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ESL STEPS: ESL CURRICULUMFRAMEWORK K–6A framework for English as a Second Language (ESL)teaching and learning in primary schoolsTEACHING GUIDEStage 1ESL Bands: A1 A2EarlyStage1Stage1Stage2Stage3

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6 was developed through a lengthy consultation process withprimary teachers from over 100 NSW government schools. The expertise and dedication of those teachersis warmly acknowledged.RESTRICTED WAIVER OF COPYRIGHTThe printed materials in this publication are subject to a restricted waiver of copyright to allow the purchaser to make photocopies of the material contained in the publication for use within a school, subject tothe conditions below.1. All copies of the printed materials must retain acknowledgement of the copyright.2. The school or college shall not sell, hire or otherwise derive revenue from copies of the material, nordistribute copies of the material for any other purpose.3. The restricted waiver of copyright is not transferable and may be withdrawn in the case of breach ofany of these conditions. 2004 NSW Department of Education and TrainingMulticultural Programs Unit, Locked Bag 53 Darlinghurst NSW 2010Phone (02) 9244 5324 Fax: (02) 9244 5381

CONTENTSINTRODUCTIONIntroductioniiTeaching guides –overviewiiiUsing the ESL steps :ESL STEPS:ESLCURRICULUMFRAMEWORKK–6A framework for English as aSecond Language (ESL)teaching and learning inprimary schoolsTEACHINGGUIDESTAGE 1ESL BANDS:A1 A23. RESPONDINGiv–vLanguage focus acrossthe curriculum6. PERSUADING19Language focus acrossthe curriculumOverview of ESL steps19Overview of ESL steps43A1:20A1:Oral44Oral43ESL CurriculumFramework g45teaching guides ing47A2:Writing23A2:Writing47Relationship ofESL steps : ESLviCurriculum FrameworkK–6 bands to K–64. INSTRUCTINGsyllabus stages andESL Scales levelsLanguage focus acrossthe curriculum1. DESCRIBINGLanguage focus across thecurriculum3Overview of ESL ding7A2:Writing72. RECOUNTING7. NEGOTIATING27Language focus acrossthe curriculumOverview of ESL steps27Overview of ESL steps51A1:28A1:Oral (listening)52Oral51A1:Reading29A1:Oral (talking)53A1:Writing29A2:Oral (listening)54A2:Oral30A2:Oral age focus acrossthe curriculum5. EXPLAININGLanguage focus acrossthe curriculum35Overview of ESL steps5835Overview of ESL stepsby language mode Oral (listening)59Oral (talking)59A1:Oral36 A1:Reading37 Reading60A1:Writing37 Writing60A2:Oral38A2:Reading39A2:Writing39Overview of ESL stepsby bands Band A16113 6214ESL Scales level statementsReading15 Oral Interaction63Writing15 Reading and Responding64 Writing65Language focus acrossthe curriculum11Overview of ESL :Band A2

IntroductionThe ESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6 is aplanning and programming tool for teachers of studentslearning English as a second language (ESL) in New SouthWales government schools. It demonstrates how ESLstudents with varying levels of English language proficiencycan be supported to achieve KLA outcomes at theirappropriate stage of learning. The framework is designedfor use across all stages and within any KLA. It is organisedin a series of ‘steps’ which show the progressivedevelopment of English language skills, linked to both theESL Scales and K–6 syllabus stages.STRUCTURETeaching guidesThe ESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6 ispresented in four booklets or teaching guides. A teachingguide is provided for each K–6 stage (Early Stage 1, Stage1, Stage 2, Stage 3). Each guide is organised into sevensections based on Language focus areas. Each section isgraded by ESL band and is presented in language modes(Oral, Reading and Writing) to define each ESL step.Language focus areaThe language focus areas of describing, recounting,responding, instructing, explaining, persuading, andnegotiating relate to the types of texts identified in theEnglish K–6 Syllabus.ESL bandsEach ESL Step is presented in the language modes of oral,reading and writing.ESL stepEach ESL step is a broad outcome covering the ESL Scaleslevels included in the band. It describes what can beexpected of a typical ESL learner: within a language focus area (describing, recounting,responding, instructing, explaining, persuading, andnegotiating) at an ESL band of English language proficiency (A1,A2, B and C) in a given language mode (oral, reading and writing).Each ESL step is supported by: Suggested language elementsThe suggested language elements act asindicators for the broad outcome of the ESL stepstatement. The language elements presented areselections only and may be added to as required. Sample strategies and activitiesThe sample strategies and activities weredeveloped by a team of experienced ESLteachers. They do not constitute a program or ateaching sequence, but represent examples of thesorts of activities that teachers use to optimiselearning for ESL students.In effective ESL teaching, support is gradually reduced aslearners gain proficiency in the targeted language. In ESLSteps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6, activities aregrouped into controlled support, guided support andindependent support levels to help teachers to plansequences that reflect this progression.Note: The oral skill areas of listening and talking aredescribed separately in each ESL step statement and thesuggested language elements. The sample strategies andactivities encompass both skills in most cases.Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A2ESL bands (A1 – beginning, A2 – elementary,B – transitional and C – extended) are clusters of ESLScales levels providing broad descriptions of ESL learnerEnglish language proficiency. They can be used todetermine appropriate groupings of students for ESLinstructional purposes within a class. The relationshipbetween ESL Scales levels and ESL Steps: ESLCurriculum Framework K–6 bands is shown in theappendices.Language modesii

Teaching guides — overviewStage & Band1a1bLanguage focus1a STAGEIndicates the stage of schoolingand the ESL Steps: ESLCurriculum Framework K–6 bandin which ESL teaching andlearning takes place.Related KLA themes and contentEnglish K–6 links26Text typesESL notes3458ORALIdentifies which mode of Englishlanguage use is being targeted.Reading and Writing appear onthe facing page.9ESL STEPIdentifies a manageable unit ofESL teaching and learning thatfocuses attention on the ESL aimsof the topic.1b BANDIndicates the English languageproficiency range.Aspects of numeracy7ESL STEP8ORAL122Sample strategies and activitiesCONTROLLED SUPPORT93Suggested language elementsESLScales1011GUIDED SUPPORT13INDEPENDENT XT TYPESIdentifies some types of textsassociated with the languagefocus that students willexperience or produce.10 SUGGESTED LANGUAGEELEMENTSIdentifies specific aspects ofEnglish language learninginvolved in achieving the ESLstep.11ESL SCALESReferences link languageelements to ESL Scales with thenumbers representing Level:Outcome: Pointer. Where anoutcome is relevant but there isno appropriate pointer listed, xindicates that an additional pointerhas been provided here.4ESL NOTESIndicates where relevantadditional teaching and learningsuggestions for ESL learners canbe found in the English K–6Modules.5RELATED KLA THEMES ANDCONTENTIdentifies the kind of topics inwhich the language focus isessential to language use andcontent learning.12 SAMPLE STRATEGIES ANDACTIVITIESProvides examples of learningactivities that enable ESL studentsto learn the English languageskills required for the ESL step.6ENGLISH K–6 LINKSIndicates the relationship betweenthese ESL steps and the EnglishK–6 Syllabus outcomes for thisStage.7ASPECTS OF NUMERACYIdentifies some examples ofnumeracy concepts that may berelevant to KLA topics associatedwith the language focus.13 FRAMEWORK SCAFFOLDINGOutlines the varying degrees ofESL support that need to beprovided to enable ESL studentsto move towards increasinglyindependent use of the targetedEnglish language skills andlanguage Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A2INTRODUCTIONLANGUAGE FOCUSIdentifies the focus of receptiveand productive use of Englishlanguage for the ESL step.iii

Using the‘ESL Steps:ESL CurriculumFramework K–6’teaching guidesin programmingThe ESL Steps: ESL CurriculumFramework K–6 teaching guidesare designed to assist teachers intheir planning and programming forESL learning. The diagram on pagev outlines how the ESL Steps: ESLCurriculum Framework K–6teaching guides can be used toassist with programming.GoalThe goal of ESL teaching andlearning programs is that ESLstudents are able to achieve theKLA outcomes for the appropriatestage. The ESL Steps: ESLCurriculum Framework K–6 offersassistance for teachers in planningand programming to bridge the gapbetween the English languageproficiency of their ESL studentsand the language demands of theactivities in KLA units and topics.1. Needs analysisTeachers should use the ESLScales to gauge the level ofEnglish language proficiency ofESL learners. The ESL Scaleslevel statements can be used tomake an initial judgement. Thisjudgement can be confirmed oradjusted as students’ engagementin teaching and learning activitiesprovides clarification of what ESLstudents can and can’t do. The fourESL bands used in the ESL Steps:When planning a KLA unit or topic,teachers anticipate the oral andwritten texts with which studentsmay be required to engage. Thesemay be informed by the text typesidentified in the English K–6Syllabus. Using the Languagefocus across the curriculum in theappendices as a guide, teacherscan determine the relatedlanguage focus areas. Teacherscan also use the ESL Scalesoutcomes and pointers to identifythe language demands of theactivities and assessments in a KLAunit or topic.3. ESL stepsTeachers locate relevant ESL steps.Each double page display in theteaching guides providesinformation about talking, listening,reading and writing for onelanguage focus area within an ESLband. Teachers locate the relevantpages by combining the appropriatelanguage focus area and ESLband.4. Language elementsTeachers select items fromsuggested language elements foreach language mode (oral, readingand writing). These are suggestionsonly and alternatives may beselected from related ESL Scalespointers. The items selectedbecome the ESL objectives of theteaching unit against which ESLlearning is assessed.5. Strategies andactivitiesTeachers select ESL teaching andlearning strategies and activities tosupport the development of Englishlanguage skills needed for KLAlearning. Alternatively, teachersmay design strategies and activitiesusing the samples as a guide.Teachers sequence activities usingthe framework of Controlledsupport, Guided support andIndependent support to providegraduated support for learning thetarget language.Controlled support is providedthrough specifically designedactivities that give students modelsof the target language. Controlledsupport is usually teacher led andinvolves students participating infully scaffolded activities that drawtheir attention to specific aspects ofthe language.Guided support is provided thoughactivities designed to ensurestudents have multiple exposuresto the target language. Guidedsupport provides a partial scaffoldfor students as they apply andpractise the target language.Independent support is providedthrough activities designed to allowindependent use of the targetlanguage. Independent supportprovides minimal scaffolding tostudents as they demonstrate theirdeveloping mastery of the targetlanguage in a range of contexts.The sequence of learning activitiesis based on the learning needs ofstudents. In most cases, studentsrequire an alternation betweencontrolled and guided supportrather than support which followsthe controlled, guided, independentsupport framework in a linearfashion.Teachers identify activities at allsupport levels that provideopportunities for assessment forESL learning.6. Teaching and learning– implementing theESL programTeachers implement theprogrammed teaching sequences.They scaffold learning by providingpoint-of-need assistance adjustingthe program where appropriate toensure that individual students’immediate needs are met.Teachers conduct planned ongoingassessments and record relevantobservations as required. Teachersassess ESL learning against theESL objectives that wereestablished using suggestedlanguage elements.7. EvaluatingTeachers use students’ assessmentdata, cumulative and final, toprovide evidence of the impact andsuitability of the program. Theyjudge the effectiveness of the ESLprogram in enabling students tomove towards achievement of KLAassessment and outcomes.Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A2ESL Curriculum Framework K–6group several ESL Scales levelstogether and create a practicalbasis for grouping students for ESLinstructional purposes. Teachersdetermine the relevant ESL bandfor the ESL learner group.2. Language demandsiv

Using the‘ESL Steps:ESL CurriculumFramework K–6’teaching guidesin programmingGoalESL students able to achieve KLAoutcomes for appropriate stages.2. Language demands1. Needs analysisIdentify language demands of the KLA unit ortopic and decide on a Language focus area.Identify ESL students’ needs and decideESL Scales level and ESL band.3. ESL stepsLocate relevant ESL steps. This is informedby Stage, Language focus and ESL band.5. Strategies and activities4. Language elementsSelect or design ESL activities to support curriculum teaching andlearning. Sample strategies and activities provide a useful bankof ideas. Sequence activities to provide graduated support forlearning target language. Identify activities that provideopportunities to assess for ESL learning.Select items from Suggested language elementswhich address the language demands of the unit.These become the unit’s ESL objectives againstwhich ESL learning is assessed.6. Teaching and learningScaffold learning by providing assistance for use of targetlanguage at the point-of-need. Assess ESL learning outcomesof students in the context of the KLA unit or topic.Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A27. EvaluationEvaluate the effectiveness of the ESL programin facilitating students’ achievement of KLA CESv

Relationship of ‘ESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6’ bandsto K–6 syllabus stages and ‘ESL Scales’ levelsSTAGE 1EARLY STAGE 1STAGE 3STAGE itingOralReadingWriting87878787BAND CExtendedEnglish76676776.5656565BAND BTransitionalEnglish54454554.434343433.21BAND A2ElementaryEnglishESL Steps bandsESL Scales levels63222332B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 . 12 . 12 . 1BAND A1B2B2B2B2BeginningEnglish111B1B1B1B1The diagram shows the relationship between ESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6 in the four bands from BeginningEnglish to Extended English, the outcomes of K–6 syllabuses in the four stages from Early Stage 1 to Stage 3 and the ESLScales levels in Oral Interaction and in Reading and Writing.The shaded areas indicate the coverage of the ESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6 materials for each of the four stages.Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A2LEGENDvi

DESCRIBINGLanguage focus across the curriculum3Overview of ESL steps3Band A1:OralReadingWriting455Band A2:OralReadingWriting677Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 CTINGEXPLAININGPERSUADINGNEGOTIATINGAPPENDICES1

Stage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A22

DESCRIBINGLanguage focus across the curriculum*SPOKEN AND WRITTEN TEXT TYPES2EXAMPLES OFLANGUAGE FUNCTIONSLiterarynaming, describing, observing, defining, classifying,generalising, qualifying, referring, comparing,contrasting literary description(*with reference to text types as discussed in theEnglish K–6 Syllabus (NSW Board of Studies, 1998: pp 66–71)2Authentic texts often include more than one text type and thedivision between literary and factual texts is not always clear cut.Factual factual description information reportOverview of ESL stepsORALBANDListeningWRITINGA1identifies related words fromshort, simple descriptions andreportsuses single words, formulaicphrases or incompletesentences to describe familiarpeople, places, eventsjoins in shared reading of familiarliterary and factual descriptionsand reports and completes simplerelated activitieswrites and illustrates literary andfactual descriptions and reportsbased on modelled and/or jointlyconstructed textsA2identifies key points ofinformation from descriptivespoken textsidentifies and describes people,places and things through agrowing vocabularyreads and retells ideas andevents from literary and factualdescriptions and reports onfamiliar topicswrites simple literary and factualdescriptions and reports on afamiliar topic using languagelearned in classBlinks key points of information tosupporting details from descriptivespoken textselaborates on descriptions in groupwork or class discussions andpresentationsidentifies and organises main ideasand specific details from literaryand factual descriptions andreportswrites literary and factualdescriptions and reportsincorporating information from othersourcesCextracts key points of informationand supporting details fromextended spoken descriptive textspresents sustained and cohesivetalks on familiar topics, handlingquestions appropriatelyorganises main and supportingideas in texts using a range ofreading strategies and sourceswrites literary and factualdescriptions and reports showingcontrol over XPLAININGPERSUADINGNEGOTIATINGStage 1 ESL Bands: A1 A2INTRODUCTIONREADINGTalkingAPPENDICES3

Stage & Band1:A1BeginningDESCRIBINGText types Related KLA themes and contentLanguage focusObservationLiterary descriptionFactual descriptionInformation reportESL notesEng K–6 modules:page 134page 166Englishsettings, e.g. Felix & Alexander(Terry Denton)Mathsshape, number, size, classifyingHSIEobjects, people, clothing, food,e.g. Celebrations: Families Past &PresentS&TORALColdthe Cap FitsPDHPEspecial treasure, e.g. InterpersonalESL students completing this Step areBEGINNING TO DEVELOP the prerequisiteEnglish language proficiency needed forachievement of Stage 1 outcomes.RelationshipsPosition, time, size, measurement, volume, mass,temperature, classification, comparison.Sample strategies and activities Identifies related words from short, simpledescriptions and reports. Uses single words, formulaic phrases or incompletesentences to describe familiar people, places,events.Suggested language elementsemotions conveyed through bodylanguage and gesture, e.g. Drama: IfAspects of numeracyfood container materials, e.g. Hot orESL STEPA1C/ArtsEnglish K–6 linksESLScalesLISTENINGCONTROLLED SUPPORT – Teacher supplies target language by:1. Highlighting descriptive terms from class texts, e.g. The Three Billy Goats Gruff (size:middle sized, large); The Hungry Caterpillar (food, colour, feelings, size).2. Demonstrating how to role-play characters from class text, focusing on miming relevantdescriptive words, e.g. sad, happy, laughing, crying.3. Introducing action games, e.g. ‘Simon Says’ – Hungry giant, sad giant, angry giant or ‘Ispy’ using a descriptive category, such as colour – I spy something that is red.GUIDED SUP

for use across all stages and within any KLA. It is organised in a series of ‘steps’ which show the progressive development of English language skills, linked to both the ESL Scales and K–6 syllabus stages. STRUCTURE Teaching guides The ESL Steps: ESL Curriculum Framework K–6 is presented in four booklets or teaching guides. A teaching

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