Manual'snumbering system.1.4EXISTING HANDBOOK AND DRAWINGSThis Manual supersedes the 1988 edition of the Concrete Culvert Designand Detailing Manual.

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 141.5INTRODUCTIONPage 2DISTRIBUTIONCopies of the Manual and revisions may be obtained from:Ronen Publishing House, Inc.505 Consumers Road, Suite 910Toronto, OntarioM2J 4V8Tel: 1-800-856-2196Fax: 1-800-870-72391.6REVISIONSWhen additions or revisions are necessary, they will be made availablethrough Ronen Publishing House, Inc., as detailed in Section 1.5. Thedate shown at top left corner of each page indicates the date of (re)issue.1.7STANDARD DRAWINGSElectronic CAD files containing standard drawings in AutoCAD may beobtained from Ronen Publishing House Inc. The latest revision date will bethat available from Ronen House.

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN ANDDETAILING MANUALDIVISION 2 – DEFINITIONSAugust 2003

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 142DEFINITIONSPage 3DEFINITIONSApron Wall - Also known as a cutoff wall; a vertical non-structuralconcrete wall built across the full width of the ends of box culverts andextending below the level of the bottom slab.Bar Mass - The mass of a reinforcing bar per unit length (kg/m).Bearing Capacity - The maximum load that can be applied to a soil at therespective limit state.Box Culvert - A culvert in the shape of an enclosed rectangle andconsisting of a bottom slab, two wall elements and a top slab.Culvert Extension - A portion of a culvert built beyond the limits of apreviously existing culvert.Designer - Individual(s) designated by the Structural Engineer to use thismanual to design and detail culverts.Fill Height - The vertical distance from the top of the top slab of a culvertto the riding surface of the roadway above it.Geotechnical Engineer - A licensed professional engineer designated aspecialist in the soils or geotechnical field.Haunch - The increase in thickness of a culvert's walls or slabs at thecorners.Header Wall - A vertical concrete wall across the full width of the ends ofa culvert and extending upwards from the level of the top slab.Height - For box culverts this is the vertical distance measured from thetop of the bottom slab to the bottom of the top slab at mid-span. For openfooting culverts this is the vertical distance measured from the level of thetop of the footings to the bottom of the top slab at mid-span.Length - The length of a culvert is the distance between the ends, alongthe longitudinal axis of the culvert.Longitudinal Axis - The longitudinal axis of a culvert is located at thegeometric centroid of the culvert cross-section and is parallel to the wallsof the culvert.

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 14DEFINITIONSPage 4Non-Rigid Frame Culvert - A non-rigid frame culvert is one detailed sothat there is no intended transfer of bending moment between wall andslab elements.Open Footing Culvert - A culvert in the shape of an open rectangle,consisting of two wall elements supported on footings and a top slab. Notethat there is no bottom slab.Retaining Wall - A retaining wall for the purpose of this Manual is anearth retaining structure consisting of a vertical stem element supportedby a horizontal footing element and built of reinforced concrete.Rigid Frame Culvert - A rigid frame culvert is one detailed so that fullcontinuity of bending moment is assured between the wall and slabelements.Set - A set of longitudinal reinforcing bars refers to the placement of areinforcing bar in a specific location on a cross-section.Skew Angle - The skew angle is the angle between the centreline of thehighway and a line perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the culvert.Skew Number - The skew number is the angle between the centreline ofthe highway and the longitudinal axis of the culvert, measured clockwise.Skewed End Culvert - A skewed end culvert is one with ends not at aright angle to the longitudinal axis of the culvert. Usually the ends are builtat right angles to the longitudinal axis of the culvert.Span - The span of a culvert is the minimum horizontal distancemeasured between the inside faces of the walls.Standard Culvert - A culvert detailed in accordance with this Manual.Structural Engineer - A licensed professional engineer of Ontariospecializing in structural design.Strut - A member placed between the footings of an open footing culvert.Traversable Grate - A safety grating over the open tapered ends ofconcrete culverts that do not have traffic protection.

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN ANDDETAILING MANUALDIVISION 3 – NOTATIONAugust 2003

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 08 083NOTATIONPage 5NOTATIONA’the effective contact area of a footing, square metresaa detailing dimension for culverts with skewed ends, mmBthickness of the bottom slab of a box culvert, mmbspacing between adjacent bars as per detailing tables, mmCa coefficient used in the determination of reinforcing barquantities.CANBASCanadian Bridge Analysis Systemc’the effective cohesion between the base of the footing andthe soil at the ULS, as per CHBDC. kPaCHBDCCanadian Highway Bridge Design Code, 2000 EditionCGSBCanadian General Standards BoardFwidth of footing for open footing culverts, mmF1a reinforcing bar spacing factor, mm-1HULSmaximum factored horizontal reaction at the level of the baseof the footing at the ULS, kNLcculvert length measured along the longitudinal axis, mOCPAOntario Concrete Pipe AssociationOMBASOntario Modular Bridge Analysis SystemOPSSOntario Provincial Standard SpecificationsSculvert span measured perpendicular to the longitudinal axisof the culvert, mmSLSserviceability limit states, as per CHBDCTthickness of top slab of culvert, mm

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 08 08NOTATIONPage 6tan φ’effective friction coefficient for concrete cast against soil.ULSultimate limit states, as per CHBDCVunfactored vertical reaction due to the dead load of cast-inplace concrete and soil fill, at the level of the base of thefooting, kNVSLSmaximum vertical reaction at the level of the base of thefooting at SLS, kNVULSmaximum factored vertical reaction at the level of the base ofthe footing at ULS, kNWthickness of wall of culvert, mmγthe acute angle between the normal to the longitudinal axisand the end of the same culvert, degreesφ’the effective angle of internal friction, as per CHBDC, degreesθskew angle of culvert, degrees

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 14GENERAL INFORMATION4GENERAL INFORMATION4.1INTRODUCTION4.1.1SCOPEPage 7This Manual contains all data necessary to complete the standarddrawings and quantities for concrete box and open footing culverts that fallwithin the size range of "Standard Concrete Culverts" specified in Sections4.2.1 and 4.2.2. Data is also provided to permit the detailing of:i.Simple retaining walls for use with these culverts.ii.Intersecting drains, catch basins and manholes.iii.Culverts with skewed ends.The Manual provides quantities per unit length of culvert but no data isprovided for the calculation of extra quantities for footings, apron andheader walls or for retaining walls. Concrete quantities are in cubicmetres and steel quantities are in kilograms. Provision is made on thedrawings for inserting a breakdown of quantities for progress paymentpurposes. The Designer must compute these quantities.4.1.2DESIGN CRITERIADesign and detailing data contained in this Manual conforms to therequirements of the 2000 edition of the Canadian Highway Bridge DesignCode with the exception of the criteria listed in the Appendix. Calculationsare based on 30 MPa concrete and grade 400 reinforcing steel.4.1.3LIMITATIONSThe following topics are considered to be beyond the scope of thisManual:i.Selection of culvert type and size, and all information usuallyshown on form PH-D-353, or DB-RD-77 or “Design Data Formfor Concrete Culverts”.ii.Culverts with less than 0.6 m fill (require special attention).iii.Culverts with skew angle exceeding 25 .

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN ANDDETAILING MANUALDIVISION 4 – GENERAL INFORMATIONAugust 2003

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL2003 03 14GENERAL INFORMATIONPage 8iv.Hydrological considerations and selection of type and extent ofend treatment

CONCRETE CULVERT DESIGN AND DETAILING MANUAL 2003 03 14 INTRODUCTION Page 1 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 GENERAL The Concrete Culvert Design and Detailing Manual have been prepared to facilitate the design and detailing of standard rectangular concrete culverts. 1.2 DIVISIONS This Manual is divided up into the following divisions: Division 1 Introduction

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