K-12 Conservation Education Scope And Sequence

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K-12 Conservation EducationScope and Sequence m. KellyAn Educator’s Guide to SequentialLearning About Fish and WildlifeA Project of the Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies’North American Conservation Education Strategy;Prepared by Oksana Bartosh, University of British ColumbiaFunded by a Multistate Grant of theSport Fish and Wildlife Restoration ProgramDecember 2008 Frans Sluijs photo / Dreamstime.com

Association of Fish and Wildlife AgenciesK-12 Conservation Education Scope and SequenceDecember 2008Prepared by Oksana BartoshUniversity of British ColumbiaDeveloped for Association ofFishandWildlifeAgencies’North American ConservationEducation Strategy.www.fishwildlife.orgFunded by a Multistate Grantof the Sport Fish and WildlifeRestoration Program.wsfrprograms.fws.gov

A Message from Dr. Judy SilverbergChair, AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Sub-committeeIn 2003, conservation educators from fish and wildlife agencies met at a summit at the NationalConservation Training Center in West Virginia to develop a conservation education plan for the twentyfirst century. Facing growing conservation challenges, the directors of fish and wildlife agencies directedthe assembled educators to prepare a visionary plan for state agencies to implement to sustain the futureof wildlife, through stewardship and recreation. The directors recognize conservation education as amission-critical management component of every fish and wildlife agency. As expressed by Corky Pugh,Director of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries Division for the Alabama Department of Conservation andNatural Resources, “Aneducated,informedandinvolved citizenry is imperative for .”The purpose of the AFWA K-12 Conservation Education scope and sequence is to address levatethevalueofConservation Education, and toadvance the AFWA Strategic Plan and the North American Model of Fish and Wildlife Conservation(available on the AFWA website: www.fishwildlife.org). The development of the AFWA eformaleducationsector’spracticeofundertakinga rigorous review of what is reasonable to expect a student to know and be able to do at their age andstage in life.The AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and Sequence is a set of expectations that describe whatstudents should know and be able to do in three grade bands, K-5, 6-8, and 9-12. The domains of science,social science, and health and fitness are especially important segmentsofeverychild’seducation.Science provides the key to understanding the world we live in, and the ability to ask and answermeaningful questions. Social science offers tools for critically reasoning and understanding the interplaybetween the vironmental,economic,andsocietal problems, and build a safe and secure life for themselves and their families.The task of developing a scope and sequence was an AFWA and Multistate Conservation Education grantpriority in 2008. Recommendations were carried out by the K-12 Conservation Education nced conservation educators and leaders provided input on theproject. Oksana Bartosh Consulting and the Pacific Education Institute provided technical support; bothhave extensive national experience in conservation, science, and environmental education.In addition to implementing the AFWA Core Concepts, the Conservation Education Working Group hasconsulted with most states and surveyed hundreds of science educators. I want to express my personalthanks and appreciation to all those who have contributed to this important work.— Judy Silverberg, Wildlife Education Programs Supervisor, New HampshireChair, AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Sub-committeeAFWA Scope and SequencePage 2 of 105

AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and SequenceTable of ContentsOverview .4Organization of Scope and Sequence .5K-12 Conservation Education Scope and SequenceCore Concepts .8Standard 1.10Standard 2 .45Standard 3 .61Standard 4 .70Standard 5 .80Conclusion.85Abbreviations and References.87Acknowledgments .89Appendix A. AFWA North American ConservationEducation Strategy and Core Concepts .91Appendix B. Academic Concepts Used in AFWA Scope and Sequence by Themes .95AFWA Scope and SequencePage 3 of 105

AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and SequenceOverviewThe AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and Sequence is a detailed list of what all studentsare expected to know and be able to do at each level of our educational system in the areas ofscience, social science, and health and fitness. The purpose of these standards is to provide strongsupport for state agency conservation educators to provide programs for students, parents, teachers,and the broader community by guiding the alignment of the school curriculum, instruction, andassessment at local and state levels.To accomplish this purpose, it is essential that this document be used in the following ways:Conservation educators responsible for curriculum development and alignment shouldrefer to this document in selecting or developing instructional materials that enable studentsto acquire conceptual knowledge and abilities in science.Conservation educators responsible for education evaluation and assessment should referto this document in selecting and/or developing tools and rubrics that support studentachievement of the science and conservation education standards and the measurement ofthat achievement, from the classroom level to the state level.Conservation educators responsible for instructional alignment should refer to thisdocument in designing classroom instruction and professional development of teachers toensure that priority be placed on achievement of these standards as the core of a science andconservation education program.It is also important to point out what the standards are not intended to provide:The scope and sequence does not prescribe teaching methods. The scope and sequence doesnot specify preferred teaching methods or materials. The purpose of the scope and sequenceis solely to enable conservation educators to develop programs that align curriculum,assessment and instruction by clearly specifying what students are to understand and be ableto do –not to prescribe how teachers should teach.The scope and sequence does not represent a curriculum. The scope and sequence specifiesa core of conceptual knowledge and abilities that conservation educators nationwide haveagreed all students should achieve by the time they leave formal schooling.The standards are not test specifications. The standards describe what students should knowand be able to do, and they inform the content of statewide tests. However, they do notspecify how knowledge or abilities are to be assessed, either at the local or state levels.AFWA Scope and SequencePage 4 of 105

AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and SequenceOrganization of Scope and SequenceNote: The Scope and Sequence organization framework is illustrated in the example chart on thenext page.The AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and Sequence is based upon the five areas ofconcentration, or standards (from 1 to 5) under the core Conservation Education concepts. The scopeand sequence in this document translates the AFWA core concepts into both content standards andperformance expectations. owstudents’understanding of concepts and skills should be developed from kindergarten through grade 12. Thecharts are sequenced so that new knowledge is constructed on prior knowledge. Each chart presentsan AFWA Conservation Education Core Concept (column 1) and identifies the main themes that thisconcept encompasses (column 2). It also identifies main concepts from science, social studies,physical education and health, and in some cases mathematics, that students need to acquire todevelop an understanding of the AFWA concepts (column 3-5). Finally, the charts also provideindicators that can be used to assess whether students have developed an understanding of theAFWA concepts (column 3-5).The five AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Standards are stated at the top of eachscope and sequence.AFWA Core Concepts that relate to each standard appear as statements in the far leftcolumn of the document. Agreement on core concepts was the first step in developing the K12 AFWA Conservation Education Standards.The Key Themes for each AFWA core concept are listed in the next column. These are similar tothe themes included in the AAAS Atlas of Science Literacy.AFWA Concepts, which appear at the top of each grade band column in the body of thisdocument, describe what students should know and be able to do. The scope and sequence isbased on national and state science, social science and health and fitness standards. Thesources for K-12 education standards are referenced in the scope and sequence document.Indicators for concept understanding, which appear below the concept understanding,provide clear guidance to all (e.g., curriculum and assessment developers, teachers, students,parents, and others) about the depth of knowledge expected at each grade band and howstudents are expected to demonstrate their understanding and abilities on formative andsummative measures. In the text of the Scope and Sequence, sample indicators that aresuitable for lics.Grade Bands. The AFWA Conservation Education Working Group identified the threegrade bands K-4, 5-8 and 9-12, but these can be broken down further by aligning with aparticularstate’sstandards.AFWA Scope and SequencePage 5 of 105

Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies Conservation EducationScope and Sequence: EXAMPLEStandard IStandard 1Standard 1. Appreciates that conservation and management of terrestrial and water resources areessential to sustaining fish and wildlife, the outdoor landscape, and the quality of our lives.AFWA coreconcepts1.1 The health andwell-being of fish,wildlife, andhumans depend onthe quality of theirenvironment.Key themesHealth ofhumans andecosystems1.1.1.Manyspecies areindicators ofenvironmentalhealth.Grade K-4Concepts & IndicatorsConcepts Some things people take intotheir bodies from theenvironment can hurt them(AAAS1, 6E/2, p89). Certain poisons in theenvironment can harm humansand other living things(AAAS1, 6E/2, p. 89).Sample Indicators K-2: Describe thecharacteristics of a healthyenvironment, such as air,water, and food. Explain why a healthyenvironment is important forall organisms to have. Give examples of fish andwildlife and habitat species inyour neighborhood thatscientists watch to learn aboutthe health of yourenvironment.Grades 5-8Concepts & IndicatorsConcepts The environment may containdangerous levels of substancesthat are harmful to humanbeings. Therefore, the goodhealth of individuals requiresmonitoring of the soil, air, andwater and taking steps to makethem safe. (AAAS1, 6E/5,p.98). The length and quality ofhuman life are influenced bymany factors, including.environmental conditions.(AAAS1, 6B/5, p. 89).Sample Indicators Develop a working definitionof pollution and how itaffects fish and wildlife. Investigate and identify localsources of pollution and howit affects your local fish andwildlife. Collect and analyze datameasuring soil, air, and /orwater quality, and link theseindicators to fish and wildlifepresence.Grade 9-12Concepts & IndicatorsConcepts Conditions now are very differentfrom the conditions in which thespecies evolved. But some of thedifferences may not be good forhuman health (AAAS1, 6E/3, p.89). In-depth field investigations areessential to scientific understandingof the environment (AWFA CE). Human health and well beingdepends on access to the outdoorsand an environment withsustainable and renewableresources (AFWA CE –Children &Nature Network ResearchSummary).Sample Indicators Analyze the requirements forsustaining healthy ecosystems andhow health of humans and otherliving (e.g. fish, wildlife,85 andhabitat) organisms is affected bychanges in environmentalconditions. Design and implement aninvestigation to determine theenvironmental health of a localresource and analyze its potentialvalue to fish, wildlife, and humans,including recreational use.The majority of the academic concepts included in the AFWA Conservation Education Scope andSequence were located in the national and state academic standards and the AAAS Atlas of ScienceLiteracy; and some of the references are provided in parentheses after each individual concept. Thecomplete list of state and national standards reviewed and used in the development of this documentis provided in the Appendices.A number of academic concepts were developed by the AFWA Conservation Education doneiftheconceptwasabsentfromthestateand/or national standards or if the group did not agree with the interpretation presented in otherstandards.Indicators are critical to understanding the standards and are intended to be met by all students. For eachstandard, we provide a set of sample indicators listed under each group of academic concepts. These arelisted in random order and should not be considered to be an all-inclusive list.AFWA Scope and SequencePage 6 of 105

The K-12 Scope and Sequence for Conservation Education alsoincludesconcept“maps”that illustratethe connections between the concepts and themes and their progression from kindergarten to grade eintheAAAS’sAtlasofScienceLiteracy.AFWA Scope and SequencePage 7 of 105

AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and SequenceCore ConceptsThe Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies

AFWA Scope and Sequence Page 4 of 105 AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and Sequence Overview The AFWA K-12 Conservation Education Scope and Sequence is a detailed list of what all students are expected to know and be able to do at each level of our educational system in the areas of science, social science, and health and fitness.

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