Eating The North: An Analysis Of The Cookbook NOMA Time .

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Title: Eating the North: An Analysis of the Cookbook NOMA: Time and Place inNordic CuisineAuthor(s): L. Sasha GoraSource: Graduate Journal of Food Studies, Vol. 4, No. 2 (Nov. 2017)Published by: Graduate Association for Food Studies Copyright 2017 by the Graduate Association for Food Studies. The GAFS is agraduate student association that helps students doing food-related work publish andgain professionalization. For more information about the GAFS, please see ourwebsite at https://gradfoodstudies.org/.

L. SASHA GORAEating the North: An Analysis of the CookbookNOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine abstractA portmanteau of the Danish words nordisk (Nordic) and mad (food), Noma opened in Copenhagen,Denmark in 2003. Seven years later, it was crowned first in Restaurant Magazine’s Best Restaurant in the Worldcompetition. That same year, 2010, the restaurant published its first English cookbook NOMA: Time and Place inNordic Cuisine, authored by chef René Redzepi. In this article I analyze this cookbook, focusing on how the visuals, texts,and recipes signify time and place for diverse publics. I begin with a literature review—discussing cookbooks as tools ofcommunication and marketing—and consider the role the visual plays in this process. How does the cookbook representNordic food and the region from which it comes? How does the composition of the book as a whole shape not only whatis considered Nordic food, but also the Nordic region? I then closely read NOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine,demonstrating how the cookbook does not represent a time and place, but instead constructs one. Cookbooks, New Nordic, visual culture, haute cuisineThe day after Noma was crowned first in Restaurantcomplement, as well as completely substitute, the restau-magazine’s Best Restaurant in the World competition inrant experience. The visual plays an essential role in this2010, the restaurant had 100,000 online requests for res-process.ervations. That same year, the restaurant published its firstFood and eating can be studied as both material andEnglish language cookbook: NOMA: Time and Place in Nordicvisual culture. One can take an economic, social, or politicalCuisine.2 Authored by chef René Redzepi, the contemporaryapproach to discuss what people eat and how. Here I focusDanish-Icelandic artist Olafur Eliasson penned the book’son how the medium of a cookbook communicates and con-introduction, titled “Milk Skin with Grass.” This introductionstructs the food from one of the world’s best restaurants,sets the tone for the book: poetic and understated. Photo-as well as how this cookbook creates an image of the regiongraphed by Ditte Isager, the images throughout the cook-in which the restaurant is based.6 Beyond the physical andbook depict messy arrangements of delicate food, black andvisual, food and its composition also channel emotions. I dowhite portraits of the restaurant’s suppliers, blurry shotsnot discuss how the food tastes or what it does nutritional-of the restaurant’s interior, and romantic renderings of thely; instead, I discuss where it comes from, how it is present-Nordic landscape. If food acts as an expression of culturaled, how it looks in front of the camera and on the printedidentity, how is identity visually expressed? How do text andpage, how food is contextualized, the atmosphere this con-design support the visual? What does the visual languagetext creates, and what this all suggests about constructingof this book communicate about, as the title suggests, thea sense of time and place in Nordic cuisine. As the namerestaurant’s time and place in Nordic cuisine?indicates, NOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine is much1In a conversation with Charles Harrison in a 1969 issueof Studio International Magazine, Seth Siegelaub remarked:izes the recipes with stories of people and places that assign“For many years it has been well known that more peoplethem a specific cultural value related to ideas of the Northare aware of an artist’s work through (1) the printed mediaand the Nordic. The recipes tell the stories behind the food,or (2) conversation than by direct confrontation with thestories that express a sense of cultural identity. This makesart itself.” With its month-long waiting list (for a restaurantcookbooks valuable marketing tools for the restaurant.3that seats only forty-four) and the high cost of a multi-So, in what way can a cookbook construct and commu-course meal (the menu, without wine, is 1.700DK, nearlynicate a sense of time and place? How does NOMA: Time and230 or 245 (US) per person),4 the same can be said aboutPlace in Nordic Cuisine represent Nordic food and the regionNoma. More people, the author included, experience Nomafrom which it comes? With this question in mind, I analyzethrough its cookbooks, press coverage, and social mediathe Noma cookbook, focusing on how the visuals, texts, andchannels than through eating its food. Noma’s cookbooksrecipes signify time and place for diverse publics. In this arti-57more than a collection of recipes. The cookbook contextualGRADUATE JOURNAL OF FOOD STUDIESkeywords

cle, I begin by reviewing literature that discusses cookbookscase of the Noma cookbook, it is autobiographical as it tellsas tools of communication and marketing, and considerthe story of Redzepi and how he became a chef. It also tellsthe role the visual plays in this process. I then closely readthe biography of the restaurant. Furthermore, the cookbookNOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine, demonstrating howis also historical as it constructs an idealized image of thethe cookbook does not represent a time and place, but con-Nordic region, both past and present, in which Noma holdsstructs one. I analyze the narratives formed by the visuals.an important position.I also examine the way the book is written, structured, andAs he explores cooking in the domestic sphere, Appadu-designed, and how this composition of the book as a wholerai describes only one of the many different types of cook-shapes perceptions of not only Nordic food, but also thebooks, books that operate in both the public and privateNordic region.spheres. Women author many books about home cookingwith the intention that these books will be cooked from,THE PUBLIC AND PRIVATE LIVES OF COOKBOOKSCookbooks are about much more than just cooking andtypically for a family, as the standard cookbook often features recipes that serve four people. This type of cookbookthey communicate more than recipes. A cookbook is a medi-follows a formula, as these cookbook authors write and testum for storytelling. The social-cultural anthropologist Arjunrecipes in their kitchen and then share them in the format ofAppadurai opened his 1988 article “How to Make a Nationala cookbook: as if from one home kitchen to another. Equip-Cuisine: Cookbooks in Contemporary India” with a descrip-ment is often simple and ingredients familiar. Another typetion of what cookbooks do and what studying them reveals:of cookbook directly links the public and private spheresof cooking. Written by a chef—or perhaps a ghostwriterCookbooks, which usually belong to the humblewhose responsibility it is to shadow the chef and translateliterature of complex civilizations, tell unusualtheir, sometimes chaotic, cooking into standardized mea-cultural tales. They combine the sturdy pragmaticsurements and easy-to-follow instructions—this type ofvirtues of all manuals with the vicarious pleasurescookbook is often developed for the home cook, but with aof the literature of the senses. They reflect shiftsdifferent intention. In American Appetite: The Coming of Agein the boundaries of edibility, the properties of theof a National Cuisine, Leslie Brenner writes: “Although thereculinary process, the logic of meals, the exigencies ofare certainly exceptions, chef cookbooks are notoriouslyhousehold budget, the vagaries of the market, anddifficult to cook from, since they usually assume that onethe structure of domestic ideologies.has elaborately made or hard-to-find ingredients at one’s7fingertips.”9 NOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Food is such aAccording to Appadurai, cookbooks reveal shifting relationships between people, food, and values. This makescookbook. But why does someone purchase a cookbookwith no intention to cook from it? Brenner continues:them cultural artifacts. Instead of merely demonstratingGRADUATE JOURNAL OF FOOD STUDIES8new ways to cook old ingredients, the Noma cookbook alsoBut chef books sell . . . many people don’t actuallyintroduces new ingredients. Noma highlights foraged ingre-cook from cookbooks anyway; instead they readdients and works with a laboratory—the Nordic food lab—them like novels. The professional cookbook lets am-that specifically focuses on developing or discovering newateurs dream about elaborate constructions they’llingredients. Noma’s generative efforts reflect a shift in whatnever have time to make, featuring ingredients theyis considered edible, a perspective specifically relevant tomay not be able to find. These books allow readersNOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine.to cook vicariously to revel in fantasy meals.10How do cookbooks tell the “unusual cultural tales” thatAppadurai describes? The range of unusual tales a cookbookAs Brenner suggests, some people purchase cookbookscan narrate is diverse. Anne L. Bower discusses this spec-without the intention of ever cooking from them. Thistrum of stories in Recipes for Reading: Community Cookbooks,makes some cookbooks more about inspiration and aspi-Stories, Histories. Although she writes specifically aboutration than utility. As she writes, it also frames these cook-community cookbooks that serve to fund-raise as opposedbooks more like novels: books read for their stories.to generate a profit, her findings can be applied to cook-These stories can tell us a lot about a place and a time.books in general, as she writes, “. . . cookbooks tell stories—As Jessamyn Neuhaus puts it in Manly Meals and Mom’sautobiographical in most cases, historical sometimes, andHome Cooking: Cookbooks and Gender in Modern America:perhaps fictitious or idealized in other instances.”8 In the“.cookbooks reveal much about the societies that produce

them.”11 However, assessing the role cookbooks play in so-Given the significant role images play in NOMA: Time andciety is not straightforward. Cookbooks can demonstratePlace in Nordic Cuisine and in other image-heavy cookbookswhat people eat as much as what people would like to eat,like it, NOMA can be studied in the context of visual culture.as Brenner argues. Neuhaus asserts that community cook-From its title, W.J.T. Mitchell’s essay “Showing Seeing: Abooks at least document what real women (and sometimesCritique of Visual Culture” approaches the field of visualmen) have cooked at least once. The same can be saidculture by asking: How do we show seeing?17 How do weabout restaurant cookbooks, like NOMA, as they mostlytalk about it, describe it, and understand it? The title bringsdocument dishes the restaurant has served. Yet, as Neuhausto mind when one tries on someone else’s glasses, tryingwrites, “Commercial cookbooks, on the other hand, functionon their vision, like one would try to on a new winter coat.as a fascinating but murky intersection between the publicMitchell’s text seeks to answer what visual culture is, whatforces of marketing and publishing and the private lives ofseeing is, and how it works. However, he confesses thatthose who purchase cookbooks.” In other words, cook-he does not have categorical answers for defining visualbooks, especially those penned by chefs like NOMA: Timeculture. Instead, he offers the reader his personal take onand Place in Nordic Cuisine, intersect the public and privatevisual culture and visual studies and where the field is head-spheres, revealing the numerous “and sometimes obscureing. He prefers the term visual culture to visual studies as it1213purposes” cookbooks serve. NOMA tells stories and “un-is less neutral and assumes that vision is constructed, andusual tales” about the restaurant that produced it, as well asthus there is a culture of seeing.18 In describing an exercisethe city, country, and region in which it is based.he performs with students to “show seeing” he summariz-14If cookbooks tell stories, then they can also be under-es that “ . . . the questions to ask about images are not juststood as a symptom of communication. Roland Barthes sug-‘what do they mean?’ or ‘what do they do?’ but ‘what is thegests such a way of analyzing food as he writes, “For what issecret of their vitality?’ and ‘what do they want?’”19 Thisfood? It is not only a collection of products that can be usedleads to the question: what do pictures in cookbooks want?for statistical or nutritional studies. It is also, and at the sameWhat do the pictures in NOMA: Time and Place in Nordictime, a system of communication, a body of images, a proto-Cuisine want?col of usages, situations, and behavior.”15 Cast as a system ofChef cookbooks are more than just sources of inspira-communication, food can be “read.” Barthes continues: “Totion; they are also persuasive marketing tools, which is oneeat is a behavior that develops beyond its own ends, replac-possible answer to the question of what pictures in cook-ing, summing up, and signalizing other behaviors, and it isbooks want or what they do. Images sell. Marita Sturken andprecisely for these reasons that is a sign.”16 According to Bar-Lisa Cartwright begin their chapter on visual culture andthes, food is a sign and images of food form a visual language.consumption with a reminder: “Images are not free. Visualimages play a primary role in the commerce of contempo-Images play varying roles within cookbooks. Somerary societies.”20 Even beyond advertising images, Sturkinand Cartwright’s assertion suggests that visual images incookbooks do not have photographs, as in classics like Ju-general are entangled and active in commerce. Their prima-lia Child, Louisette Bertholl, and Simone Beck’s Masteringry role is to advertise with the intention to sell. Sturken andthe Art of French Cooking and Mark Bittman’s How To CookCartwright write: “Such advertising images are central toEverything. These cookbooks instead feature illustrations,the construction of cultural ideas about lifestyle, self-image,which serve a more instructive than aesthetic role. Theseself-improvement, and glamour . . . Advertising often pres-illustrations show how to make a dish, as opposed to howents an image of things to be desired, people to be envied,the dish looks or could look, if one obediently follows theand life as it ‘should’ be.”21 If advertising is an abstraction, ainstructions. However, with the popularity of glossy imag-means for producing lifestyle-based desire projected intoes of food, it is no wonder that half of the pages of NOMA:the future, what does this imply for a cookbook with photo-Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine are full-page photographs.graphs? Photographs work differently than illustrations, andPhotography becomes a medium for the restaurant to brandSturken and Cartwright discuss them specifically, writing, “itself, portray a particular perspective, and share an expe-. . . photographs always carry with them the connotation ofrience. Images of Noma influence how people perceive thephotographic truth yet are also a primary source of fantasy,restaurant and are thus a tool for the restaurant to use asthey provide important dual meanings in many advertise-it constructs its own identity. Images become a way for fol-ments.”22 In order for a photograph to function as an adver-lowers of the restaurant, both on social media and throughtisement, it needs this sense of fantasy. The image needs tobooks, to experience Noma, even from afar.9GRADUATE JOURNAL OF FOOD STUDIESTHE ROLES OF IMAGES IN COOKBOOKS

be familiar enough—which is achieved through photographygraphs of Elle magazine, but his observations are applicableand the notion of photographic truth—that one can imagineto many photographs of food:oneself in it, but foreign enough that it occupies a temporalspace other than the present. Advertising images are aboutThis ornamental cookery is indeed supported bytransformation. Ads do not show who one is, but who onewholly mythical economics. This is an openly dream-can become. This transformative emphasis also introduceslike cookery.which never show the dishes exceptan element of fantasy in food photography, especially thefrom a high angle, as objects at once near and inac-images presented in a cookbook. Cookbooks often rep-cessible, whose consumption can perfectly well beresent not what one is eating, but what one could eat, asaccomplished simply by looking.25Neuhaus revealed. This is especially true of NOMA: Time andBecause the dishes are ornamental, they become inac-Place in Nordic Cuisine due to its elaborate instructions andunfamiliar ingredients. In addition to showing how specificcessible. Their purpose is to be eaten with the eyes and notdishes should look, these images function as part of thewith the mouth. However, when an image is paired with arestaurant’s overall visual branding. In depicting particularrecipe, as in cookbooks, it has the purpose of providing andishes, they assert a specific style and market the restau-instructive model of how the final dish should look, evenrant as a whole.though the final dish may still be inaccessible. In the case ofNOMA, the images provide a blueprint for what followingBefore the rise of food-focused blogs and websites,cookbooks were the primary channel through which recipesthe recipes step-by-step can produce in the end. This im-were shared in written form and circulated. Although notplies that no matter how exotic the ingredients or how de-necessary, images help cookbooks to demonstrate recipes,manding the recipe steps may be, the images are more thancontextualize them, and to tell their larger stories. Imagesornamental, even if their instructional purpose may remaincan be especially useful for novice cooks, but also frustrat-inaccessible.ing. Images are useful in the sense that they establish a clearIn addition to recipe writers, restaurants, cookbook au-expectation of how the dish should look, but also frustratingthors, bloggers, and social media stars, consumers also pro-when a novice’s attempt looks little like the professionalduce food photography. Photographs of food are incrediblycook or recipe tester’s end result.popular. Brendan I. Koerner argues that food photographyon social media is so common because:Beyond cookbooks, food magazines, and general publications that cover topics related to food, one now findsimages of food on social media and across the Internet.Among the basic human needs . . . food is the onePhotographing food changes its status. Food on a plate hasthat’s most ideal for sharing on social media: It’sa use value. It feeds you, relieving hunger, often providingmore wholesome than sex, more titillating thanpleasure. Food in an image becomes purely representative,shelter, and quite a bit more photogenic than water.aesthetic. Its use value is to communicate, either to pro-Because passion for food is so universal, postingmote a restaurant or recipe, or to personally promote some-photos of it . . . is a surefire way to establish an emo-one’s lifestyle, thus functioning as cultural capital. This alsotional connection with followers.26describes the act of an individual photographing and sharingAccording to Koerner, food provides a common way totheir meal at an exclusive restaurant. In her discussion ofGRADUATE JOURNAL OF FOOD STUDIES10what “food porn” is and whether it exists, Anne E. McBrideconnect. More importantly, it serves as a socially acceptedrefers to critic Richard Magee’s discussion of food’s perfor-way of connecting publicly over a shared physical needmative dimensions: “Food, when removed from the kitchen,(and pleasure). This casts images of food as emotional andbecomes divorced from its nutritive or taste qualities andpersonal, something to which nearly everyone can relate.enters a realm where surface appearance is all-important.”23This reveals how images of food connote both consumingMcBride’s reference to Magee is significant as it impliesand sharing. Signe Rousseau addresses this in Food andthat images of food have the potential to render food asSocial Media: You Are What You Tweet, as she asks: “Whatsomething that is purely decorative. Its only function is todoes it mean, similarly, if cooking becomes more geared tobe seen. When an image of a dish appears on a social me-producing a perfect picture for a blog post, rather than thedia site, it documents and aestheticizes food. This can beanticipation of sharing a good meal with your friends andclassified as what Roland Barthes describes as “ornamentalfamily? Some bloggers would say that virtual sharing is nocookery.”24 Barthes specifically addressed the glossy photo-less valuable than anything IRL [in real life] . . .”27 Working

to answer the question of why sharing images of food onof food to be less traditionally appetizing.31 This applies tosocial media is so popular, Rousseau suggests that it is theNOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine, as it includes pho-sharing that is most important. Food, both in its digital andtographs of “raw materials.” This positions the ingredientsphysical forms, can be a medium for connecting and sharing.so that they can tell stories about where they are from, asBut this also demonstrates the difficulty in separating foodopposed to simply depicting the end product on a plate.from the image of a food. Rousseau also asserts that foodFor example, a picture of a raw fish may not be traditionallyhas a complicated relationship to status: “For one thing, andappetizing, but in the context of NOMA, it encourages theunlike most other artifacts, food is made to be consumed.reader to think about the waters from which the fish comes,It represents an event, not a thing.”28 If food represents anand—because of the photograph’s abstract composition—toevent and not a thing, can the same be said about images ofvisually take in the fish’s texture.food? Similar to debates in contemporary art regarding performance art, this introduces the question of whether thedocumentation is also the artwork; so in Rousseau’s case, isREADING NOMA: HOW IT SIGNIFIES TIME AND PLACEConsidered the protagonist of the reinvention of Nor-the description of food also part of the event, or is it merelydic food, Noma has banned staple restaurant ingredientsa representation of the event?29such as tomatoes and olive oil in its kitchen.32 Instead theFrom still life painting to post-studio practices, there ex-restaurant only cooks and serves ingredients that areists a long tradition of art engaging with, representing, and“native” to the region. Noma makes it clear that what theworking with food. However, art that uses or depicts foodrestaurant serves reflects an interpretation of Nordic foodoperates differently than the practice of picking up one’srather than “traditional” Nordic food. However, since cui-phone and photographing what is on one’s plate. What doessine, like culture, is often in flux, what are the differencesthis habit of reaching for one’s phone and taking a picture,between “invention” and “reinvention” or “interpretation”before even tasting the food, communicate about how weand “reinterpretation?” What is considered to be Nordicexperience and understand food today? With so many cam-or Scandinavian restaurant cuisine may not always overlaperas around, how a dish looks may become nearly as import-significantly with historic diets in the region. And yet it pro-ant as how it tastes. After all, the saying goes that “we eatvides great insight into how Nordic food and its landscapewith our eyes.” Koerner documents how many non-profes-are conceptualized today and which ingredients are allowedsional photographers taking pictures of their food affectsto take part.professional food photography, as he writes:From its design and first pages, NOMA: Time and Place inNordic Cuisine seeks to define the Nordic through elementsmaterial, visual, and textual. A mammoth of a book, it mea-photographers to do more with their shots. Nowsures roughly 25.9 x 4.1 x 30 cm and its shipping weight isthat it’s so easy to make a humble sandwich look like2.8 kg. At 368 pages, this is not a book to pack to read on themanna from heaven, the best food photographersbus. It is a book that should stay put, a classic coffee tableare taking a turn for the avant-garde, producingbook. The cover is a pale grey and the name of the restau-pictures that inspire their viewers to meditate asrant appears engraved in capital letters in two rows of two.well as salivate. In other words, food photographyThe letters themselves are marbled shades of grey, resem-is going through the same transition that art formsbling the bark of a birch tree. Although birch trees grow inlike painting and music experienced when compe-other regions, the book’s graphic design claims them for thetence becomes ubiquitous; the true artists respondNordic countries. They become a sign of the Nordic. Printedby breaking with conventions that have becomewith different types of paper, the book clearly separatesstifling.30the photographs (200 color photographs) from the text.The pages present a spectrum of muted pastels: a peachyThis so called “amateur deluge” suggests that, at a pro-nude, a pale yellow, a pale pink, a light blue, a dusty grey, andfessional level, a photograph of food needs to be more thanclassic white, which is reserved for the photograph captionsjust a pretty picture since, as Koerner implies, anyone canalone.now take one. Therefore, as Koerner suggests, images ofJust before the table of contents rests a foldout mapfood need to do more than just make the viewer hungry.titled, “A Map of the Nordic Region.” One review of theThey need to tell a story or communicate an emotion or sim-cookbook refers to it as adorable, “like something from aply surprise the viewer. This creates space for photographschildren’s adventure book.”33 A very basic illustration of a11GRADUATE JOURNAL OF FOOD STUDIESThat amateur deluge has put pressure on elite food

skinny birch tree appears on the first part of the map thatdeeply rooted and cannot be understood without thesefolds out, drawing a connection to the birch pattern on theroots. In his words: “ . . . the potato cannot be separatedbook’s cover. The map has a similar aesthetic, with loosefrom the soil in which it has grown. René knows that.”36 Hesketches of trees and houses that would not feel out ofthen describes a dish he tried: “the ‘Newly-Ploughed Potatoplace in a book illustrated by Quentin Blake (of Roald DahlField’—a dish of brownish–black, knobby, crunchy food. And,fame) or Edward Gorey, both of whom are known for usingjust like the tree and the potato, the meal on the plate ismessy and wispy strokes of ink. Never neat, their illustra-part of a bigger system . . . they, like us, are inseparable fromtions are always illustrative and recognizable. A captionthe environment.”37 In both recipes and photographs, Nomaexplains the map: “Names show the locations of some of therepeatedly refers to ecosystems. Actual moss, for example,most important of Noma’s suppliers.” Identifying Greenland,forms a bed on which to serve snails, a tongue-in-cheek ref-Iceland, the Faroe Islands, Denmark, Sweden, Norway, anderence to a snail’s natural habitat. This way of plating a mealFinland, the map clearly marks which countries belong tokeeps the environmental origins of an ingredient intact and,the Nordic region, as well as those that do not. Althoughmost importantly, imaginable for diners. Instead of separat-parts of the Baltic States and Russia appear as dusty land-ing the ingredient from the place from which it comes, themasses of trees, they are not identified. Even though theyplate represents said place, thus further emphasizing themight be home to similar, and even the same, ingredientsrelationship between food and place at Noma.that are associated with Nordic (and new Nordic) cuisine,they are not included in Noma’s geography. They exist out-two essays about the start of the restaurant and Redzepi’sside of the borders that Noma draws.journey as a chef; excerpts from Redzepi’s diary as he trav-These mapped borders also reveal how regions areGRADUATE JOURNAL OF FOOD STUDIESeled around the Nordic region searching for ingredients andconstructed. Although geographically Copenhagen is closersuppliers; a description of the restaurant’s main growers,to Estonia than it is to Greenland, because of political his-foragers, and suppliers; small Polaroid-style pictures of thetory, Greenland is mapped as belonging to the same region,staff, who come from across the world; a glossary; and anwhile Estonia is not. The map, therefore, visually representsindex. A photograph accompanies each recipe; however,the areas the Nordic region includes, as well as those it ex-the photographs appear first in a cluster with a list of dishescludes, revealing the ambivalent distinction between Scan-printed on a separate sheet. Names are printed in loud, bold,dinavia and the Nordic region. Why is it new Nordic cuisinecapital letters. Throughout the cookbook, all photographsand not new Scandinavian cuisine? After all, Denmark is onefeature captions. Portraits of both people and ingredientsof the three core Scandinavian countries, along with Nor-are identified by name and place. A photograph of quail eggsway and Sweden. Depending on the context and whom oneis captioned: “Quail Eggs – About 600 quail eggs from theasks, some of the other Nordic countries may or may not beDanish island of Fynen are cooked every week at the restau-considered part of Scandinavia. Considered a cultural re-rant.”38 This is one way that the cookbook constructs a sensegion, Scandinavia shares language, hist

RADATE ORNA OF FOOD STDIES 9 Given the significant role images play in NOMA: Time and Place in Nordic Cuisine and in other image-heavy cookbooks like it, NOMA can be studied in the context of visual culture. From its title, W.

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