Environment - Kerala

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PREFACEObjective of Environment Statistics is to provide information about the environment,its most important changes over time and across locations, and the main factors thatinfluence them. Ultimately, environment statistics aim at providing high quality statisticalinformation to improve knowledge of the environment, to support evidence-based policy anddecision making, and to provide information for the general public, as well as for specificuser groups. Environment statistics are multidisciplinary and cross-cutting, involvingnumerous sources and stakeholdersEnvironment statistics aggregate, synthesize and structure environmental and otherdata according to statistical methods, standards and procedures. It is the role of environmentstatistics to process environmental data into meaningful statistics that describe the state andtrends of the environment and the main processes affecting them. Not all environmental dataare used in the production of environment statistics. The Framework for the Development ofEnvironment Statistics (FDES) provides a framework that marks out environmental data thatfall within its scope and then structures, synthesizes and aggregates them into meaningfulstatistics. Environment statistics support evidence based policy making by enabling theidentification of environmental policy issues and the objective quantification of measures andimpacts of policy initiatives. They strengthen assessments through quantitative metrics,making analyses more robust through the use of timely and comparable data. The mainproducts of environment statistics are detailed tabulated environment statistics series,environmental accounts and environmental indicatorsAs an endeavor to know our environment, the Department of Economics andStatistics, Government of Kerala, has been bringing out the publication. This publication hasbeen categorized into different chapters so as to make it easy for reference. The Departmentwould like to express gratitude to all parties concerned for their co-operation and assistancein providing the required data.This publication is an outcome of earnest effort of Publication Division under theguidance and supervision of Sri. P. V. Babu, Addl. Director (General) comments andsuggestions towards improving future reports would be greatly appreciated.Thiruvananthapuram,27.05.2017V. RAMACHANDRANDIRECTOR GENERAL


C O N T E N TSTABLENO.DESCRIPTIVE ITEMSPAGENOCHAPTER I - ENVIRONMENT AND ENVIRONMENT DEGRADATION1.1Some Impacts of Development Activities on Environment31.2Local, Regional and Global Effects of Pollution41.3Some Major Pollutants and their Sources51.4Air Pollution Sources61.5Water Born Disease and their Causative Factors71.6Pollutants and their related Health Hazards8CHAPTER II - DEVELOPMENT OF ENVIRONMENT STATISTICS IN KERALACHAPTER III - BIODIVERSITY OF KERALA3.1Flora Statistics : Kerala and India223.2Protected Areas243.3Species in major group of plants – India & Kerala273.4Species in Group of Animals283.5Vertebrate Diversity of Kerala293.6Endangered Forest Species in Kerala403.7District wise Forest Area 2013-14433.8Dision wise Forest Area of forest 2013-14443.9Classification of Forest Area 2013-14473.10Classification of forest area according to utilization 2013-14473.11District wise Ecologically Fragile Land Area483.12District wise Forest Cover in Kerala 2013-14493.13Comparitive situation of forest cover in Kerala503.14Distribution of Plantation Area513.15Species wise plantaion area of KFDC523.16Distribution of plantation Area 2013-14533.17Procurement of Minor Forest products54

3.18Biosphere reserves setup in Kerala583.19List of Wildlife Sanctuaries,National Parks593.20District Wise Mangrove Area603.21Marine Fishing Village in Kerala623.22Inland Fishing Villages in Kerala IN 2013-14643.23District Wise Fish Production in Kerala 2013-14653.24Inland Fishery Resources of Kerala 2013-14663.25Marine Fishery Resources of Kerala 2013-1467CHAPTER IV - ATMOSPHERE4.1Air Pollution Monitoring Cities in Kerala704.2District wise wind power installed capacity734.3Monthly mean Relative humidity of observatories in Kerala 2013-14744.4Monthly mean Maximum and Minimum Temperature of Observatories in Kerala2013-14764.5Rainfall Distribution of Kerala for the year 2013-14784.6Rainfall Details for the period of 2013-14794.7District wise Annual Average Rainfall 2013-14804.8Annual Average rainfall data for 2013-14814.9Cumulative Achievement of Bio Gas Plant in Kerala 2013-14824.10Air Quality in Important Cities in Kerala834.11Ambient Air Quality Data 2013-14 Annual Average844.12Ambient Air Quality Standards in Respect of Noise854.13Effects of Noise Pollution in Human Health864.14Major Indicators showing operational efficiency of KSRTC874.15Category-wise Growth of Motor Vehicles in Kerala 2013-14884.16Newly Registered Motor Vehicles in Kerala 2013-14894.17Total Registered Motor Vehicles in Kerala during 2013-14914.18Complying Status of Grossly Polluting Industries 2013-14954.19Generation installed Capacity 2013-1499

4.20Transmission & Distribution Lines 2013-14994.21Generation of Power at different Stations 2013-141004.22Electricity Generating Capacity of Kerala 2013-14 (MW)1014.23Electricity Generating Capacity of Kerala (MU)1014.24Category wise sales of energy in Kerala 2013-141024.25Electricity Generating Capacity, Maximum Demand and Load Factor1034.26The details of Indian standards for maximum permissible limits for industrialeffluent discharges1044.27Average Gaseous composition of Dry Air in the Troposphere1054.28Summary of Health Effects of Basic Air Polutant107CHAPTER V - LAND AND SOIL5.1Gross cropped Area, Net Cropped Area and Cropping Intensity 2013-141135.2Classification of Area on the Basis of Land Utilization 2013-141155.3Net Area Irrigated Source wise 2013-141185.4Gross Area under Irrigation (Crop wise ) 2013-141195.5Area and production of Important Crops in Kerala 2013-141205.6Area, Production, Productivity of Plantation Crops 2013-141215.7Chemical Utilization in Kerala1225.8Soil Types in Kerala - District wise1245.9Mineral wise details of Area covered by Mining Leases1275.10Production and Royalty of Minerals in Kerala 2013-141285.11Heavy Mineral Deposits in Kerala1305.12Heavy Mineral Deposits Oxidised and Unoxidized in Kerala1315.13Graphite deposits in Kerala 2013-141345.14Consumption of Chemical Fertilizers in Kerala 2013-141415.15Out turn of Major Forest Produce 2013-141435.16Total consumtion of all kinds of Wood during 2013-141445.17Out turn of Timbers based on utility 2013-141465.18Kerala’s Major Natural Disasters 2013-141505.19Frequently Occuring Natural Disasters in Kerala 2013-14151

CHAPTER VI - WATER6.1Primary Water Quality Criteria for bathing water1546.2Water Quality Criteria1556.3Storage levels in Reservoirs1566.4Name of Reservoirs1576.5Biological Water Quality Criteria1596.6Navigable Waterways in Kerala1606.7District wise Brackish Water Area in Kerala1616.8Fresh Water Lakes in Kerala1636.9Backwaters in Kerala1646.10List of Major Rivers in Kerala1676.11Minimum and Maximum observed values of Water Quality Parameters at PWDsites and River Stations1696.12Watersheds during 2012-13 and 2013-141756.13District wise Distribution of Coast Line of Kerala1776.14Summary of Major Components of Dynamic Ground Water Resources of Kerala1806.15Annual Ground Water Recharge 2010-111816.16Ground Water Monitoring Wells in Kerala1826.17Physical achievements under Ground Water Development Schemes 2013-141846.18District wise polulation covered by Water Supply scheme 2013-141856.19District and Category wise numbers of Water supply schemes KWA in operation2013-141866.20District wise details of water supply connections and street taps 2013-141886.21District and Category wise on going Water supply schemes during 2013-141896.22District wise Distribution of KWA transferred to Local Bodies 2013-141906.23Jalanidhi I & II On Going water supply schemes 2013-141916.24Jalanidhi I & II District wise population covered by water supply schemes 2013-141926.25Jalanidhi I & II water supply schemes 2013-141936.26Location of Drinking Water Sources1946.27Drinking Water awailability in Kerala – source wise195

CHAPTER VII - HUMAN SETTLEMENTS7.1Profile of Kerala State1987.2Current Population of Kerala1997.3Urban – Rural Number of Households, Total Population, Male, Female2007.4Density of Population by residence 2001-20112017.5District wise Sex-ration from 1901-20112027.6Population Rural and Urban break-up – 2011 Census2037.7District-wise Population in 5 yrs age group2057.8District-wise Population in 5 yrs age group2067.9District-wise Population in 5 yrs age group2077.10District-wise Population in 5 yrs age group2087.11District-wise Population in 5 yrs age group2097.12District-wise Population in 5 yrs age group2107.13Age wise, Sex wise Population 2011 nad Mid year 20142117.14District wise Fisherman Population in Kerala2137.15District wise percentage of Household by number of Dwelling Rooms2147.16District wise Infant Dealth Rates from 2010-132167.17Live Births, Deaths, Infant Deaths and their Rates 2013-142187.18Dsitrict wise Infant Mortality rate by Sex 2013-142217.19Vital Rates at a glance Kerala 2013-14222

Environment Statisticsnvironment Statistics describe the qualitative and quantitative aspects of thestate of the environment and it’s Interaction with human activities and natural eventsby integrating data from a multitude of different subject areas and sources.Environment statistics is an emerging statistical field in official statistics in mostcountries and it is indispensable for evidence based policies and decision making tosupport sustainable development.The Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) experience in India indicatesthat the lack of timely availability of reliable and authentic environmental data hasbeen a major bottle neck in achieving the full benefits of EIA. The environmentsbeing a multi-disciplinary subject, a multitude of agencies are involved in collection ofenvironmental data. However, no single organization in India tracks available datafrom these agencies and makes it available in one place in a form required byenvironmental impact assessment practitioners. Further, environmental data is notavailable in enhanced forms that improve the quality of the EIA. This makes it harderand more time-consuming to generate environmental impact assessments andreceive timely environmental clearances from regulators. With this background, theEnvironmental Information Centre (EIC) has been set up to serve as a professionallymanaged clearing house of environmental information that can be used by MoEF,project proponents, consultants, NGOs and other stakeholders involved in theprocess of environmental impact assessment in India. EIC caters to the need ofcreatinganddisseminatingoforganizeddevelopmental initiatives all over the country.environmentaldataforvarious








CHAPTER - IEnvironment and Environment DegradationIntroductionnvironment Statistics Kerala is aimed to provide statistical information about theenvironment, environmental changes over time in different locations of the State and its impact. Italso support to produce quality statistical information to improve awareness of the environment,give data support to planners and decision makers in this field and to provide information for thegeneral public. Statistical information collected and compiled in this publication is based on thestatistical methods, standards and procedures developed by UNSD’s Frame work for theDevelopment of Environment Statistics (FDES). The role of Environment Statistics is to processenvironmental data into meaningful statistics that bring light on the status and trends of theenvironment and its impact. Environment regulates the life of the organisms including humanbeings that interacting systems of physical, biological and cultural elements which are interlinkedboth individually and collectively.Environment can be defined as the physical surrounding of human being of whom there isa part on which he/she is depended for their activities like physiological functioning, productionand consumption. The physical environment stretches from air, water and land to naturalresources like energy carriers, soil and plants, animals and ecosystems. The deterioration of theenvironment through depletion of resources such as air, water and soil; the destruction ofecosystems and its impact. It is defined as any change or disturbance to the environmentperceived to be undesirable.Environment DegradationEnvironmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment through depletion ofresources such as air, water and soil; the destruction of ecosystems and the extinction of wildlife.It is a process through which the natural environment is compromised in some way, reducingbiological diversity and the general health of the environment. This process can be entirely naturalin origin, or it can be accelerated or caused by human intervocations. When natural habitats aredestroyed or natural resources are depleted, the environment is degraded. Efforts to counteractthis problem include environmental protection and environmental resources management. Air,1

water, and soil are all resources which are vulnerable to depletion through overuse, Scarcity ofnatural resources slow down the sustainable production activity and consumption activities whichdirectly effect the economic development.Factors affecting Environment degradation:1. Destruction of natural resources - Soil erosion, land salinization and the loss of nutrients arethe major result of agriculture development and farming activities. Unscientific agriculturalpractices, over exploitation of water resources, increased rate of usage of fertilizers andpesticides and increased non agricultural use of land resulting land degradation and depletingresources.2. Water pollution and scarcity – Over use of pesticides and fertilizers and unscientific wastedisposals are the major source of contamination of water bodies.3. Deforestation - Expansion of agriculture land, unplanned expansion of cities, industrialization,tourism, etc contribute a lot for the shrinkage of forest area.4. Air pollution - Air Pollution creates problems of acidification, urban air quality deterioration andchronic health problems. Urban air quality deterioration is one of the major concerns of presentday urban life.Social factors:1. Population - Population impacts in the environment is basically due to the excessive use ofnatural resources and unscientific disposal of large quantity of solid and liquid wastes whichresulted in harmful environmental degradation and loss of biodiversity.2. Poverty - Environment degradation linked with poverty mainly due to pressure extended tosurrounding environment for daily livelihood. Continueous exploitation of natural resources tosatisfy the livelihood of the community degraded the environment to an extend which nolonger sustainable and lead to more poverty and environmental related problems such asdeforestation, poor sanitation, air and water pollution, draught, famine, etc.3. Urbanization - Deterioration of air and water quality, generation of waste, rural to urbanmigration, shortage of proper sanitation and housing facilities together contribute to urbanpoverty and environmental degradation. Direct loss in vegetation, biomass from areas withhigh probability of urban expansion contributes about 5% of total emission from tropicaldeforestation and land use change.2

Table : 1.1 Some Impacts of Development Activities on EnvironmentDevelopment ActivitiesForestclearingresettlementsShifting cultivationagricultureandinMajor Impacts on ntal pollution throughdischarge of organic or hazardouswaste to water bodies emission ofgasses that affect air quality andproduce toxic substances.Introduction of new varieties ofcerealsUse of pesticidesTimber extractionUrbanisation and industrializationWater resource projects,Dam, extensive irrigatione.g.Climate change and resultant outcome of extinctionof rare species of flora and fauna, creation ofcondition for mosquito breeding leading to infectiousdiseases such as malaria, dengue etc.Soil erosion in upland areas, soil fertility declinesdue to shorter cultivation cycle. The ore undernatural forest may be declined fragmentation ofhabitant, disappeance of native species andinvation of exotic weeds and other other plants arethe ecological areas of flooding of low land areas.Air pollution due to burning of biogases as fuel insugar mills, large amount of highly polluting organicwastes, surface water pollutionReduction of genetic diversity of traditionalmonoculture resulting in instability, danger ofmultiplication of local strains of fungus, bacteria orvirus on new varietyOrganism develops resistance and new controlmethods are needed (e.g. in malaria, widespreaduse of dieldrin as a prophylactic agent against pestsof oil palms made the problem worse), creation ofcomplex and widespread environment problems.The pesticides used in agriculture sometimes gointo food chain or in water bodies which may resultin harmful health hazards.Degrades land, destroys surface soil, reducesproduction potential of future forests.Concentration of population in urban centers makeshuge demands on production in rural areas and putpressures on land, air and water pollution.Human settlement & resettlement, spread ofwaterborne diseases, reduction of fisheries,siltation, physical changes e.g. temperature,humidity.3

Table : 1.2 Local, Regional and Global effects of PollutionLocal Effects Heavy metals inair, soil, waterand plants, eg.from industrialemissions Discharges Noise Smell Air pollutions UrbanizationRegional Over Marine Waterand ContinentsChanges the climatedue to ozonedepletion and thegreenhouse effect.Eutrophication Eutrophication Contaminants inthe soil & wateLandscapechanges due tomining oragriculture Acidification EnvironmentContamination dueto Radioactivity Climate Change Ozone Depletion4

Table: 1.3 Some Major Pollutants and their SourcesPollutantSourceCarbon monoxideIncomplete fuel combustion (e.g. two/four stroke engines)Sulphur dioxideEmissions by vehiclesSuspended particulate matterSmoke from domestic, industrial and vehicular sources.Oxides of nitrogenFuel combustion of motor vehicles, emission from powerstations and industrial furnacesVolatile hydrocarbonsPartial combustion of carbonaceous fuels (two strokeengines, industrial processes, disposal of solid wastes).Oxidants and ozoneEmissions from motor vehicles, photochemical reactions ofnitrogen oxides and reactive hydrocarbonsLeadEmissions from motor vehicles, Battery industries5

Table: 1.4 Air Pollution alSourcesMajorSourcesMobileSourcesChemical PlantAutomobilesNatural DustStormRefineriesRailwaysVolcanoesPower PlantsAirwaysSea SaltDispersionPaper MillsMetallurgicalIndustryCement PlantsStone CrushersConstructionActivities6

Table : 1.5 Water Born Diseases and their Causative FactorsName of the DiseaseCausative Organism1. Water-borne diseases Bacterial TyphoidGastroenteritisParatyphoidCholeraBacterial dysenteryViralInfectious hepatitisPliomycetisDiarrhea DiseasesOther symptoms of entericDiseasesProtozoan Amoebic dysentery 2. Water-washed diseasesScabiesTrachomaBacillary dysentery3. Water-based diseasesSchistosomiasisGuinea worm4. Infection through water relatedinsect vectorsSleeping sicknessMalaria5. Infection primarily due to defectivesanitationHookwormSalmonella typhiVibrio choleraeSlmondlla parayphiEnterotoxigenic Escherichia coliVariety of Escherichia coliHepatitis-

3.22 Inland Fishing Villages in Kerala IN 2013-14 64 3.23 District Wise Fish Production in Kerala 2013-14 65 3.24 Inland Fishery Resources of Kerala 2013-14 66 3.25 Marine Fishery Resources of Kerala 2013-14 67 CHAPTER IV - ATMOSPHERE 4.1 Air Pollution Monitoring Cities in Kerala 70 4.2 District wise wind power installed capacity 73

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