Global Digital Trade I: Market Opportunities And Key .

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United StatesInternational Trade CommissionDigitalTrade 1: TradeShiftsGlobalin U.S.Merchandise2014,2014Annual andReportMarketOpportunitiesKey Foreign TradeRestrictionsInitiationAugust 2017Publication Number: 4716Investigation Number: 332-561

United States International Trade CommissionCommissionersRhonda K. Schmidtlein, ChairmanDavid S. Johanson, Vice ChairmanIrving A. WilliamsonMeredith M. BroadbentCatherine DeFilippoDirector, Office of OperationsJonathan ColemanDirector, Office of IndustriesAddress all communications toSecretary to the CommissionUnited States International Trade CommissionWashington, DC 20436

United States International Trade CommissionGlobal Digital Trade 1:Market Opportunities andKey Foreign TradeRestrictionsAugust 2017Publication Number: 4716Investigation Number: 332-561

United States International Trade CommissionThis report was prepared principally by:Project LeaderDavid Coffindavid.coffin@usitc.govDeputy Project LeaderJeremy Streatfeildjeremy.streatfeild@usitc.govOffice of IndustriesJared Angle, Renato Barreda, Laura Bloodgood, Sharifa Crawford, Sharon Ford,Eric Forden, John Giamalva, Fernando Gracia, Jeffrey Horowitz, Mahnaz Khan, Dan Kim,Erick Oh, Sarah Oliver, Chris Robinson, Mitchell Semanik, George Serletis, Isaac WohlOffice of EconomicsNabil Abbyad, Tamara Gurevich, Peter Herman, Grace Kenneally,Ricky Ubee, Heather WickramarachiContent ReviewersJennifer Powell and David RikerEditorial ReviewersJudy Edelhoff and Peg HausmanOffice of Analysis and Research ServicesMaureen LetostakDocument Preparation and SupportJaime Bruckman, Monica Sanders, Blair WilliamsStatistical ReviewJeremy WiseUnder the direction ofMartha Lawless, ChiefServices Division

Table of ContentsAbbreviations and Acronyms . 9Executive Summary . 13Chapter 1 Introduction. 31Overview . 31The Request . 32Scope of the Investigation . 33Information Sources . 36Organization of the Report . 36Internet Infrastructure and Network Communication Services . 37Cloud Computing Services . 38Digital Content, Search, and News . 38E-commerce, Digital Payments, and Records . 38Industry Adoption of Digital Technologies . 39Consumer Communications Services and Connected Devices . 39Regulatory and Policy Measures Related to Digital Trade . 40Bibliography . 42Chapter 2 Internet Infrastructure and Network Communication Services . 45Introduction . 45Internet Infrastructure . 45Communications Network Services . 50Wide Area Networking. 50Software-Defined Networking . 52Chapter 3 Cloud Computing Services: Data Processing, Storage, Analytics, andSoftware Applications . 57Introduction . 57What Is Cloud Computing? . 58Types of Cloud Services. 58Adoption of Cloud Computing Services: Drivers and Inhibitors . 66Estimating the Size of the Global Cloud Computing Market . 67The Volume of Data Traffic in the Cloud. 68Spending by Firms on Cloud Computing Services and Industry Revenues from ProvidingCloud Services . 70Market Competition and Trends . 73Geographic Breakdown of the Market for Cloud Services . 73Providers of Cloud Services in Global Markets . 75Bibliography . 78U.S. International Trade Commission 1

Table of ContentsChapter 4 Digital Content, Search, and News . 85Introduction . 85U.S. and International Markets . 87Video Games . 88U.S. and International Markets . 89Market Competition and Trends. 90Video . 95U.S. and International Markets . 97Market Competition and Trends. 97Music . 101U.S. and International Markets . 102Market Competition and Trends. 104E-books. 106U.S. and International Markets . 107Market Competition and Trends. 108Search. 111U.S. and International Markets . 112Market Competition and Trends. 116News Aggregators and Social Media . 118U.S. and International Markets . 119Market Competition and Trends. 120Bibliography . 126Chapter 5 E-commerce, Digital Payments, and Records . 147Introduction . 147E-commerce . 148Introduction . 148B2B E-commerce . 150B2C E-commerce . 154Market Competition and Trends. 157Digital Payments . 160Introduction . 160Market Competition and Trends. 163Electronic Records . 168Blockchains. 168Digital Signatures . 169Express Delivery and Logistics Services in E-commerce . 170U.S. and Global Delivery Markets . 171Consumer Expectations . 172Digital Technology. 1722 www.usitc.gov

Global Digital Trade 1: Market Opportunities and Key Foreign Trade RestrictionsMarket Competition and Trends. 173Bibliography . 175Chapter 6 Industry Adoption of Digital Technologies . 189Introduction . 189Trends in Adoption of Digital Technology . 190Industry’s Use of the Internet of Things . 192Sensors . 193Other IoT Innovations . 198Robotics and Other Automated Processes . 208Robotics in Manufacturing. 209Robotics in Agriculture . 211Unmanned Aerial Vehicles . 2123-D Printers . 214Industry’s Use of Cloud Computing and Data Analysis. 216Cloud Computing Applications in Industry . 217Data Analytics Applications in Industry . 220Bibliography . 228Chapter 7 Consumer Communications Services and Connected Devices . 247Introduction . 247Internet-Connected Devices . 247Smartphones . 248Wearables . 251Remote Healthcare Monitoring . 253Smart Homes. 255Smart Cities . 257Communications Services . 259Over-the-Top Services. 259Unified Communications . 261Bibliography . 263Chapter 8 Regulatory and Policy Measures Affecting Digital Trade . 271Introduction . 271Data Protection and Privacy Measures . 273Data Localization Measures . 277Regulatory and Policy Measures Addressing Private and Public Cybersecurity . 285Source Code Disclosure Requirements . 287Restrictions on Cryptography . 289Regulatory and Policy Measures Relating to Intellectual Property Rights . 291Digital Piracy. 293Internet Intermediary Liability for Copyright Infringements . 297U.S. International Trade Commission 3

Table of ContentsCensorship Measures. 302Brazil . 302China . 303India. 304Indonesia . 305Russia . 306Market Access Measures Affecting Digital Trade . 307De Minimis Thresholds and Small Exporters . 309Electronic Payments. 311Technical Standards . 312Government Procurement . 313Investment-Related Policy Measures Affecting Digital Trade . 317Limitations on Foreign Ownership and Equity Participation . 317Discriminatory Licensing and Taxes . 320Local Content Requirements and Access . 323Bibliography . 328Appendix A Request Letter . 347Appendix B Federal Register Notice . 353Appendix C Calendar of Hearing Witnesses . 357Appendix D Summary of the Views of Interested Parties . 365Appendix E Data Protection and Privacy Regulation . 373Appendix F Regulatory Developments Related to Digital Piracy . 393Appendix G Data Tables for Figures . 407Appendix H Content Industry Snapshots by Country . 417BoxesBox 1.1: Horizontal Integration across Digital Sectors . 34Box 3.1: Artificial Intelligence and Data Analytics: The Newest Trend in Cloud Computing . 60Box 3.2: Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things (IoT). 61Box 4.1: Cloud Technology Has Enabled Digital Content to Bridge Several Platforms . 85Box 6.1: Cloud Computing in Chemicals Manufacturing . 218Box 7.1: App Stores. 250Box 7.2 : Barcelona’s Smart City Initiative . 257Box 7.3: Chatbots.

International Trade Commission Shifts in U.S. Merchandise Trade 2014, 2014 Annual Report - Initiation. Global Digital Trade 1: Market Opportunities and Key Foreign Trade Restrictions . August 2017 Publication Number: 4716 Investigation Number: 332561-

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