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ContentsNo. 2PAGEThe Day at Lens . 173Major A. Seeger, 15th Field Artillery, German Army.Motor Transport for Heavy Field Artillery . 201Field Artillery Board.Notes on Artillery Aviation and Artillery in Trench Warfare. 214George Nestler Tricoche, late Lieutenant French Foot Artillery.Laboratories in War Time . 225Rene Blactot.The Principles of Scientific Management and Their Application tothe Instruction and Training of Field Artillery. 230First Lieutenant William E. Dunn, 3rd Field Artillery.Study on the Development of Large-Calibre Mobile Artillery andMachine Guns in the Present European War . 289War Department, Document No. 509, Office of the Chief of Staff.Smoke Bomb or Flash Practice. 302Captain William Bryden, Field Artillery.Examinations for Officers of the National Guard Field Artillery . 323Major William Bush, Ohio Field Artillery.Current Field Artillery Notes . 331Book Reviews . 342Index to Current Field Artillery Literature . 345Exchanges . 349Field Artillery Directory . 350


THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALVOL. VIAPRIL-JUNE, 1916NO. 2The Day at LensA GLORIOUS RECOLLECTION OF MY HORSE ARTILLERY BATTALIONIN THE BATTLE OF OCTOBER 4, 1914BY MAJOR A. SEEGER, COMMANDING THE HORSE ARTILLERY BATTALION, 15THFIELD ARTILLERY, GERMAN ARMY(From "Artilleristische Monatshefte," January, 1916)TRANSLATOR'S NOTE.—The author of this article needs nointroduction to the readers of this Journal. Two other articlesin which he gives an account of operations in which hisbattalion participated, have already appeared in THE FIELDARTILLERY JOURNAL, being published originally in"Artilleristische Monatshefte." In all of these articles there isnot a trace of the drool usually found in the canned articles ofso-called official correspondents or observers. Neither doesone find even a suggestion of the venom and bitterness withwhich non-combatants and neutrals sometimes revile eitherone another or one or more of the numerous belligerents. Tothe trained professional soldier such feelings are unknown. Tohim war is brutal and ruinous, and he knows that it is hard torefine it. He treats his opponent with professional respect. Tostrike or insult a fallen foe is abhorrent to him.More than anything else, this article emphasizes theimportance of the duties devolving upon battery and battalioncommanders. Under modern conditions of warfare, by far thegreater part of the fire efficiency of a battery depends upon173

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALthe efficiency of the Battery Commander, while its battleefficiency depends upon the tactical ability of the BattalionCommander. Above all they must be men of decision, leaders,virile men. Are our battery and battalion commandersprepared to meet the acid test?WHEN at some future day the time comes to write the warrecord of the 15th Field Artillery, and it becomes necessary tothink of some exceptional deeds of valor to which in thepresence of our comrades we may point with pride, the 4th ofOctober, 1914, will not be forgotten. It is one of the days whichwill always remain indelibly impressed upon my memory.With all its exalted, stern and sanguinary memories, it liesbefore me now after a year, just as if it had happened butyesterday. It proved to me that once again in this glorious war,as on the day of its baptism of fire, the battalion fought itsopponents to a standstill and well deserved the confidencewhich our superiors had placed in it.I consider it a special ordainment of fate that the Englishshould have launched their great offensive of September 25,1915, at Loos-Lens, exactly at the spot where we had a yearearlier fought and bled. This offensive, as well as thesimultaneous great offensive launched by the French in theChampagne, both failed completely after some initial success.After the great Cavalry engagements at Bapaume in thelast days of September, 1914, in which we were engagedmostly with hurriedly organized territorial troops, we werethere relieved by the 27th Reserve Division (Württembergerand Baden). On October 2nd we, that is all the CavalryDivision around Bapaume, received the order to march off tothe north, leaving Arras to our west, and to proceed to thedistrict northwest of Douai, in order to cover the unprotectedright flank of the German Armies, which flank was beingthreatened by the advance of strong French and especiallyEnglish forces, then advancing from St. Omer via Bethune174

THE DAY AT LENStoward the coal and mining districts around Lens, with theobject of preventing this very important district from fallinginto German hands. The haste of our opponents was easy tounderstand because, as is well known, this district embraces theheart of the coal mining industry. The name given this districtis La Borinage. It is composed of an endless communicatingchain of pits, shafts and mines, making it very difficult to tellwhere the one begins and the other ends. In the last few yearsjust preceding the war, a great amount of constructive workmust have been done in the development and expansion of thecoal industries. Anyway, our antiquated General Staff Maps,which had not been revised for several years, no longerchecked up and especially failed to show the great number ofrecently constructed mine shafts and pits, power, factory andother industrial plants. Those who had new and up-to-datemaps considered themselves lucky, and those who did not, hadto fight their way through this immense and unknown districtas best they could. The towns of Lens, Billy-Montigny,Sallaumines and Courrières, the latter so well known from therecent notorious mine accident, all formed a closed sea ofhouses, composed of laborers' and miners' homes, mine pitsand shafts, and apparently endless streets lined with buildings,all of which offered material obstacles to the operations of ourcavalry. Mammoth heaps of slag and dross, often twice as highas a church tower, were the landmarks of the district in additionto the giant furnaces and chimneys, the endless winding shafts,which gave a clear proof of the enormous importance of thisdistrict.Here in this district, the scene of Zola's novel "Germinal,"I saw with my own eyes the truth of those uncannydescriptions depicting the life of the workingmen's families ofnorthern France and the awful destitution of these inhabitantsand their neglect by the government. Again and again did wespend the night in these villages and were thus able toappreciate the depraved condition of these people and the absence175

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALof all paternal governmental supervision, that is, the absolutewant of labor regulations and protection to relieve thedistressing condition of these workingmen.One could see how prevalent were disease and sicknessfrom the impoverished and exhausted faces. In addition, thegeneral destitution and famine resulting from two months ofwar had greatly intensified all of these terrible conditions.By a forced march on the 2nd of October, we had movedfrom the vicinity of Bapaume to the region west of Douai andthat same night were quartered near Vitry-Artois (about 5 km.west of Douai) without having fired a shot, night havingalready fallen and the tactical situation not requiring a nightattack. Once again every one was dead tired and exhausted, sothat, after having settled in quarters, one scarcely took the timeto eat the little that was absolutely necessary to appeasehunger, unless one was lucky enough, as in my case, to have agood striker who at midnight brought a snatch to my bedside.Early on the morning of the 3rd, we opened fire fromBeaumont toward the north, firing on the towns of HeninLiètard and Billy-Montigny, both reported as being occupiedby the enemy. It was a fire reconnaissance, as our regulationscall it. Our mission was to cover the right flank of a BavarianReserve Corps with whom we also fought the next days on theHeights of Lorette near Arras. With the Bavarians we were thefirst troops to set foot on and to attack these places. In thecourse of the war they have become cities of the dead that haveswallowed countless numbers of heroes. They will for all timestand as sacred historical landmarks of the war for all theparticipating armies; Lorette, Lens, Loos, Angres, Souchez,Givenchy and all the other blood drenched places.This was also the day on which the Crown Prince of Bavariaissued his well-known battle order to the Sixth Army, in whichhe called attention to the fact that this was our first opportunityto fight against the English, and that it was our duty to showthem what German valor could do.176


THE DAY AT LENSFiring from the above mentioned village of Beaumont, mybatteries began early on the morning of the 3rd of October tosearch the coal mines and pits about 3 km. distant andparticularly the high mounds of slag which were surely beingused by the enemy as observing stations. Their use in thismanner in the fights which now developed was the cause of agreat deal of trouble. One thing was certain, in this district theenemy was in every way making use of an admirable service ofinformation and espionage, for which indeed all the necessarypreliminary conditions were already existing in abundance. Inthis confused mass of buildings and in the innumerable hidingplaces and haunts common to such mining districts, it wouldhave been impossible in so short a time to destroy or to renderharmless all of these dens which only a few days before hadbeen in the enemy's undisputed possession. Indeed, we allknew that the whole civil population was in collusion with themilitary authorities, and that careful and elaborate preparationshad been arranged by which the supreme command would bekept constantly informed concerning our movements. Evenearly that morning I had noticed from my observing station thatall around us signal lights were being used. Information wasalso being communicated in letter code by smoke signals fromfactory chimneys, or by signals from factory whistles or sirens.I therefore sent word to the Division Commander requestingthat all localities already in our hands or which might be takenlater, be minutely searched, that is as thoroughly as possibleconsidering our deficient knowledge of the crafty system ofespionage used by the French. Certainly, there was enoughcavalry available for this purpose.The heavy fighting which now developed on our left withthe Bavarians whose flanks we were protecting, led in thecourse of the day to the occupation of the villages Rouvroy andMéricourt, both with heavy losses. This fight was continued forthe next two days and led us, with the Bavarians next to us,through Avion and Liévin near Lens to the Heights of Lorette.177

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALMy statements are fully confirmed by an article recentlyappearing in the "Fränkischen Kurier" by a Bavarian BrigadeAdjutant, who in highest praise acknowledges the valuableservices which our cavalry and especially my horse artillerybattalion rendered from the 3rd to the 9th of October.During the afternoon (October 3rd), the Cavalry of theDivision received the order to occupy Billy-Montigny. Fromthis manufacturing town, hostile fire was still being directed atour 8th Cavalry Division which had already pushed its advanceso far to the north that the enemy in this factory district was ina measure able to take them in rear, a very dangerous situation.Our Hussars dismounted to fight on foot, and advanced veryslowly and cautiously against the town. My batteries weredirected to support this advance and to take under fire therailroad station and its vicinity. The gun detachments of the 1stHorse Battery felt a keen delight in firing into this sea ofhouses, the range being scarcely 1000 metres, and with a fewrounds dispersed the enemy who was evidently not in greatforce. Some of the houses began to burst into flames and wewere able to observe that our field artillery projectiles have avery good incendiary effect. But it was a more difficult matterfor our Jägers to take advantage of this effective artillery fireand to force an entrance into Billy-Montigny along the mainroad from the east. Without interruption, small arms bulletscame whizzing down the whole length of the main road andour patrols could advance scarcely 100 metres at a boundwithout being taken under fire from all buildings. Once againour Hussars and Jägers called out: "Artillery forward to takethe street under fire." One gun of the 1st Horse Battery underFirst Lieutenant Langfried was then dragged up by hand andwhile under hostile fire was pushed up on the main street atthe first house of the village, where several dead inhabitantswere already lying. Whether their death was due to theircuriosity or whether they were caught red-handed withweapons in their hands and therefore shot as punishment, I178

THE DAY AT LENScould not determine. At any rate they were persons of an ageliable to military service, so that we were justified in takingthem for soldiers in civilian clothes.The village street was as straight as a right line, at least 1500metres long and with eager expectation did we all, Jägers,Hussars and ourselves, await the effect of the first shot. Imyself was present and gave the officer in charge orders tosearch the street with volleys at successive ranges, because adefinite target could not be identified with certainty, and it wasmoreover impossible to establish positively from what housesfiring was being delivered. At about 1200 metres we thoughtwe could identify thin clouds of smoke coming from a treelying across and blocking the road, and fire was directed uponit. The first shot caused all the windows of the houses in thevicinity of the gun to break. The shell sped straight down thestreet and struck close to the indicated target, whereupon thehostile fire diminished somewhat, only to be opened again withrenewed energy as the position of our gun had been discovered.Under the protection of the shields the cannoneers served thegun as if on the drill ground, and soon shot after shot atdifferent ranges was directed down the street, thus opening theway for our dismounted cavalrymen. In any way the enemylater evacuated the place and our flanks were here secure. Inthe meantime the fire of the other guns had been directedtoward the centre of the town, at the church tower and therailroad station, and this fire also assisted materially. Ourforces then occupied the town. Late the next evening we foundshelter and cantonment in the place.In the meantime the attack of the Bavarians had madeprogress and we were directed to support this with artillery fire.During my absence a Bavarian Commanding Officer hadordered my batteries to take position behind the confused massof buildings surrounding a mine shaft, in order to take underfire numerous hostile groups which were withdrawing towardthe west. I arrived just in time to indicate as observing station179

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALfor the batteries a mound of slag near a mine shaft to our rightfront. This mound exceeded in height all others in thevicinity. A thin veil of steam and smoke was constantly risingfrom it, an indication that the slacks were still hot. This andthe very steep slope of its sides made us at once conclude thatit would not be an easy thing to climb. With my staff I rodeup close to the mound and immediately gave orders toestablish the telephone stations of the battalion and the twobatteries in position. We ourselves in the sweat of our brows,climbed this Vesuvian mound at the steepest part. It mostcertainly deserved its name. We could feel the burning heatthrough the soles of our shoes. The slacks constantly keptsliding down from under one's feet. This handicap and thedense suffocating smoke made the ascent extremely difficult.For me it was fortunate that I had been a fairly good mountainclimber in my younger days. I was thus among the first toreach the top. Somewhat later the telephone was gotten up bya round-about way and with it came the reconnaissanceofficer of the 2nd Battery. From the top of the mound anextensive view could be obtained and we were eye witnessesof a beautiful infantry attack made by our pursuing Bavarians,executed as if in field maneuvers, although the losses sufferedwere by no means slight. In the distance we could see theredtrousered columns of the French in retreat. And such atarget it was! A target such as one seldom has an opportunityto see! Here was a case where haste in establishingcommunications was necessary, because the batteries downbelow were all ready to open fire. The necessity of rapidity inlaying the telephone line was never more forcibly impressedupon me than in this case. Some means should be provided tocarry the cable reel on the back so that the wire may unreelitself and follow the advancing operator and thus at anyinstant be ready for use. Our system of communications mustpositively be greatly improved in this respect.My adjutant, First Lieutenant G., reconnoitered and identified180

THE DAY AT LENSthe enemy with the scissors telescope and urged haste uponevery one. His keen vision enabled him to observe accuratelythe strength, composition and direction of retreat of the enemy.Later in the evening he was thus able to make to headquarters adetailed and useful report of his reconnaissance which thissplendid observing station had made possible. Suchcommanding points, although they should not be occupied bystaffs and headquarters (because of danger from hostile fire)should at once be located and occupied by individualreconnaissance officers, or by agents or scouts, because thethings which one has personally seen with the eyes very oftenlead to a quicker decision and more expeditious results thaninformation obtained from the reports of Cavalry patrols,oftentimes delayed. On many occasions the Artillery, just as inour peace maneuvers, was able to give the best and most timelyreports and information. If the Field Artillery correctlyunderstands its mission and function and does not confine itselfsimply to the technical features of its arm and service but,thanks to its good field glasses and observing telescopes andthe careful and systematic training of its officers, if it alsoextend its activities to the tactical features, it will always be ina position to be the first to make a general reconnaissancereport which will be clear and concise. I purposely interpolatethis observation in this place because it was exactly the eventsof these days at Lens which impressed me with the importanceof a reconnaissance which is of general benefit. In my adjutantI found a powerful support. His keen vision and mind, and hisexpertness in map reading permitted him to instantly translatehis observations into correct and useful reports.From this commanding station he succeeded in transmittingrapidly to the battery below and nearest to him, the commandswhich enabled it to fire several effective volleys at the retreatingenemy. To his infinite regret, his successful endeavors wereinterrupted by a break in the telephone communications, justat the moment when the fire promised to be most effective.181

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALIn the meantime, after a rapid estimate of the situation, Ihurriedly descended from the mound, in order to select a moreadvanced position for my batteries farther to the west, whichthe progress of the fight imperatively demanded. In order not tolose contact with the Bavarian infantry and in order also to giveour comrades no cause for reproach due to any omissions onour part (which is always easily done by simply going aheadand starring it alone) I rode rapidly forward in the direction ofRouvroy toward our firing line, with the object of giving ourinfantry the most effective support by firing over them. Thereremained only one musician to go with me, my agent andreconnaissance officer being absent on some mission. Uponarriving at the edge of the village I gave the order to have thebatteries, all of them, to advance along the main road as rapidlyas possible toward the infantry firing line. Our own infantryhad in the meantime again disappeared from view, havingmoved off obliquely to the left front, so that I stood there allalone with the open fields in front of me absolutely vacant. Theonly protection for myself and the battalion which wasadvancing directly behind me, was given by two Bavarianinfantrymen, who had become separated from theirorganization during the advance and were now coming towardme in search of information that would enable them to rejointheir organization. I pointed out to them in the distance thehostile infantry in retreat, among them a few stragglers whomthe valiant Bavarians after a rapid estimate of the range at 800to 900 metres, immediately took under fire, and as myobservations clearly showed, with immediate effect. All threeof us puntuated our delight with pithy and appropriate remarksas we observed five Frenchmen fall in rapid succession.In the meantime the battalion had arrived and in theabsence of any cover in this perfectly level terrain, it tookposition in the open, each battery going front into line at a gallop,a stunt which we had not pulled off since our baptism of fire.1 In1 See THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNAL, October-December, 1915, pp. 659-673.182

THE DAY AT LENSorder to mask the guns I gave orders to hurriedly fetch somesheaves of grain to cover them up. Even though this providedonly an illusory protection from hostile fire, it neverthelessgave concealment. The hostile artillery, which especially incovering a retreat was very quick in taking up its new positionsin rear, did not discover us and we remained here unmolesteduntil darkness fell, continuing to fire on the village of Avionand the neighboring heights toward which the enemy haddisappeared.Late that night (October 3rd) the entire Division with some5000 horses, made bivouac and was quartered in the town ofBeaumont, from which place we had opened fire that samemorning. This had been a great day for us and especially forthe Bavarians, who had made large and important gains, butunfortunately not without suffering considerable losses. Thecrowded conditions in the town and the difficulties in findingsites for bivouac on the outskirts of the town wereindescribable. I have never envied these officers in thisdisagreeable task of assigning bivouacs. Every one had onlyone thought and desire, namely to quickly find a place to rest,to eat something and then immediately to fall asleep.The next morning we were to continue the work alreadybegun, namely to cover more securely the right flank of theBavarians, and to this end to gain as much ground as possibletoward the north. Our orders were to advance on and to crossthe highway Lens-Carvin-Lille and also to clear the highwayLens-La Bassée of all hostile troops. To accomplish this itwas necessary to clear the Souchez Canal at many places ofsmall hostile covering detachments in order to gain ground tothe north. This task was assigned to the 5th Cavalry Divisionon our right, which in its turn was supported on its right flankby the Guard Cavalry Division at Carvin. At this particulartime there were thousands of Cavalry troops under commandof General von der Marwitz, concentrated in a relativelyrestricted area for the purpose of gaining and holding ground183

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALpending the arrival of the army corps already following inmarch.Our Cavalry Division was ordered first to get in closecontact with the Bavarians and especially to support them withour artillery. But during the morning, which was later to befollowed by so momentous an afternoon, we made very littleprogress because hostile troops were still reported in the bigcoal mining towns to our right (Sallaumines and Noyelles). Wetook a position in observation. To me fell the task ofreconnoitering all possible positions from which we might beable to support the Bavarians and therefore, accompanied bymy reconnaissance officer, Lieutenant Udo B., I rode in awesterly direction. We were otherwise alone. We rode throughthe neighboring villages being constantly on the alert andexpecting at any moment to be shot at from some window ordark cellar pit. B. had no presentiment that this was to be hislast ride in this world. Upon completion of this reconnaissancewe returned to report to Division Headquarters which hadestablished itself in the secluded garden of a roadside café thathad been cleared out. Headquarters was here awaiting furtherorders. With the exception of the officer on guard, we foundeveryone fast asleep on the straw at ten in the morning. Theexertions of the past few days had been so strenuous that eventhe Division Commander, Lieutenant General von H., who inspite of his age is an unusually active man, could hardly beawakened. It is incredible how much a soldier can sleep in thedaytime during actual campaign. Very frequently, in the midstof hostile fire, we would take turns about and steal a little map.Many a comrade was struck by a deadly bullet while in thearms of Morpheus. One of the men of my battalion staff hadrustled and found a store of eggs in the cellar of the house.They were at once distributed and eaten. My cook hurriedlymade an omelet on the partly demolished hearth, and beginningwith his excellency, we all ate so much of the stuff that formonths afterward I could not bear to see an omelet.184

THE DAY AT LENSDuring the afternoon a message was received informing usthat the Cavalry Division next to us had succeeded in forcingthe crossings of the Canal. We were directed to move forwardin the direction of the town of Loos, now so well known,keeping in close touch with the troops on our flanks. Inadvancing we were ordered to make a thorough search of allthe factory villages through which we passed. These formed avery strong obstacle to our advance.On the other side of the canal at Loison, the roar of the gunsof the horse battalion of the 10th Field Artillery could alreadybe heard, firing in a northwesterly direction. We were directedto support this action with our guns, reports of the retirement ofthe enemy all along the line having been received.In several columns our Division passed through thelabyrinth of factory and mining towns, the staffs in advance inorder to determine by reconnaissance at what points oursupport would be needed the most. At Loison I reported to theCommanding General of the 5th Cavalry Division, underwhose orders I was temporarily placed, that my battalion wasall ready and waiting orders. He directed me to his artillerycommander, Major von W., whom I asked for instructions formy battalion. But here was a critical situation and good advicehard to give, as a rapid survey of the available space and theindistinct and difficult character of the terrain showed.However, the order which I received was to the point and inbrevity left nothing to be desired: "Get your guns into actionwherever you can find the place and fire on any hostile forcesthat you may see."While my staff and I were thus engaged with the adjacentDivision and awaiting the arrival of our batteries, we were thefirst to observe the retreat of large masses of hostile cavalryaccompanied by individual sections of horse artillery, allwithdrawing from mine shaft No. 7 in a direction across thehighway Lens-La Bassée. I hurriedly rushed over to the batterycommander nearest to me in order to call his attention to this185

THE FIELD ARTILLERY JOURNALtempting target, the attack of which required great haste. Butunfortunately he was too slow in changing target and firstbegan to open fire as the last cavalry regiment disappeared overthe crest. At the same time a report concerning the progress ofthe fight was received from our Guard Cavalry Division,whose action had caused the retirement of that part of theenemy just opposing us. The situation had therefore againsuddenly changed, in other words we had to move forwardagain and follow up closely the withdrawal of the enemy.The order for our Cavalry Division was brief and stillexhaustive: "Pursue the retreating enemy in the direction ofLoos." "Well then, let's turn loose,"2 suggested our DivisionCommander who was always ready for a joke. We started outin front with the 15th Dragoons, the batteries following closebehind us, and passed through the mass of buildings,factories and confused by-ways of Loison, first going to therailroad station of this place where a halt was made pendingthe arrival of reports from our cavalry patrols. These reportsstated that although the enemy was withdrawing with hismain forces, it was still necessary to push back the numeroussmall rear guard detachments which the enemy had thrownout to cover his withdrawal. Riding forward to reconnoiter adesirable position, I saw at about 1200 metres range whatseemed to be scattered and detached groups of hostileinfantry in disorderly retreat toward mine shaft No. 8. Iimmediately order

the field artillery journal vol. vi april-june, 1916 no. 2 the day at lens a glorious recollection of my horse artillery battalion in the battle of october 4, 1914 by major a. seeger, commanding the horse artillery battalion, 15th field artillery, german army

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