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An Annotated Bibliography ofPublished Materials on Puerto RicansCompiled and Annotated by Marisa RiveraIowa State UniversityWorking Paper No. 30June 1997

An Annotated Bibliography ofPublished Materials on Puerto RicansCompiled and Annotated by Marisa RiveraIowa State UniversityWorking Paper No. 30June 1997About the Author: Marisa RiveraMs. Rivera is a doctoral candidate in Youth and Human Service Agency Administration at Iowa StateUniversity. She been an Administrative Assistant at the Dean of Students Office (Student Affairs) and for theCollege of Family and Consumer Sciences. She also served as a Research Assistant for the Child Welfare Projectthrough the University of Northern Iowa.She has been both a tutor for elementary students and an advisor for college freshmen.

Julian Samora Research InstituteRefugio I. Rochín, DirectorDanny Layne, Layout EditorMichigan State UniversityEast Lansing, MichiganSUGGESTED CITATIONRivera, Marisa An Annotated Bibliography of Published Materials on Puerto Ricans, JSRIWorking Paper #30, The Julian Samora Research Institute, Michigan State University, EastLansing, Michigan, 1997.The Julian Samora Research Institute is committed to the generation, transmission, and application of knowledge to serve the needs of Latino communities in the Midwest. To this end, it hasorganized a number of publication initiatives to facilitate the timely dissemination of currentresearch and information relevant to Latinos. The Julian Samora Research Institute Working PaperSeries provides a mechanism for the systematic dissemination of public policy oriented researchon issues affecting Latinos in both the United States as a whole, and the Midwest, in particular.The series publishes reports of empirical studies, theoretical analyses, and policy discussionswhich address the changing role of Latinos in relation to economic, political, religious, education,and social institutions.i

An Annotated Bibliography ofPublished Materials on Puerto RicansTable of ContentsIntroduction .1History .1Migration and Population .3Poverty, Social Class, and Social Change .5Education .9Segregation .11Women, Children and Families .12Mental Health .15Assessment and the Puerto Rican Child .18Subject/Author Index .19iii

An Annotated Bibliography of Published Materials on Puerto RicansThis historical perspective of Puerto Rico is oneof the first written in English. It provides an overviewof island culture and people from the island’s discovery to the Spanish-American War. The author is critical of Spain’s rule over Puerto Rico and describes(from an American point of view) the institutions,people, and conditions in Puerto Rico in 1898.IntroductionThe island of Puerto Rico is at the eastern end ofthe Greater Antilles. The island is shaped like a rectangle with a maximum length from east to west of 178kilometers with a width from north to south of 68 kilometers. The total area of Puerto Rico (including theislands of Vieques, Culebra, and Mona Island) is 8,897square kilometers. The population is predominantly ofSpanish and African ancestry, mainly bilingual; withSpanish being the official language (Cevallos, 1985).The Puerto Ricans; A Documentary History.1973 Kal Wagenheim & Olga Jimenez de Wagenheim.New York: Praeger. 332 pps. bibliog.This book covers Puerto Rican history from itsIndian beginnings to its migration and mainlandexperiences. The title is somewhat misleading; thebook is not a historical documentary but rather, a collection of brief essays, articles, and excerpts frommaterial on Puerto Rico.Puerto Rico has been filled with controversy (dueto conflict over status of the island as well as conflictbetween those living on the mainland and thoseremaining on the island) long before United Statesoccupation in 1898. Controversies and conflicts continue and may never cease, however, it is imperativethat attention be given to the difficulties which confront the Puerto Rican of today. As the turn of thecentury quickly approaches and another election yeardraws near, the issues of empowerment and greaterunderstanding of this population become crucial totheir self-actualization.A Chronological History of Puerto Rico.1973 Frederico Ribes Tovar. New York: Plus UltraEducational Publishers. 589 pps.The student, teacher, and general reader will findthis book a useful source of information. It is achronology of over 5,000 names and events from prehistory to 1972. The book focuses on both culture andpolitical history. The language is simple and clear,with a detailed table of contents and index whichenhances usefulness of the book.It is with this in mind that the references in thisannotated bibliography have been chosen. They werecompiled over a four year period which began while Iwas a doctoral student at Iowa State University. Ichose to include references which cover a broad rangeof topics and cover as many aspects of the Puerto Ricanexperience as possible, both historical and present day.The topics included are from the social sciences, economics, and politics. A great effort was made toinclude both scholarly research as well as general interest information for those desiring to become betterinformed about Puerto Rico and its people.Sources For the Study of Puerto Rican History: AChallenge to the Historian’s Imagination.1981 Blanca Silvestrini-Pacheco & Maria de losCastro Arroyo. Latin American ResearchReview, vol. 16. no. 2, pps. 156-71.The content of this article eases the researcher’squest for archival sources on Puerto Rican history available in Puerto Rico, Spain, and the United States. Ofspecial value is the description of municipal and notarial holdings in the general archive of Puerto Rico; foreach town, the authors have listed the extent of the holdings, the availability of a catalogue or inventory, and theavailability of the collection. Furthermore, the articleprovides a list of documentary sources in the PuertoRican collection at the University of Puerto Rico.HistoryThe History of Puerto Rico: From the SpanishDiscovery to the American Occupation.1975 Rudolph Adams Van Middeldyk. The PuertoRican Experience. New York: Arno Press. 318pps. bibliog.1

Puerto Rico, Past and Present: The Island AfterThirty Years of American Rule.1975 Jose Enamorado Cuesta. New York: ArnoPress. 170 pps.includes tables on public health, education, government, public expenditure and revenue, taxation,finance, public employees, public works, banking,trade, manufactures, and agriculture in 1930.This book is written from a socioeconomic perspective and provides a critical account of the first 30years of U.S. occupation. In considering Puerto Rico’seconomy, the author details the harsh conditions of theagricultural laborer, and discusses many of the socioeconomic factors which would later worsen.Puerto Rico and its People.1975 Trumbull White. New York: Arno Press. 383 pps.In 1938, the former Spanish-American war correspondent wrote this journalistic account of Puerto Ricoafter 40 years of American rule. Specifically, theauthor is reviewing the social, economic, and politicalconditions in Puerto Rico. Throughout, the reader willgain an understanding of American attitudes towardsPuerto Rico and a knowledge of the country during thefirst half of the 20th Century. Against general opinion,White considered Puerto Rico worse off in 1938 thanin 1898. He considers the problems of Spanish in theschools as a miscue between two cultures; he also discusses the problems of the Puerto Rican economy anddoes not consider Puerto Rico the island paradise thatothers thought it to be.Puerto Rico; A Socio-historic Interpretation.1972 Manuel Maldonado-Denis. New York: VintageBooks. 336 pps.This book provides the reader with an alternativeview of the history of Puerto Rico. Maldonado-Denisprovides one of the finest Marxist interpretations ofPuerto Rican history. As a strong supporter of independence, the author indignantly expounds on thecolonial status of Puerto Rico by imperialist Spain andimperialist United States. The book was originallypublished in 1969 under the title Puerto Rico: UnaInterpretacion Historico-Social.From Colonia to Community(The history of Puerto Ricans in New York City)1994 Virginia E. Sanchez Korrol. Berkeley:University of California Press. 275 pps.Puerto Rico, a Political and Cultural History.1983 Arturo Morales Carrion. New York: Norton.384 pps. map. bibliog.First published in 1983, this book remains themost comprehensive full-length study documentingthe historical development of the Puerto Rican community in New York. Expanded and updated, theauthor’s work traces the growth of the early PuertoRican settlements, or “colonias,” into the unique,vibrant, and well-defined community that it is today.This book is a comprehensive text published forthe English-language reader and college student.Written by six highly-esteemed Puerto Rican historians, the book covers the period from the island’sIndian beginnings to the 1970’s. The recurring themeof this book is the search for identity and offers a comprehensive view of the political history.Puerto Rican Americans (The Meaning ofMigration to the Mainland)1987 Joseph P. Fitzpatrick. New Jersey: PrenticeHall. 208 pps.Puerto Rico and its Problems.1975 Victor Seldon Clark. New York: Arno Press.707 pps. bibliog.This book looks at the nature of migration andthe long and turbulent history of Puerto Rican newcomers to New York. The author looks at the emergence of two Puerto Rican worlds: one in PuertoRico, the other in the continental United States. Veryclearly written with a descriptive, analytic overviewof the ethnic heritage by an expert in the field ofintergroup relations.This author, formerly the Commissioner ofEducation in Puerto Rico, provides a comprehensivereport of the 1930 Brookings Institution survey of theconditions in Puerto Rico 30 years after Americanoccupation. The survey found that very little hadimproved since U.S. occupation in 1898, and Clarkattributes the lack of progress to overpopulation. Thisbook is written through an American perspective butdespite the author’s biases, the report is thorough; it2

Puerto Rico: A Colonial Experiment1984 Raymond Carr. New York: Vintage Books.477 pps.Puerto Rico: A Case Study of Population Control.1977 Bonnie Mass. Latin American Perspectives,vol. 4. no. 4 (Fall), pps. 66-81. bibliog.The author provides a comprehensive analysis ofthe Puerto Rican-U.S. relationship. It is a rich andunderstanding examination of the problems inherentin living with - and loosening - the bonds between asuperstate and a quasi-colonial possession. The bookis divided into two parts. The first describes the colonial period and the evolution of Puerto Rico’s presentrelationship with the United States. The second treatsevents and issues between the election campaign of1980 and mid-1982.The author regards the use of sterilization in PuertoRico as ‘imperialist social control.’ From her socialistperspective, she argues that the United States supportedsterilization as a means to halt the immigration ofPuerto Ricans to the United States, to control massiveunemployment, and to control the composition of thepopulation. This point of view is a thought-provoking,alternative analysis of the birth control issue.Puerto Rico: Recent Trends in Fertility andSterilization.1980 Harriet B. Presser. Family Perspectives, vol.12, no. 2 (March-April), pps. 102-107. bibliog.Puerto Rico and Puerto Ricans (Studies in Historyand Society)1974 Adalberto Lopez & James Petras, Ed. NewYork: Halstead Press. 499 pps.Abrief analysis, with statistical data, of the factorswhich may have contributed to the decline in PuertoRican fertility since 1950. Some factors were theprevalence of female sterilization, the increased use ofcontraceptives, abortion, and an increase in the proportion of single women of all ages between 1960-70.This book is a compilation of essays, poetry, literature, and scholarly articles written almost entirelyby Puerto Ricans, and covering almost every aspectof their island. The main objectives of this volumeare to trace the Hispanic roots of the Puerto Ricanculture; to explore the tangled relationships betweenPuerto Rico and the U.S. since 1898, and to explorerelationships among the Puerto Rican people.Colonialism, Catholicism, and Contraception: AHistory of Birth Control in Puerto Rico.1983 Annette B. Ramirez de Arellano & Conrad Seipp.Chapel Hill, North Carolina; London: Universityof North Carolina Press. 219 pps. bibliog.Migration & PopulationBirth control has been a hotly debated issue inPuerto Rico. This publication captures the intensityof the confrontation within the context of shiftingsocial, cultural, political, and economic conditionsprevalent on the island. The title succinctly states theperspective of the authors; birth control was caughtbetween Puerto Rico’s colonial relationship to theUnited States and the island’s Catholic heritageresulting in a classic battle between church and state.People and events are well-chronicled in this historyof birth control.Modernization, Delayed Marriage and Fertility inPuerto Rico: 1950-1970.1976 Klaus de Albuquerque, Paul D. Mader, &William F. Stinner. Social and EconomicStudies (Jamaica), vol. 25. no. 1 (March), pps.55-65. bibliog.Although dated, the data represented in thisresearch shows a significant longitudinal study of therelationship between urbanization, education, and fertility. Based on the authors’analysis of municipal-levelcensus data, the increase in urbanization was not relatedto declining fertility, and surprisingly, increased femaleeducation was negatively related to delayed marriages.3

Puerto Rican Return Migration in the 70’s.1979 Frank Bonilla & Hector Colon Jordan.Migration Today, vol. 7 (Apr.), pps. 7-12.Social Dynamics of Return Migration to PuertoRico.1975 Celia Fernandez de Cintron & Pedro A. Vales.Rio Piedras: Centro de InvestigacionesSociales, Universidad de Puerto Rico.This brief article provides a much-needed historical context for Puerto Rican return migration in the1970’s. It serves as a reminder that at least 40% ofthe immigrants arriving between 1890 and 1910returned to their homeland; therefore, the return toPuerto Rico cannot be considered a new phenomenon. Bonilla argues, from a socialist viewpoint ofworker struggle and oppression, that Puerto Ricanmigration was always part of a circulating dispersalof workers for capitalist gain, and return migrationwas always a component of the migration movement.An interesting and sobering presentation of migrationand re-return phenomena.This study isolates the sociological factors whichencompass the process of Puerto Rican migration.Answers to the following questions were sought bythe authors: what motivated a Puerto Rican tomigrate in the first place and then to return; what arethe socioeconomic characteristics of Puerto Ricanmigrants during different stages of the migrationprocess; and what do migration and return migrationmean? The authors found, among other things, thatfor males, the prime reason for migration is economic; for females, the reason for migration is personal. Return migration is influenced by family ties.Effects of Migration on Children.1980 Joseph O. Prewitt-Diaz, Robert T. Trotter &Vidal A. Rivera, Jr. The Education Digest,Ethnographic Data and Recommendations.(April).Mental Health of Two-way Migrants: FromPuerto Rico to the United States and Return.1985 Joseph O. Prewitt-Diaz & Juris G. Draguns.Paper presented at the Circum-MediterraneanRegional Conference: “Ethnic Minority andImmigrant Research.” (June).The report served to determine if the informantsutilized in the authors’ ethnography perceived the factors that affected the performance of children currentlybeing served by migrant education programs. Theaccounts recorded and their interpretations suggest theexistence of “the culture of migrancy.” This report contains the primary results of approximately 3,000 hoursof interviews with migrants in the United States.Discussed in this paper are the mental healthneeds of two-way migrants from Puerto Rico to theUnited States and back again. The four factors affecting Puerto Rican migrants are outlined. First, the relationship between migration and stress is considered.It is noted that by migrating away from stressful economic conditions, the Puerto Rican encounters evenmore stressful cultural and social conditions. Second,migration has a disruptive effect on the family cycle.This is discussed in terms of changing family roles,exposure to different cultural behavior, separation ofhusband from the rest of the family, and the problemsof “neo-ricans,” United States-born children of returnmigrants. The third factor discussed is howAmericanization causes a greater emphasis on personal achievement, school adjustment, acculturation,and orientations rather than focusing on the family.The authors conclude that the impact of migration,integration, and acculturation on the mental health ofthe Puerto Rican migrant and return migrant needs tobe systematically evaluated.Why Puerto Ricans Migrated to the United Statesin 1947-1973.1976 Rita M. Maldonado. Monthly Labor Review,vol. 99, no. 9 (Sept.), pps. 7-18.The author uses regression analysis to test thehypothesis that Puerto Ricans migrated to the UnitedStates because of employment opportunity, income,welfare payments, and unemployment compensationpayments. The author concludes that in the period1947-67, unemployment and income explain most ofthe migration to the United States; since 1967, othernon-economic variables have become more important in influencing migration.4

Divided Borders: Essays on Puerto Rican Identity.1993 Juan Flores. Arte Publico Press:Houston, Texas.groups share high rates of poverty and social dislocation, these high rates are generated through differentmechanisms and for different reasons. Very comprehensive and thought-provoking.This book is a collection of essays encompassinghistory, literature, and culture by this celebrated commentator. The book extends the whole concept ofPuerto Rican culture beyond the island to the working class communities in New York and the EastCoast as well as the interaction with AfricanAmericans and with workers’ movements.Is There a Hispanic Underclass?1989 Joan Moore. Social Science Quarterly, vol. 2 (June), pps. 265-283.It is now quite clear that poverty in this countryis serious and persistent. Further, the proportion ofpoor people has — with some fluctuation — risenbetween 1977 and 1987. For Hispanics, it grew from22.4% in 1977 to 28.2% in 1987 (U.S. Bureau of theCensus, 1988). This is alarming, so much so thatrecently some social scientists have been suggestingthat minority poor might possibly represent a realclass, a proletariat, inflexible, enduring, and in short,an “underclass.” In this article the author takesWilson’s theory of the underclass and reviews thepertinent literature on Hispanics to assess whetherlong-standing Hispanic poverty can be conceptualized using Wilson’s model.Puerto Rican Migration and OccupationalSelectivity, 1982-1981.Edwin Melendez. International MigrationReview, vol. 33. no. 1, pps. 49-67.This study addresses the likelihood of whether ornot Puerto Rican workers migrating to the UnitedStates depends on their occupations or skills. The studyfound that the occupational composition among PuertoRicans migrating from the island to the United Statesgenerally corresponds to the occupational distributionin Puerto Rico. However, after controlling for labormarket conditions in Puerto Rico and in the UnitedStates and for other characteristics of the migrants,farm workers, laborers, and craft and kindred workersare overrepresented in the flow of migrants. The factors that are most important in contributing to the occupational distribution of migrants are whether or notthey already have job offers in the United States andwhether they are currently employed in Puerto Rico.Among those returning to Puerto Rico, the study foundneither positive nor negative occupational selectivity.Hispanic Population of the United States.1987 Frank D. Bean & Marta Tienda. The Populationof the United States in the 1980’s A CensusMonograph Series. National Committee forResearch on the 1980 Census. Russell SageFoundation, New York.This book is a compilation of topics which spansvirtually all the major features of American society asthey pertain to Hispanics in the United States. Forexample, ethnic groups, migration, neighborhoods,housing income families and households, to name afew. The primary source of information for this bookwas the 1980 U.S. Census as well as previous censuses and subsequent national data.Poverty, Social Class, and Social ChangeLatinos, Poverty and the Underclass: A NewAgenda for Research.1993 Hispanic Journal of Behavioral Sciences, vol.15. no. 4 (Nov.), pps. 449-475.During the 1980’s scholars interested in Hispanicissues sought to advance research by ensuring thatLatinos were included in the ongoing debate on theurban underclass. In this article, Massey argued thatBlacks and Latinos differ in such fundamental waysthat the underclass model which was developed primarily to describe the situation of inner-city Blackscannot legitimately be employed to understand thesocial and economic problems of contemporaryHispanic groups in the United States. Although both5

Geographic Differentials in the SocioeconomicStatus of Puerto Ricans: Human CapitalVariations and Labor Market Characteristics.Maria E. Enchautegui. International MigrationReview, vol. 26. no. 4, pps. 1267-1289.Puerto Rican Participation in Job Opportunitiesand Basic Skills (JOBS) Programs. A PreliminaryAssessment.1992 National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc.Washington, D.C. (Nov.).The role of human capital and labor market characteristics in explaining geographical and individualdifferentials in socioeconomic outcomes of PuertoRican women are examined in this article. The bettersocioeconomic performance of Puerto Ricans outsidethe Northeast can be in part related to their largeramount of human capital. Labor market characteristicsalso play a role, but their effects are generally small.Net of other characteristics, Northeast residencereduces labor force participation, increases femaleheadship, but reduces welfare use. Of all groups examined, recent migrants from Puerto Rico located in theNortheast show the poorest socioeconomic outcomes.This report presents the findings of a preliminaryassessment of the strengths and weaknesses of JobOpportunities and Basic Skills (JOBS) programs, thewelfare-to-work centerpiece of the Family SupportAct, in moving Puerto Rican welfare recipients closerto the goal of self-sufficiency.Moving From the Margins: Puerto Rican YoungMen and Family Poverty.1993 National Council of La Raza. Washington,D.C. (Aug.).This report contains the first-year findings of theNational Council of La Raza (NCLR) Puerto RicanYoung Men and Poverty Project. This report documents the current socioeconomic status of mainlandPuerto Ricans and underscores the need to focus bothpolicy attention and community-based efforts to helpreduce Puerto Rican poverty. It is suggested thatunderstanding and improving the socioeconomic status of young Puerto Rican men and their familiesthrough a combination of self-help, communitybased, and public policy strategies can offer important information on how to address other facets ofpoverty in the U.S., including urban poverty and thepoverty of female-headed families.The Cultural Dichotomy of Colonial People1982 Hector R. Bird. Journal of the AmericanAcademy of Psychoanalysis, vol. 10. no. 2(Apr.), pps. 195-209. bibliog.Using Puerto Rican society as an example, thisarticle adds to the understanding of the development ofa colonial society. The author discusses the principlesof individual development in the colonial process; andhe presents a perspective of Puerto Rican society.Workforce Readiness and Wage Inequality:Public/ Private Perspectives.1992 National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc.Washington, D.C. (July).Parental Work, Family Structure, and PovertyAmong Latino Children.1995 Daniel T. Lichter & Nancy S. Landale. Journalof Marriage and the Family, vol. 57 (May),pps. 346-354.This article evaluates the extent to which differences in the economic well-being of Latino and nonLatino White children reside in divergent parentalwork patterns and/or family living arrangements.This was done using recently-released data from the5% Public Use Microdata Sample of the 1990 U. S.Census. The results indicate that group differences infamily structure undermine efforts to eliminate racialand ethnic inequalities in children’s economic wellbeing. The study found that among Puerto Ricansand African Americans, the high proportions of children living in female-headed families account forover 50% of the difference in poverty from nonLatino Whites. Parental work patterns are moreThis report is a result of a conference held inNovember 1991 addressing policy issues, activities,and organization dealing with the renewal and revitalization of Puerto Rican communities in the hopesof illustrating what can be done when holisticapproaches that include linkages and partnershipsbetween corporations, community-based organizations, and government agencies are established.6

important among Latinos than Blacks in accountingfor the high poverty rates of children. They explainroughly 40% of the poverty gap between Latino andnon-Latino White children in female-headed families, although substantial variation exists acrossLatino groups. The analysis indicates that policiesnarrowly designed to “strengthen the family” or topromote maternal employment without regard towage levels will neither eliminate inequality nor havesimilar ameliorative effects on child poverty acrossracial and ethnic groups.The Question of Color in Puerto Rico.1974 Thomas G. Mathews. In: Slavery and RaceRelations in Latin America. Edited by RobertBrent. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. pps.299-323. map. bibliog.This article reviews literature on slavery andfinds it lacking with regard to prejudice. There isalso discussion on Spanish slavery, racial composition in Puerto Rico, and examples of racial discrimination. The author believes it is a mistake to believethere is no racial prejudice in Puerto Rico and statesfurther that the worst kind of prejudice is the beliefthat there is none at all.Explaining the Growth of Puerto Rican Poverty,1970-1980.George Galster & Anna M. Santiago. UrbanAffairs Quarterly, vol. 30. no. 2, pps. 249-274.The Black Puerto Rican: An Analysis of RacialAttitudes.1974 William W. Megenny. Phylon, vol. 35. no. 1,pps. 83-93. bibliog.Cross-metropolitan variations in Puerto Ricanpoverty are examined, using an instrumental variables regression model. The analyses highlight therole of residential segregation and economic restructuring on Puerto Rican poverty from 1970 to 1980.Decomposition of changes during the 1970’srevealed that the primary sources responsible forincreased Puerto Rican poverty rates were structural:Poverty grew stronger as a result of segregation andthe ability of manufacturing employment and selfemployment to attenuate poverty grew weaker.Based on interviews with blacks throughout theisland and at different socioeconomic levels, the authorconcludes that Puerto Rican blacks do not feel thattheir color and race impede their social mobility.According to the blacks he interviewed, interracialmixing has blurred color prejudice; therefore, they feelracially and socially accepted and relatively equal towhite Puerto Ricans. This article represents a counterbalance to the work of Betances and Mathews.Social Anthropology in Puerto Rico.1978 Ronald J. Duncan. Revista/Review Interamericana, vol. 8. no. 1 (Spring), pps. 3-64. bibliog.A Demographic Profile of Puerto Ricans in theUnited States.1992 National Puerto Rican Coalition, Inc.Washington, D.C. (Nov.).The seminal social anthropological study “Thepeople of Puerto Rico” (1956) by Julian H. Stewardis re-evaluated in this special issue. The methodology used in the study has been severely criticized.The six papers in this issue examine different aspectsof the study. Sidney Mintz, a contributor to theSteward study, considers the role of Puerto Rico inmodern social science; Eric R. Wolf, a contributor tothe Steward study, comments on the work; WilliamRosebery considers the relationship betweenMarxism and anthropology; Rafael L. Ramirez considers anthropology within the context of change insocial sciences since 1940; Rene Velazquez examinesSteward’s emphasis on materialism; and Ronald J.Duncan rounds off the presentation with a discussionof the ‘culturing system’ concept.This profile provides a description of the demographic and socioeconomic conditions of the PuertoRican community in the United States as of 1990. Itis intended to serve as an aid in understanding thedemographic, social, and economic conditions of thePuerto Rican community and in setting priorities forpolicies affecting the community.7

Puerto Ricans in the U.S.: A Changing Society1994 Francisco L. Rivera-Bati

An Annotated Bibliography of Published Materials on Puerto Ricans Compiled and Annotated by Marisa Rivera Iowa State University W orking Paper No. 30 June 1997 About the Author: Marisa Rivera Ms. Rivera is a doctoral candidate in Youth and Huma

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