Practical Nursing Series: Medical-Surgical Nursing II

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This free sample provided by CIMCwww.okcimc.com800.654.4502Practical Nursing Series:Medical-Surgical Nursing IIMedical Surgical Nursing II, used in conjunction with MedicalSurgical Nursing I, replaces the 2002 version of NursingFocus. The curriculum adheres to the revised objectivesapproved by the Oklahoma Board of Nursing.This full-color text builds on the concepts and skills forprevious courses. It focuses on prevention of illness, healthmanagement, and care of the individual. Treatments, patientcare, diet and pharmacological therapy are included in eachmodule. Medical Surgical Nursing II is designed to teach thenursing student focused nursing skills and the ability to applytheir knowledge to prepare for the NCLEX-PN.Modules include: Immune Nursing Sensory Nursing Neurology Nursing Digestive Nursing Endocrine Nursing Urinary Nursing Reproductive Nursing Oncology NursingPractical Nursing:Medical-Surgical Nursing II2013Teacher Edition: HO1039Student Workbook: HO3039To order, call800.654.4502or visitwww.okcimc.comWe are offering “Sensory Nursing” as a free sample.Copyright 2013 Oklahoma Department of Career and Technology Education

IMPractical NursingMedical SurgicalNursing IITeacher O1039

MODULE 2s e n s o r y Nu r s i n gFree Sample Provided by CIMC800-654-4502okcimc.comThis module provides an understanding ofthe sensory organs and their functions,disorders that affect these organs, andtreatments of these disorders. The most common senses which display impairments are vision,hearing, taste and smell. Additionally, the sense oftouch, position and movement may be impaired.These senses are important for an individual’sinteractions with their environment and otherindividuals. Impairments of these senses must behandled appropriately and carefully by the nurse.Completion of this module should provide anunderstanding and knowledge of how to provideappropriate nursing care to individuals with sensory disorders and impairments.

iReview the LearningObjectives with thestudents. Look aheadto the Learning Activitiesin this module and plan tointroduce them.LEarning ObjEctivEs1. Explain the function of the sensory system.2. Distinguish among sensory disorders.3. Relate diagnostic tests and surgical procedures to the nursing care ofTeachingSUggestions A long with many helpfulwebsites, there are nowmany “apps” available tohelp students and nursesobtain needed information from their smartphones, tablet devices,etc. Search iTunes orother application databases for the most up-todate “apps” available foreach content area. See thefollowing links for possible apps related to thesensory system.patients with sensory disorders.4. Evaluate pharmacological effects of medications used to treat sensorydisorders.5. Contribute to the plan of care for patients experiencing alterations insensory or perceptual function.6. Distinguish among patient education needs related to self-care for sensorydisorders.Free Sample Provided by CIMC800-654-4502 S ensory B e sure to advise thestudents that these “apps”may cost to download. 3600865?mt 8 H earing /id398460048?mt 8 t 8CIMC MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING II 109?mt 8 (amplifier)— Continued on next pagemodule O v e r v i e wThis module provides concise information regarding sensory disorders including their symptoms and associated medications, diagnostic tests, and nursing care. Students should be encouraged to reacquaint themselveswith the sensory system information from their Anatomy and Physiology course.2CIMC MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING II

L E a r n i n gO b j E c t i v EObj ecti v e Explain the function of the sensorysystem.The senses provide humans with the ability to interact with their environment through seeing, hearing,tasting, smelling, touching, and maintaining position and movement. These senses enable humans tosurvive because of the appropriate responses. Shouldthese responses not occur, or occur inappropriately,patients may be injured or suffer disorders of thesensory system. d411289776?mt 8The actual mechanics of vision take place within theretina, the optic nerve, and the brain. Photoreceptors,specialized cells that are sensitive to light and color,are the rods and cones of the retina. mt 8D i d You Know?Color blindness is caused by anabsence of one or more cones.Cones are sensitive to the colorsred, green, and blue.visiOnThe function of the eyeball is transformation of lightto nerve signals which are interpreted into visual images in the cerebral cortex of the brain. V isionSense of Vision 8414?mt 8Normal aging causes the eye to lose elasticity of thelens; this causes the muscles of the eye to be unableto accommodate (move the lens as needed) andpresbyopia (far sightedness due to aging) occurs.The lens may also become slightly opaque, causingdifficult vision when glare is present. Because thepupil becomes smaller with age, more light is neededto read. 9694?mt 8 F or iPadEye Glands 802332?mt 8(Eye chart)Lachrimal gland(Tear gland)Free Sample Provided by CIMC800-654-4502learningwwwlinkokcimc.comTear ductsTear esMODULE 2 SENSoRy NURSING stUDEnt EDitiOn3Teaching SUggestions Review the following information with the students. S tructure of the eyeA ccessories of the eyeI ntraocular anatomyP hysiology and function of the eyeM O D U L E 2 S e n s o r y N u r s i n g T E ACH E R E D I T I O N3

HEaringlearningwwwlinkThe ear consists of three sections, which work together to provide the sense of hearing. The outer earreceives the sound waves and propels them to the interior portions of the ear. The middle ear is small andcontains air and three bones. The three bones are themalleus (hammer), the incus (anvil), and the stapes(stirrup). The inner ear contains fluid-filled cavitiesand canals. It also contains the cochlea, semicircularcanals, and the vestibulocochlear PeTriGTENoc&feature relatedMalleus(hammer)Incus(anvil)Important FactIt’s easy for a throat infection to spread to theears because it can travel up the Eustachiantubes into the middle ear. These structures are alllined with continuous mucous membrane.SemicircularcanalsAuditory nerveTo brainEar canalCochleaOval windowStapes(stirrup)TympanicmembraneFree Sample Provided by CIMC800-654-4502okcimc.comPinnaEustachian TubeD i d You Know?Cerumen is earwax that protectsthe ear by trapping foreignparticles and dust.44CIMC MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING IICIMC MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING II

Sense of Hearing The eardrum, or tympanic membrane, separatesthe outer ear from the middle ear. The eustachian tubes connect the middle earwith the nasopharynx. They function to equalize pressure on either side of the eardrum. Thisis why yawning or swallowing, which opens thetube and allows air to enter the middle ear, helps“pop” the ears when at high altitudes. Sound waves travel through the middle ear fromthe vibrating tympanic membrane causing themalleus to vibrate.The malleus movement triggers the incus tomove and transfer the sound waves to the stapes.The movement of the stapes transfers the soundwave to the oval window, which transfers thesound waves into the inner ear. The ossicles of the middle ear are the small bonesthat carry the sound waves; they are the malleus,incus, and stapes. The endolymph and perilymph conduct soundwaves from the middle ear through the inner ear. The organ of Corti transmits sound waves tothe brain through the hair cells. The inside ofthe organ contains many, many hair cells thatstimulate the cochlear nerve (part of the vestibular cochlear nerve, the eighth cranial nerve) inresponse to sound waves. The cochlear nerve then transmits the sound tothe brain for interpretation. The semicircular canals contain hair cells also.The movement of endolymph within the semicircular canals stimulates these hair cells. Themessage is sent to the brain, which interprets it tomaintain balance and equilibrium.Sources of damage to hair cells in the organ of Corti,causing permanent hearing loss, include: Jet engines Factory equipment Race car engines Loud amplifiers (music or drums) Wearing earphones with electronic equipmentturned to high ects/ViewObject.aspx?ID AP14104s E n s E s O f ta s t E a n DsMELLSmell and taste are two very closely related senses.These senses protect us from eating food that isspoiled or poisonous. Many of the toxins in poisonous plants have a bitter taste. Our tongues are mostsensitive to bitter tastes, and our brain interpretsthem as something to reject, thereby protecting thebody from possible tmlTaste and SmellThe location of the taste receptors are: Sweet receptors—tip of the tongue Sour receptors—sides of the tongue Salty receptors—tip of the tongue Bitter receptors—back of the tongueFree Sample Provided by CIMC800-654-4502okcimc.comNormal aging affects smell and taste by causing adecrease in the nerve receptors for smell and taste.Sweet and salty taste receptors are the most affected.Normal aging affects hearing by causing a decrease inthe ability to distinguish high frequencies of sound.This is thought to be due to declining function of thenerve fibers in the cochlear nerve and the cells of theorgan of Corti. The ability to distinguish consonantsounds in hearing also decreases for the same reasonsMODULE 2 SENSoRy NURSING stUDEnt EDitiOnM O D U L E 2 S e n s o r y N u r s i n g T E ACH E R E D I T I O N55

SourBitterSourSweetSaltyThe glossopharyngeal nerve transmits the messagesof taste to the brain. The olfactory receptors arelocated in the upper section of the nasal cavity. Thisis why people breathe deeply when smelling a flower.The olfactory nerve transmits the messages of smellto the brain.sEnsE Of tOUcHSensory receptors cover the skin and epithelia, skeletal muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, andthe cardiovascular system. The sense of touch reactsto diverse stimuli using different receptors: Thermoreceptors (temperature)Certain odors stimulate memories because thebrain stores the odor and the events associatedwith it in long-term memory. Nocireceptors (pain) Mechanoreceptors (pressure) When olfactory cells are damaged, the person’ssense of smell will be lost since the body cannotregenerate olfactory cells. Chemoreceptors (chemical) Food does not taste good when you have a coldbecause the sense of smell is impaired by nasalcongestion. When we cannot smell what we eat,some of the taste is lost. The senses of smell andtaste work together in our brain. Free Sample Provided by CIMC800-654-4502okcimc.com66CIMC MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING IICIMC MEDICAL SURGICAL NURSING II

L E a r n i n gO b j E c t i v Edisorders.visUaL DisOrDErsMany eye conditions can affect a patient’s vision andunderstanding a patient’s vision impairment willallow the nurse to provide care that will meet thepatient’s needs. Refractory errors prevent light raysfrom converging into focus on the retina.learningwwwlinkD i d You Know?Obj ecti v e Distinguish among sensory Severe visual impairment is definedas the inability to read newspaperswith the use of corrective lenses. Total blindness is absence of lightperception and usable vision.Eye Health Slide Show— visual examples of eyedisorders Functional blindness occurs whenthere is some light perception butno usable ions-overviewRefractory ErrorsDisorderHyperopia FarsightednessMyopia NearsightednessPresbyopia Farsightednessdue to agingAstigmatismStructure AffectedPhysical FindingsCauses light rays to focus Blurred visionbehind the retinaCauses light rays to be focused in front of the retina The lens becomes lesselastic Decreases accommodative ability of the eye Irregularity of curve ofcornea Causes light rays tobend unequallyTreatment/NursingCareLasik Eye Procedures LASIK (laser-assistedin-situ keratomileusis) PRK (photorefractivekeratectomy) ICR’s (intra-cornealring segments) Refractive IOL (intraocular lens) implantation Phakic IOL’s Administer medications as directed byphysician Teach patient signsand symptoms ofinfection Patient will returnfor follow-up care asdirected Corrective lenses Contact .gov/medlineplus/ency/article/001020.htmFree Sample Provided by 2 SENSoRy NURSING stUDEnt O D U L E 2 S e n s o r y N u r s i n g T E ACH E R E D I T I O N7

EyE injUriEslearninglinkwwwPenetrating Eye had.aspx?Category 349HordeolumEye injuries can result in permanent visual impairment. Causes of eye injury include trauma, throughauto accidents and sports injuries, or chemical exposure. The patient may experience pain, photophobia,redness, edema, tearing, blood present in chamber,abnormality in vision, abnormal intraocular pressure, or deficits in peripheral the eye occurs, first aid measures include havingthe victim lie down to prevent

Practical Nursing Series: Medical-Surgical Nursing II This free sample provided by CIMC 800.654.4502 Medical Surgical Nursing II, used in conjunction with Medical Surgical Nursing I, replaces the 2002 version of Nursing Focus. The curriculum adheres to the revised objectives approved by the Oklahoma Board of Nursing.

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