Manual For Training Of Trainers - JICA

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Manual for Training of TrainersEffective Training Management and Training Delivery TechniquesThis cover page will bereplaced by designed one.Training of Trainers Course for Sierra Leone and LiberiaCivil Service Training Centre, GhanaFebruary, 2013

VersionDateDraft Version 1February 2012Draft Version 2For Preparation of TOTCourseJuly 2012Version 3August 2012Version 4February 2013Project for Institutional Capacity Development of the Civil Service Training CentreGovernment of Republic of GhanaJapan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)2

Table of ContentsList of Appendices . 5Introduction. 6Module-1 Human Resource Development (HRD) Framework . 81.1 HRD and HRM. 81.2 Training and Human Resource Development (HRD) . 101.3 HRD Paradigm . 111.4 Competencies for HRD Profession . 131.5 Summary . 15Module-2 ADDIE Process Model . 162.1What is ADDIE Process Model? . 162.2What is the Benefit of ADDIE? . 172.3Phase-1: Training Needs Analysis (TNA) Phase . 182.4Phase-2: Training Design Phase. 202.5Phase-3: Training Resource Development Phase . 202.6Phase-4: Training Implementation Phase . 212.7Phase-5: Training Evaluation Phase . 212.8Summary. 22Module-3 Phase-1: Training Needs Analysis . 243.1Step-1: Performance Gap Identification . 253.2Step-2: Justification of Training . 283.3Step-3: Target Analysis . 293.4Step-4: Training Outline Setting . 293.5Step-5: Cost Analysis . 303.6Step-6: Proposal Summary . 303.7TNA Methods . 313.8Summary. 35Module-4 Instructional Design Basics. 374.1Andragogy . 384.2Experiential Learning Model . 394.3PIE Rule . 414.4ARCS Model . 434.5Other Tips . 454.6Summary. 48Module-5 Phase-2: Training Programme Design -Curriculum Design . 515.1 What is Training Design? . 525.2 Step-1: Set Learning Objectives . 525.3 Step-2: Organise Learning Objectives . 555.4 Step-3: Design Motivation . 575.5 Summary . 62Module-6 Phase-2: Training Program Design --Lesson Plan Development. 656.1 What is Lesson Plan? . 666.2 Understanding Training Course and Participants . 666.3 Setting Session Objectives. 686.4 Listing Up Learning Topics . 693

6.5 Determining Participant’s Assignments. 696.6 Selecting Teaching Methods . 706.7 Determining Assessment Strategy . 716.8 Planning Time Line . 726.9 Listing Up Necessary Items and Environments . 756.10Filling Out Lesson Plan Form . 756.11Summarizing Programme Design . 766.12Summary. 76Module-7 Phase-3: Training Resource Development . 787.1 Types of Learning Resources . 797.2 Steps for Learner’s Guide Development . 817.3 Effective PowerPoint Slides . 947.4 How to Develop Effective PowerPoint Slides. 977.5 Effective Support Materials . 1057.6 Other Resources for Presentation . 1117.7 Summary . 114Module-8 Phase-4: Training Implementation --Training Delivery . 1168.1 Creating a Positive Learning Environment . 1168.2 Classroom Set Up . 1188.3 Check List for The Course Delivery Administration . 1208.4 Pre-Session Assignments . 1218.5 Summary . 122Module-9 Phase-4: Training Implementation --Classroom Facilitation . 1249.1 Facilitation. 1259.2 Assessing Participants . 1269.3 Basic Presentation and Facilitation Skills . 1289.4 Maximizing Participation . 1309.5 Questioning Techniques. 1329.6 Effective Use of Icebreakers and Energizers . 1349.7 Effective Use of Exercises. 1369.8 Wrap up . 1379.9 Tips for Facilitation . 1389.10Competencies for Facilitators . 1419.11Summary. 143Module-10 Phase-5: Training Evaluation . 14710.1Objectives of Evaluation . 14810.2Evaluation Methods . 14810.3How to Evaluate Participants’ Readiness (Level-0) . 15010.4How to Evaluate Participants’ Reaction (Level-1) . 15110.5How to Evaluate Participants’ Learning (level-2) . 15410.6How to Evaluate Participants’ Behaviour (Level-3) . 15610.7How to Evaluate The Results (Level-4) . 15710.8Accept Feedback from Participants. 15810.9Contribute to Evaluation Meeting . 15910.10 Summary. 1594

List of AppendicesModule-3 Phase-1: Training Needs Analysis (TNA)Appendix 3-1: Training Outline Setting FormsAppendix 3-2: Sample Training ProposalAppendix 3-3: How to Develop Data Collection TableAppendix 3-4: How to Develop QuestionnaireAppendix 3-5: How to Organise Quantitative DataModule-5 Phase-2: Training Programme Design –Curriculum DesignAppendix 5-1: List of Action VerbsAppendix 5-2: Curriculum ExampleModule-7 Phase-3: Training Resource DevelopmentAppendix 7-1: EL/QPI Course Learner’s WorkbookAppendix 7-2: EL/QPI Course Facilitator’s GuideAppendix 7-3: Sample of Standard Formant of Leaner’s GuideAppendix 7-4: Activity CatalogueAppendix 7-5: Case Study SamplesModule-8 Phase-4: Training Implementation –Training DeliveryAppendix 8-1: Terms of Reference (TOR) of Administrative Support Staff (EL/QPI)Appendix 8-2: Terms of Reference (TOR) of Course Coordinator (EL/QPI)Appendix 8-3: Session Preparation Check SheetAppendix 8-4: Classroom Check ListAppendix 8-5: Instructions for facilitators (EL/QPI)Appendix 8-6: Pre-Course Evaluation Form (EL/QPI)Appendix 8-7: Action Plan Form (EL/QPI)Module-9 Phase-4 Training Implementation –Classroom FacilitationAppendix 9-1: List of IcebreakersAppendix 9-2: List of EnergizersAppendix 9-3: Wrap Up ExamplesModule-10 Phase-5: Training EvaluationAppendix 10-1: In-Course Evaluation Form (EL/QPI)Appendix 10-2: End-Course Evaluation Form (EL/QPI)Appendix 10-3: Facilitator’s Report Form (EL/QPI)Appendix 10-4: Pre and Post Questionnaire SamplesAppendix 10-5: Monitoring Sheet for Action Plan (EL/QPI)Appendix 10-6: Interview Guideline for Impact Survey (EL/QPI)5

IntroductionThis manual provides Facilitators of the Ethical Leadership for Quality ProductivityImprovement Course with fundamental training skills and know-how for an effective coursedelivery. It explains basics of Instructional Design (ID) as systematic training managementand techniques of training delivery that are common to any training course.This isespecially important for new facilitators to obtain basic skills for preparing and facilitatingsessions of the course as well as new training mangers for managing training courses. Thisis also useful for experienced facilitators and managers because this part will enable them toreview the experiences of facilitation and management in a systematic manner and improvetheir skills.It includes many appendices to support application of knowledge to actual context.6

Effective Training Management and Training Delivery TechniquesLearning pointThis manual provides facilitators and training managers with information on how todevelop, deliver and manage training activities in an effective manner, using theinstructional design approaches. The modules are in accordance with the ADDIEProcess, i.e. 1) Training Needs Analysis, 2) Design, 3) Resource Development, 4)Implementation and 5) Evaluation with introductory module of Human ResourceDevelopment frameworkYou will learn what training is in reference to the HRD framework, the outline ofADDIE Process Model and how to apply it to actual training programmes in eachphase of the ADDIE process. These are the common knowledge and skills requiredfor quality training. By learning these, you will be able to manage training as wellas design and facilitate your session(s) in an effective manner based on the IDapproaches.List of modulesModule-1: Human Resource Development (HRD) FrameworkModule-2: ADDIE Process ModelModule-3: Phase-1: Training Needs AnalysisModule-4: Instructional Design BasicsModule-5: Phse-2: Training Programme Design -Curriculum DesignModule-6: Phse-2: Training Programme Design -Lesson Plan DevelopmentModule-7: Phase-3: Training Resource DevelopmentModule-8: Phase-4: Training Implementation-Training DeliveryModule-9: Phase-4: Training Implementation-Classroom FacilitationModule-10: Phase-5: Training Evaluation7

Module-1Human Resource Development (HRD) FrameworkYou are hereModule-1Human Resource Development (HRD) FrameworkModule-2ADDIE Process ModelModule-3Phase-1: Training Needs Analysis (TNA)Module-4Instructional Design BasicsModule-5Module-7Phase-2: Training Programme Design –Curriculum DesignPhase-2: Training Programme Design –Lesson PlanDevelopmentPhase-3: Training Resource DevelopmentModule-8Phase-4: Training Implementation –Training DeliveryModule-9Phase-4 Training Implementation –Classroom FacilitationModule-10Phase-5: Training EvaluationModule-6Learning Point of This ModuleIn this module, you will be introduced to the Human Resource Development (HRD)framework within a bigger framework of Human Resource Management (HRM), basedon which training and development activities are developed. Similarly this module willexplain training within the context of HRD to enable you understand that training as asingle factor does not lead to positive results but also requires a favourableenvironment that supports the training towards a positive impact on improvingorganizational performance.At the end of this module, you will be able to Explain what training is within the context of HRD and HRM List key concepts for HRD paradigm shiftList of contents of this module: and HRMTraining and Human Resource Development (HRD)HRD Paradigmfor HRD ProfessionSummary1.1 HRD and HRMHRM is widely understood as a process of managing human talents to achieve organisation’sobjective where as, HRD is understood as a series of organised activities conducted within a8

specified time and designed to produce behavioural change. The table below summarizes acomparison between HRM and HRD.Table: Comparison of HRM and HRDHRMDefinition:HRM is a process of managing humantalents to achieve organisation’s objectiveProcess:1. Recruitment and selection2. Compensation and benefits3. Labour and industrial relations4. Safety & health managementHRDDefinition:HRD is a series of organised activitiesconducted within a specified time anddesigned to produce behavioural changeActivities:1. Training and development2. Performance appraisals management3. Career planning and development4. Change managementSource: “Evolving terms of human resource management and development “, Hashida A., 2009.HRD supports HRMThere are two ways of explaining the relationship between HRD and HRM. One is that HRD isa component of HRM and HRD supports HRM, which was proposed by Guest, 1987. HRD consistsof four components, namely; 1) training and development, 2) performance appraisals andmanagement, 3) career planning and development and 4) change management. These fourcomponents are included in the HRM framework. This is described as the “HRM’s Wheel” asshown below.Figure: HRM’s WheelSource: “Evolving terms of human resource management and development “, Hashida A., 2009.HRD supplements HRMHowever, another explanation describes HRD as supplementing HRM rather than supporting it.9

McGoldrick & Stewart (1996) posited that HRM and HRD are parallel pathways of HRM and HRD bysaying that HRM has the function of recruitment, selection, motivating and rewarding. Whilst,HRD’s function is to provide learning, education and training to the human resources selectedand recruited. This concept is described in the chart below .1.2 Training and Human Resource Development (HRD)As stated earlier, HRD is a series of organised activities conducted within a specified time anddesigned to produce behavioural change. HRD is defined and interpreted in many ways by manyscholars and academicians. Swanson and Holten (2001) defined HRD as “A process for developingand unleashing human experience through organisation development and personal training anddevelopment for the purpose of improving performance.” Mclean & Mclean (2001) defined HRDas “Human resource development is any process or activity that, either initially or over the longterm, has the potential to develop adults’ work-based knowledge, expertise, productivity, andsatisfaction, whether for personal or group/team gain, or for the benefit of an organisation,community, nation or ultimately, the whole community.” M. J. Arul (1989) defined HRD as “HRD isa set of inter-related activities, by which human potentialities are a

Source: Evolving terms of human resource management and development , Hashida A., 2009. HRD supports HRM There are two ways of explaining the relationship between HRD and HRM. One is that HRD is a component of HRM and HRD supports HRM, which was proposed by Guest, 1987. HRD consists

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