Adolf Hitler - Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia

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Create accountArticle TalkLog inRead View source View historyAdolf HitlerFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaNavigationMain pageContentsFeatured contentCurrent eventsRandom article"Hitler" redirects here. For other uses, see Hitler (disambiguation).Adolf Hitler (German: [ˈadɔlf ˈhɪtlɐ] ( listen); 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was an Austrian-bornGerman politician and the leader of the Nazi Party (German: Nationalsozialistische DeutscheArbeiterpartei (NSDAP); National Socialist German Workers Party). He was chancellor ofGermany from 1933 to 1945 and dictator of Nazi Germany (as Führer und Reichskanzler) from1934 to 1945. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and theHolocaust.Adolf HitlerDonate to WikipediaInteractionHelpAbout WikipediaCommunity portalRecent changesContact WikipediaToolboxWhat links hereRelated changesUpload fileSpecial pagesPermanent linkPage informationHitler was a decorated veteran of World War I. He joined the German Workers' Party (precursor ofthe NSDAP) in 1919, and became leader of the NSDAP in 1921. In 1923, he attempted a coupd'état in Munich, known as the Beer Hall Putsch. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment,during which time he wrote his memoir, Mein Kampf (My Struggle). After his release in 1924, Hitlergained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting Pan-Germanism,antisemitism, and anti-communism with charismatic oratory and Nazi propaganda. After hisappointment as chancellor in 1933, he transformed the Weimar Republic into the Third Reich, asingle-party dictatorship based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of Nazism.Hitler's aim was to establish a New Order of absolute Nazi German hegemony in continentalEurope. To this end, his foreign and domestic policies had the aim of seizing Lebensraum ("livingspace") for the Germanic people. He directed the rearmament of Germany and the invasion ofPoland by the Wehrmacht in September 1939, resulting in the outbreak of World War II in Europe.Under Hitler's rule, in 1941 German forces and their European allies occupied most of Europe andNorth Africa. In 1943, Germany had been forced onto the defensive and suffered a series ofescalating defeats. In the final days of the war, during the Battle of Berlin in 1945, Hitler married hislong-time partner, Eva Braun. On 30 April 1945, less than two days later, the two committedsuicide to avoid capture by the Red Army, and their corpses were burned.Hitler in 1937Chancellor of GermanyIn officeData itemCite this pageHitler's aggressive foreign policy is considered the main cause of the outbreak of World War II inEurope. His antisemitic policies and racially motivated ideology resulted in the deaths of at least5.5 million Jews, and millions of other people deemed racially inferior.Print/exportContentsCreate a bookDownload as PDFPrintable version1 Early years1.1 Ancestry30 January 1933 – 30 April 1945President1934)DeputyPosition vacantKurt von SchleicherSucceeded byJoseph GoebbelsReichsstatthalter of Prussia1.3 Early adulthood in Vienna and MunichАдыгэбзэAlemannischአማርኛ2.2 Rebuilding the NSDAPAragonés ܐܪ zәrbaycancaবাংলাBahasa BanjarBân-lâm-gúBasa BanyumasanБашҡортсаБеларуская30 January 1933 – 30 April 19452 Entry into politics2.1 Beer Hall PutschÆnglisc ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺑﻳﺔ In office1.4 World War IAfrikaans3 Rise to power3.1 Brüning administrationFranz von Papen (1933–1934)Preceded by1.2 Childhood and educationLanguagesPaul von Hindenburg (untilPrime Minister Franz von PapenHermann GöringPreceded byOffice createdSucceeded byOffice abolishedFührer of Germany3.2 Appointment as chancellor3.3 Reichstag fire and March electionsIn office2 August 1934 – 30 April 19453.4 Day of Potsdam and the Enabling Act3.5 Removal of remaining limitsDeputyRudolf Hess (1933–1941)Position vacant4 Third Reich4.1 Economy and culturePreceded byPaul von Hindenburg4.2 Rearmament and new alliances5 World War II5.1 Early diplomatic successes5.1.1 Alliance with Japan5.1.2 Austria and Czechoslovakia(as President)Succeeded by(as President)Personal detailsBorn5.2 Start of World War II20 April 1889Braunau am Inn, Austria-5.3 Path to defeat5.4 Defeat and deathKarl DönitzHungaryDied5.5 The Holocaust30 April 1945 (aged 56)Berlin, )6 Leadership styleBikol Central7 LegacyБългарски8 Religious viewsBoarischབོད་ཡིག9 HealthBosanski11 Hitler in mediaBrezhoneg12 See alsoOther politicalGerman Workers' Party (1920–Català13 Footnotesaffiliations1921)Чӑвашла14 ReferencesSpouse(s)Eva Braun10 FamilyGenerated with www.html-to-pdf.netNationalityAustrian citizen until 7 April1925[1]German citizen after 25February 1932Political partyNational Socialist GermanWorkers' Party (1921–1945)Page 1 / 24

CebuanoČeskyChavacano deZamboanga(29–30 April 1945)14.1 Sources15 External linksDanskDeutschDiné bizaadEestiΕλληνικάEmiliàn e rumagnòlEspañolEsperantoHitlerAncestryHitler's father, Alois Hitler (1837–1903), was the illegitimate child of Maria Anna Schicklgruber.Because the baptismal register did not show the name of his father, Alois initially bore his mother'ssurname, Schicklgruber. In 1842, Johann Georg Hiedler married Alois's mother, Maria Anna. Aftershe died in 1847 and Johann Georg Hiedler in 1856, Alois was brought up in the family of Hiedler'sbrother, Johann Nepomuk Hiedler.[2] In 1876, Alois was legitimated and the baptismal registerchanged by a priest before three witnesses to register Johann Georg Hiedler as Alois's father[3][4]Euskara ﻓﺎﺭﺳﯽ Fiji Hindiwords Hidlar or Hidlarcek.[5]FøroysktNazi official Hans Frank suggested that Alois's mother had been employed as a housekeeper for aJewish family in Graz and that the family's 19-year-old son, Leopold Frankenberger, had fatheredFrançaisFryskGaeilgeSee: Religious views of AdolfSignature(recorded as Georg Hitler).Upon being legitimised as the son of Georg Hitler at age 39, Aloisassumed the surname Hitler,[4] also spelled as Hiedler, Hüttler, or Huettler. Thus, the origin of theHitler surname is probably based on "one who lives in a hut" (Standard German Hütte for hut) or on"shepherd" (Standard German hüten for to guard); alternatively, it may be derived from the SlavicEstremeñuPolitician, soldier, artist, writerReligionEarly yearsCorsuCymraegOccupationMilitary serviceAllegianceGerman EmpireService/branchYears h Bavarian ReserveRegimentBattles/warsWorld War IAwardsIron Cross First ClassIron Cross Second ClassWound BadgeAlois.[6] Because no Frankenberger was registered in Graz during that period, and no record ofLeopold Frankenberger's existence has been produced,[7] historians dismiss the claim that Alois's father was Jewish.[8][9]GaelgGàidhligChildhood and educationGalego贛語Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn located at Salzburger Vorstadt 15,한국어HausaՀայերենह दHornjoserbsceHrvatskiIdoIlokanoBahasa aliano עברית Braunau am Inn, Austria-Hungary, a town on the border with Bavaria, Germany.[10] He was the fourth of sixchildren to Alois Hitler and Klara Pölzl (1860–1907). Hitler's older siblings—Gustav, Ida, and Otto—died ininfancy.[11] When Hitler was three, the family moved to Passau, Germany.[12] There he acquired thedistinctive lower Bavarian dialect, rather than Austrian German, which marked his speech all of his life.[13][14][15]In 1894 the family relocated to Leonding (near Linz), and in June 1895, Alois retired to a small landholdingat Hafeld, near Lambach, where he farmed and kept bees. Hitler attended school in nearby Fischlham. Hitlerbecame fixated on warfare after finding a picture book about the Franco-Prussian War among his father'sbelongings.[16][17]The move to Hafeld coincided with the onset of intense father-son conflicts caused by Hitler's refusal toconform to the strict discipline of his school.[18] Alois Hitler's farming efforts at Hafeld ended in failure, and in1897 the family moved to Lambach. The eight-year-old Hitler took singing lessons, sang in the church choir,and even considered becoming a priest.[19] In 1898 the family returned permanently to Leonding. The death ofhis younger brother, Edmund, from measles on 2 February 1900 deeply affected Hitler. He changed frombeing confident and outgoing and an excellent student, to a morose, detached, and sullen boy who constantly[20]Adolf Hitler as an infant(c. 1889–1890)fought with his father and teachers.Basa Jawaಕನ ಡAlois had made a successful career in the customs bureau and wanted hisson to follow in his footsteps.[21] Hitler later dramatised an episode from this period when his father took himto visit a customs office, depicting it as an event that gave rise to an unforgiving antagonism between fatherქართულიКыргызчаand son, who were both strong-willed.[22][23][24] Ignoring his son's desire to attend a classical high school andbecome an artist, in September 1900 Alois sent Hitler to the Realschule in Linz.[25] (This was the same highschool that Adolf Eichmann would attend some 17 years later.)[26] Hitler rebelled against this decision, and inMein Kampf revealed that he did poorly in school, hoping that once his father saw "what little progress I wasLadinomaking at the technical school he would let me devote myself to my dream".[27]ЛезгиLike many Austrian Germans, Hitler began to develop German nationalist ideas from a young age.[28] Heexpressed loyalty only to Germany, despising the declining Habsburg Monarchy and its rule over cally variegated empire.[29][30] Hitler and his friends used the German greeting "Heil", and sang the"Deutschlandlied" instead of the Austrian Imperial ლური ﻣﺻﺭﻯ Hitler's mother, KlaraAfter Alois's sudden death on 3 January 1903, Hitler's performance at school deteriorated. His mother allowedhim to leave in 1905.[32] He enrolled at the Realschule in Steyr in September 1904; his behaviour andperformance showed some improvement.[33] In 1905, after passing a repeat and the final exam, Hitler left theschool without any ambitions for further schooling or clear plans for a career.[34]Early adulthood in Vienna and MunichFrom 1905, Hitler lived a bohemian life in Vienna, financed by orphan's benefits and support from hismother. He worked as a casual labourer and eventually as a painter, selling watercolours. TheAcademy of Fine Arts Vienna rejected him twice, in 1907 and 1908, because of his "unfitness forpainting". The director recommended that Hitler study architecture,[35] but he lacked the academiccredentials.[36] On 21 December 1907, his mother died aged 47. After the Academy's secondrejection, Hitler ran out of money. In 1909 he lived in a homeless shelter, and by 1910, he had settledМонголinto a house for poor working men on Meldemannstraße.[37] At the time Hitler lived there, Vienna wasa hotbed of religious prejudice and racism.[38] Fears of being overrun by immigrants from the Eastwere widespread, and the populist mayor, Karl Lueger, exploited the rhetoric of virulent antisemitismfor political effect. Georg Schönerer's pan-Germanic antisemitism had a strong following in theNāhuatlMariahilf district, where Hitler lived.[39] Hitler read local newspapers, such as the DeutschesVolksblatt, that fanned prejudice and played on Christian fears of being swamped by an influx ofNederlandseastern Jews.[40] Hostile to what he saw as Catholic "Germanophobia", he developed an admiration for Martin Luther.[41] ﻣﺎﺯِﺭﻭﻧﯽ Bahasa MelayuMirandésGenerated with www.html-to-pdf.netThe house in Leonding where Hitlerspent his early adolescence (c. 1984)Page 2 / 24

The origin and first expression of Hitler's antisemitism have been difficult to locate.[42] Hitler states inMein Kampf that he first became an antisemite in Vienna.[43] His close friend, August Kubizek,claimed that Hitler was a "confirmed antisemite" before he left Linz.[44] Kubizek's account has beenchallenged by historian Brigitte Hamann, who writes that Kubizek is the only person to have said othe young Hitler was an antisemite.[45] Hamann also notes that no antisemitic remark has beendocumented from Hitler during this period.[46] Historian Ian Kershaw suggests that if Hitler had madesuch remarks, they may have gone unnoticed because of the prevailing antisemitism in Vienna atНохчийнNorsk bokmålNorsk nynorskNovialOccitanОлык марийOʻzbekchaਪੰਜਾਬੀ ﭘﻧﺟﺎﺑﯽ ﭘ ﺗﻭ PiemontèisPlattdüütschPolskiThe Alter Hof in Munich. Watercolour byAdolf Hitler, 1914that time.[47] Several sources provide strong evidence that Hitler had Jewish friends in his hostel andin other places in Vienna.[48][49] Historian Richard J. Evans states that "historians now generallyagree that his notorious, murderous anti-Semitism emerged well after Germany's defeat [in WorldWar I], as a product of the paranoid 'stab-in-the-back' explanation for the catastrophe".[50]Hitler received the final part of his father's estate in May 1913 and moved to Munich.[51] Historiansbelieve he left Vienna to evade conscription into the Austrian army.[52] Hitler later claimed that he didnot wish to serve the Habsburg Empire because of the mixture of "races" in its army.[51] After he was deemed unfit for service—he failed hisphysical exam in Salzburg on 5 February 1914—he returned to Munich.[53]World War hRuna SimiMain article: Military career of Adolf HitlerAt the outbreak of World War I, Hitler was a resident of Munich and volunteered to serve in the Bavarian Army as an Austrian citizen.[54] Postedto the Bavarian Reserve Infantry Regiment 16 (1st Company of the List Regiment),[55][54] he served as a dispatch runner on the Western Front inFrance and Belgium,[56] spending nearly half his time well behind the front lines.[57][58] He was present at the First Battle of Ypres, the Battle ofthe Somme, the Battle of Arras, and the Battle of Passchendaele, and was wounded at the Somme.[59]РусиньскыйHe was decorated for bravery, receiving the Iron Cross, Second Class, in 1914.[59] Recommended byHugo Gutmann, he received the Iron Cross, First Class, on 4 August 1918,[60] a decoration rarelyawarded to one of Hitler's rank (Gefreiter). Hitler's post at regimental headquarters, providing frequentРусскийСаха тылаसं कृतम्interactions with senior officers, may have helped him receive this decoration.[61] Though hisrewarded actions may have been courageous, they were probably not highly exceptional.[62] He alsoreceived the Black Wound Badge on 18 May 1918.[63]ScotsSeelterskSesothoDuring his service at the headquarters, Hitler pursued his artwork, drawing cartoons and instructionsfor an army newspaper. During the Battle of the Somme in October 1916, he was wounded either inShqipSicilianuංහලSimple English ﺳﻧﮄﻱ SlovenčinaHitler (far right, seated) with his armycomrades of the Bavarian Reserve InfantryRegiment 16 (c. 1914–1918)Slovenščinathe groin area[64] or the left thigh by a shell that had exploded in the dispatch runners' dugout.[65]Hitler spent almost two months in the Red Cross hospital at Beelitz, returning to his regiment on 5March 1917.[66] On 15 October 1918, he was temporarily blinded by a mustard gas attack and washospitalised in Pasewalk.[67] While there, Hitler learnt of Germany's defeat,[68] and—by his ownaccount—on receiving this news, he suffered a second bout of blindness.[69]ŚlůnskiHitler became embittered over the collapse of the war effort, and his ideological development began to firmlySoomaaliga ﮐﻭﺭﺩﯼ take shape.[70] He described the war as "the greatest of all experiences", and was praised by hiscommanding officers for his bravery.[71] The experience reinforced his passionate German patriotism and hewas shocked by Germany's capitulation in November 1918.[72] Like other German nationalists, he believed inthe stab-in-the-back myth (Dolchstoßlegende), which claimed that the German army, "undefeated in the field",had been "stabbed in the back" on the home front by civilian leaders and Marxists, later dubbed theСрпски / srpskiSrpskohrvatski /српскохрватскиBasa рча/tatarçaలె �нська ﺍﺭﺩﻭ VènetoTiếng ViệtVõro"November criminals".[73]The Treaty of Versailles stipulated that Germany must relinquish several of its territories and demilitarise theRhineland. The treaty imposed economic sanctions and levied heavy reparations on the country. ManyGermans perceived the treaty—especially Article 231, which declared Germany responsible for the war—as ahumiliation.[74] The Versailles Treaty and the economic, social, and political conditions in Germany after thewar were later exploited by Hitler for political gains.[75]Adolf Hitler as a soldier duringthe First World War (1914–1918)Entry into politicsMain article: Adolf Hitler's political viewsAfter World War I, Hitler returned to Munich.[76] Having no formal education and career prospects, he tried to remain in the army for as long aspossible.[77] In July 1919 he was appointed Verbindungsmann (intelligence agent) of an Aufklärungskommando (reconnaissance commando) ofthe Reichswehr, to influence other soldiers and to infiltrate the German Workers' Party (DAP). While monitoring the activities of the DAP, Hitlerbecame attracted to the founder Anton Drexler's antisemitic, nationalist, anti-capitalist, and anti-Marxist ideas.[78] Drexler favoured a strongactive government, a non-Jewish version of socialism, and solidarity among all members of society. Impressed with Hitler's oratory skills, Drexlerinvited him to join the DAP. Hitler accepted on 12 September 1919,[79] becoming the party's 55th member.[80]At the DAP, Hitler met Dietrich Eckart, one of the party's founders and a member of the occult ThuleWalonSociety.[81] Eckart became Hitler's mentor, exchanging ideas with him and introducing him to a widerange of people in Munich society.[82] To increase its appeal, the DAP changed its name to theNationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei (National Socialist German Workers Party – NSDAP).West-VlamsWinaray吴语 ייִדיש [83]YorùbáHitler was discharged from the army in March 1920 and began working full-time for the NSDAP. InFebruary 1921—already highly effective at speaking to large audiences—he spoke to a crowd of over粵語ZazakiZeêuwsŽemaitė ška中文Edit linksA copy of Adolf Hitler's GermanWorkers' Party (DAP) membership cardHitler designed the party's banner of a swastika in a white circle on a red background.[84]6,000 in Munich.[85] To publicise the meeting, two truckloads of party supporters drove around townwaving swastika flags and throwing leaflets. Hitler soon gained notoriety for his rowdy polemicspeeches against the Treaty of Versailles, rival politicians, and especially against Marxists andJews.[86] At the time, the NSDAP was centred in Munich, a major hotbed of anti-government Germannationalists determined to crush Marxism and undermine the Weimar Republic.[87]In June 1921, while Hitler and Eckart were on a fundraising trip to Berlin, a mutiny broke out within the NSDAP in Munich. Members of the itsGenerated with www.html-to-pdf.netPage 3 / 24

executive committee, some of whom considered Hitler to be too overbearing, wanted to merge with the rival German Socialist Party (DSP).[88]Hitler returned to Munich on 11 July and angrily tendered his resignation. The committee members then realised that his resignation would meanthe end of the party.[89] Hitler announced he would rejoin on the condition that he would replace Drexler as party chairman, and that the partyheadquarters would remain in Munich.[90] The committee agreed, and he rejoined the party on 26 July as member 3,680. However, he still facedsome opposition within the NSDAP: Opponents of Hitler had Hermann Esser expelled from the party and they printed 3,000 copies of apamphlet attacking Hitler as a traitor to the

Adolf Hitler was born on 20 April 1889 at the Gasthof zum Pommer, an inn located at Salzburger Vorstadt 15, Braunau am Inn , Austria -Hungary , a town on the border with Bavaria , Germany. [10 ] He was the fourth of six children to Alois Hitler and .ODUD3 O]O (1860 1907). Hitler's older siblings ² Gustav, Ida, and Otto ² died in infancy. [11 ] When Hitler was three, the family moved to .

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