The Magic Of Mobile: Wireless Fundamentals

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June 2014The Magic of Mobile:Wireless Fundamentals1

Wireless is the foundation to mobileAppreciating the magic of mobile requires understanding the fundamentals of wireless12Mobile is the largest technologyplatform in the worldMobile connectivity is anamazing technical achievement,critical to the mobile experience3Wireless fundamentals are thefoundation to mobile powered byMobile 3G/4G technologies4Qualcomm is the leader inMobile 3G/4G, pushing wirelessboundaries to enable the bestmobile experiences2

Mobile is the largest technology platform in the world 7 Billion connections, almost asmany as people on Earth1 8 Billion smartphonesto be shipped 2014-20182New form factors; tablet/laptopvariants, wearables, etc.1 GSMAIntelligence, Apr. ‘14‘132 Gartner, Sep.More prevalent than electricityor running water in some regionsEvolving into Internet of Everything:cars, meters, health-devices, etc.3

Mobile is an amazing technical achievementMind-blowing Performancewith processing power greaterthan the most advanced super computersof the early 1990s1Jaw-dropping Graphics1Reliable ConnectivityAll in a devicethat fits inyour pocketovercoming signal loss resulting inreceiving signal 100 trillion times weakerthan when it originated3Broadband Speedswith capability to process severalthousand megapixels per second2with blazing fast data rates capableof 300 Mbps4High Quality Multimedia2Long Battery Life4K UltraHD video player/recorderHD gaming console5.1/7.1 surround sound systemHigh resolution digital camerawith ability to power all these amazingexperiences with less energy than ittakes to power a light bulb for 1 hour5Source: Charlie White, Sep. '13 & giffgaff.com, Sep’13; 2 Based on latest Qualcomm SnapdragonTM 800 series processors; 3 Based on 140 dB path losstypical in mobile; 4 Based on peak data rates for LTE Advanced; 5 Based on 2,000 mAh smartphone battery and 15W light-bulb4

Connectivity is the foundation of a great mobile experienceConnect ReliablyConnect Real-TimeGet instant access to content withless delay for “always-on” experienceTalk and browse without interruptionwith more bars in more placesConnect On-the-GoTalk and browse with seamlessmobility anywhere you get a signalConnect FastStream, surf, upload, and downloadwith fast, predictable data ratesConnect LongerGo longer without plugging inwith improved battery efficiencyDelivering rich mobile broadband experiences5

CoverageSpectrumCapacityWireless fundamentals arethe foundation to mobile6

Coverage is delivering a reliable signal to your mobile devicedespite harsh wireless environments, while on-the-goKey FundamentalsCoverageRadio SignalModulationSignal-to-Noise RatioRangeMobile CellMobile NetworkSeamless HandoffMobilityAnalogyRadio signals are like a ripple inthe water7

Radio signals are like ripples in the waterRadio SignalA form of energy that radiates intospace as radio waves.𝜆WaterSurface𝐴Amplitude (𝐴): Size of the ripple (energy)Wavelength (𝜆): Distance between the ripples (meters)Frequency (𝑓): How often the ripple goes by (hertz)8

Radio signals (ripples) are modulated with informationModulation turns radio signals into information “carriers” creating a radio channelRipple ReceiverData1001010AmplitudeModulation (AM)100Amplitude Modulation (AM)Alternating how big you make the ripples9

Radio signals (ripples) transmit in noisy environmentsInterferencePowerRipple ReceiverNoise𝑆𝑁𝑅 𝑆𝑖𝑔𝑛𝑎𝑙 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟𝑁𝑜𝑖𝑠𝑒 𝐼𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑟𝑓𝑒𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑐𝑒 𝑃𝑜𝑤𝑒𝑟Signal PowerNoise Interference PowerDistance (from ripple source)RangeThe distance the signal can travel with acceptable SNRto be decoded by receiver10

Mobile technologies provide signal quality despite harsh wirelessenvironmentsRipple Source(Transmitter) 100,000,000,000 XAmount of signal loss possible across cellcompared to original signalEnvironmentRipple ReceiverNoiseOperator Base StationRipple SourceTelephonePSTNInternetUser EquipmentRipple ReceiverOther UsersCellRipple RangeInterferenceEnabled by Mobile 3G/4G technologiesAdvanced receivers and coding to detect low-power signals from noiseMultiple antenna techniques to create multiple paths to amplify signal11

Mobile technologies provide coverage beyond the cellRipple SourceTransmitter #1Ripple SourceTransmitter #2Power (dB)Ripple ReceiverRequires seamless handoff between transmitters like swinging from a trapeze12

Mobile cells are networked to provide mobilityNetworkSwitch/RouterTelephoneInternet 0.01%Packet loss required for highpriority apps (e.g., video)Cells are designed with overlapping coverage to provideseamless handoffs across cells13

Mobile must deliver fast data rates despite finite spectrum, thelifeblood of mobile connectivityKey FundamentalsSpectrumAnalogyRadio Frequency SpectrumRadio ChannelPeak Data RateLicensed SpectrumUnlicensed SpectrumTime Division Duplex (TDD)Frequency Division Duplex (FDD)Radio channels are likehighways built on finite land14

Spectrum is the airwaves that all wireless communications travelMaritime navigationsignalsNavigational aids(e.g. loran- C)AM radio maritimeradioShortwave radio,radiotelephoneVHF television, FMradio, navigationalaidsMobile,UHF television, GPSSpace and satellitecommunicationsRadio astronomy,radar landingsystemsVLFLFMFHFVHFUHFSHFEHF100 km10 km1 km100 m10 m3 kHz30 kHz300 kHz3 MHz30 MHzIncreasing wavelength, larger antennas1m300 MHz10 cm1 cm3 GHz30 GHz1 mm300 GHzIncreasing frequency, shorter rangeSpectrum is allocated by local governmentsSpectrum is divided into frequency ranges (bands) fordifferent types of wireless communicatione.g., 87.5 to 108.0 MHz for FM radio15

Spectrum is like land – a finite resource;Radio channels are like highways built on this landRadio Frequency Spectrum (land):Frequency range for different types of wireless communication100 MHz850 MHz1,500 MHz1,900 MHz2,350 MHzFM RadioMobile bandGPSMobile bandSatellite RadioRadio Channel (highway):Spectrum for specific communication linkData (vehicles):105.3 FM Radio ChannelBits of information carried on Radio channel16

Spectrum is the lifeblood of mobile connectivityMobile must overcome finite spectrum to deliver fast data rates6 GHzTravels shortrangeMoreSpectrumMoreCapacityFasterData RatesMobile Licensed SpectrumCleared spectrum for exclusiveuse ensuring quality of service,mobility, and controlOperatorEvolving Mobile 3G/4G technologies maximize spectrum efficiency with:Requires largeantennasAdvanced receivers and radio link improvements to get more bits per HzMultiple antenna techniques to create multiple paths to carry more data60 MHz17

Mobile uses different spectrum for different types of accessLicensed SpectrumUnlicensed SpectrumCleared spectrum for exclusive use(Mobile 3G/4G technologies)Spectrum shared by multiple technologies(Wi-Fi, LTE, BT & others)OperatorFoundation of Mobile BroadbandPredictable amlessMobilityFoundation of Local Area BroadbandSimpleDeploymentShort Range,Local CoverageResidential, Enterprise,Connected Home18

Mobile technologies are a two-way (duplex) radio channelFrequency Division Duplex (FDD)Paired spectrum enables better coverageSpectrum 1Uplink (UL)Spectrum 2Downlink (DL)TimeTime Division Duplex (TDD)Unpaired spectrum enables asymmetricalDL/UL for more DL capacitySpectrumULDLULDLTime19

A radio channel has a peak data ratePeak Data RateTheoretical max data rate inideal conditions measured inbits per second (bps) 𝑊 𝑛 𝑀 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑 Spectrum BandwidthNumber of AntennasHigher Order ModulationThe width of the radiochannel (highway) built onspectrum (land)The number of spatiallyseparated paths (highwayoverpasses)The number of bits(passengers) transmitted persignal (vehicle)11100100FrequencyNote: Overhead is extra bits for each packet beyond the payload containing information necessary to properly transport the packet end-to-end across the network20

Evolving Mobile technologies increase peak data ratePeak Data Rate 𝑊 𝑛 𝑀 𝑜𝑣𝑒𝑟ℎ𝑒𝑎𝑑Mobile 2GMobile 3GMobile 3G /4GVoice plus MessagingCDMA, GSM, GPRS/EDGEMobile BroadbandWCDMA/HSPA, EV-DOFaster and BetterHSPA , LTE, LTE Advanced200 kHz5 MHz20 20 MHz1 x 1 (n 1)1 x 1 (n 1)2 x 2 (n 2)Modulation (𝑴)8-PSK (M 3)16-QAM (M 4)64-QAM (M 6)Peak Data Rate1474 Kbps214.4 Mbps300 Mbps3Example: LTE Peak Data Rate3Spectrum Bandwidth (𝑊) 20 MHzNumber of Antennas (𝑛) 2Bits per Symbol (𝑀) 6Overhead 37.5%Peak Data Rate 150 MbpsChannel Bandwidth (𝑾)# of Antennas (𝒏)13Download peak data rate; 2 Theoretical peak data rate for GSM/EDGE, latest Evolved EDGE has peak DL data rates up to 1.2 Mbps;Download peak data rate with 2 x 2 MIMO, 64-QAM Modulation, and 2x 20 MHz carrier; 300 Mbps announced as of November 201321

Mobile must deliver fast data rates despite finite spectrum, thelifeblood of mobile connectivityKey FundamentalsAnalogyCapacityMultiple AccessShannon’s LawSpectrum Aggregation1000x Mobile Data ChallengeSmall CellsCapacityRadio channel has a finitecapacity like a pipe22

Radio channel capacity is like a pipe’s capacity for waterCapacityTheoretical max amount of data trafficthat can be reliably transmitted over anoisy radio channel at a given timeRadio channel capacity is shared amongst multiple usersSingle user100% of capacityMultiple usersShare the capacity23

A radio channel has a finite capacityCapacityTheoretical max amount of data trafficthat can be reliably transmitted over anoisy radio channel at a given time 𝑊 𝑛 log 2 (1 𝑆𝑁𝑅)More SpectrumShared amongst multiple usersShannon’s LawIncreasing the size of theradio channel (bandwidth)Number of AntennasMitigate InterferenceAdding antennas to createspatially separated pathsImproving the quality of theradio signal (SNR)24

Evolving Mobile 3G/4G technologies increase capacitySharedResourcesEnhancing user experience through faster data rates and lower latencies𝐶 𝑊 𝑛 log 2 (1 tennasInterferenceMitigationCarrier #1Carrier #2Flexible support forchannels up to 20 MHzenabled with OFDMACarrier #3AggregatedData PipeCarrier #4Aggregate more channels upto 100 MHz for higher dataratesAdvanced MIMO techniquesto create spatially separatedpaths for more dataMitigate interference withadvanced receivers andantenna techniquesWireless fundamentals are the foundation to this evolution25

Mobile data traffic growth – industry preparing for 1000xMobile technology evolutions to increase capacity equation will not be enoughRicher contentIndustry preparing for1000x 2/3more videoOf mobile traffic willbe video by 20172data traffic growth1More deviceseverything connected 25 BillionInterconnecteddevices forecast in2020311000x would be reached if mobile data traffic doubled ten times, but Qualcomm does not make predictions when 1000x will happen, Qualcomm works on the solutions to enable 1000x 26Cisco, Feb. ’13; 3 Source: Machina Research on behalf of GSMA, Dec. ‘122 Source:

The biggest gain – reuse Shannon’s Law everywhere!𝐶Scaling Capacity with Small CellsReusing Capacity (𝐶) equation everywhere𝐶 𝑛 𝑊 log 2 (1 𝑆𝑁𝑅)𝐶𝐶SMALL CELL𝐶SMALL CELL𝐶Small CellSMALL CELLMore Small Cells27

Qualcomm is the leader inseamless mobile connectivitydelivering superiorperformance and technologyleadership28

Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G technologiesEach modem generation enhances user experience and provides more capacityFirst LTE AdvancedIncreasing User ExperienceFirst Integrated LTE MultimodeDL: 100 MbpsHigher efficiency (LTE)2 x 2 MIMOSupport for 3G and 4G technologiesFirst IntegratedLTESmartphoneFirst LTEWorldModeFirst World Mode LTEAdvanced Modemwith 40 MHz CA and CAT61DL: 300 Mbps40 MHz Carrier AggregationDL: 150 Mbps20 MHz Carrier AggregationFirst 3C-HSPA First DC-HSPA First HSPA First HSUPADL: 42 MbpsUL: 11 Mbps2 Carrier AggregationDL: 63 MbpsUL: 11 Mbps3 Carrier AggregationDL: 28 MbpsUL: 5.76 MbpsHigher Order Modulation2 x 2 MIMODL: 7.2 MbpsUL: 5.76 MbpsEnhanced Uplink ChannelFirst HSDPADL: 1.8 MbpsUL: 384 kbpsHigher Order ModulationTimeQualcomm GobiTM is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.1November 20, 2013: Qualcomm Technologies Announces Fourth-Generation 3G/LTE Multimode Modem - First Commercial Solution to Offer Global 4G LTE Advanced 40 MHz Carrier Aggregation for CAT6 FDD and TDD29

Qualcomm is the leader in Mobile 3G/4G technologiesHiding the complexity underneath the most seamless mobile connectivityThe Unique Qualcomm AdvantageLTEFDDEV-DOLTETDDGSM/EDGEHSPA /WCDMAAll major Cellular Standards Standards EvolutionCDMA1XTDSCDMA700/850/9001500/1700/1900 40 RF Bands17 LTE Voice Modes2300/2600Wi-FiPositionBTWi-Fi, Positioning,BT(Bluetooth)Supports all technologies, bands, modes, Qualcomm GobiTM is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.1November 20, 2013: Qualcomm Technologies Announces Fourth-Generation 3G/LTE Multimode Modem - First Commercial Solution to Offer Global 4G LTE Advanced 40 MHz Carrier Aggregation for CAT6 FDD and TDD30

Wireless is the foundation to mobile12Mobile is the largest technologyplatform in the worldMobile connectivity is anamazing technical achievement,critical to the mobile experience3Wireless fundamentals are thefoundation to mobile powered byMobile 3G/4G technologies4Qualcomm is the leader inMobile 3G/4G, pushing wirelessboundaries to enable the bestmobile experiencesto learn more, go to: www.qualcomm.com/wireless31

Questions? - Connect with mm.com/blog/contributors/[email protected] techhttp://www.youtube.com/playlist?list PL8AD95E4F585237C1&feature utionhttp://storify.com/qualcomm tech32

Thank youFollow us on:For more information on Qualcomm, visit us at:www.qualcomm.com & www.qualcomm.com/blog 2014 QUALCOMM Incorporated and/or its subsidiaries. All Rights Reserved.Qualcomm is a trademark of Qualcomm Incorporated, registered in the United States and other countries.Other products and brand names may be trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective owners.References in this presentation to “Qualcomm” may mean Qualcomm Incorporated, Qualcomm Technologies, Inc., and/or other subsi diaries or businessunits within the Qualcomm corporate structure, as applicable. Qualcomm Gobi is a product of Qualcomm Technologies, Inc.Qualcomm Incorporated includes Qualcomm’s licensing business, QTL, and the vast majority of its patent portfolio. Qualcomm Te chnologies, Inc., awholly-owned subsidiary of Qualcomm Incorporated, operates, along with its subsidiaries, substantially all of Qualcomm’s enginee ring, research anddevelopment functions, and substantially all of its product and services businesses, including its semiconductor business, QC T.33

Mobile 3G/4G, pushing wireless boundaries to enable the best mobile experiences 2 Mobile connectivity is an amazing technical achievement, 4 critical to the mobile experience Wireless fundamentals are the foundation to mobile powered by Mobile 3G/4G technologies Appreciating the magic of mobile requires un

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