Disposal Of Capital Assets - Kaplan

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ADVANCED BOOKKEEPINGDisposal of capital assetsIntroductionWhen a capital asset or non-current asset is disposed of there are avariety of accounting calculations and entries that need to be made.Firstly, the asset being disposed of must be removed from the accountingrecords as it is no longer controlled. In most cases the asset will bedisposed of for either more or less than its carrying value leading to aprofit or a loss on disposal which must be accounted for.Finally, the fact that the asset has been disposed of must be recorded inthe non-current asset register.In most examinations you will be required to put through the accountingentries for the disposal of a capital asset (i.e. a non-current asset) and torecord the disposal in the non-current asset register.ASSESSMENT CRITERIACONTENTSRecord disposals of non-currentassets (2.4)123KAPLAN PUBLISHINGAccounting for thedisposal of capitalassetsPart-exchange ofassetsDisposals and the noncurrent asset register

11.1Accounting for the disposal of capital assetsIntroductionWhen a capital or non-current asset is sold then there are two mainaspects to the accounting for this disposal:Firstly the existing entries in the ledger accounts for the asset beingdisposed of must be removed as the asset is no longer controlled.Secondly there is likely to be a profit or loss on disposal and this must becalculated and accounted for.1.2Removal of existing ledger account balancesWhen an asset is sold, the balances in the ledger accounts that relate tothat asset must be removed. There are two such balances:(a)the original cost of the asset in the non-current cost account(b)the depreciation to date on the asset in the accumulated depreciationaccount.In order to remove these two balances we must do the following:Step 1Open a disposal account.Step 2Transfer the two amounts to the disposal account.Step 3Enter any proceeds from the sale of the asset in the disposal account.Definition – Disposal accountThe disposal account is the account which is used to make all of theentries relating to the sale of the asset and also determines the profit orloss on disposal.1.3Profit or loss on disposalThe value that the non-current is recorded at in the books of theorganisation is the carrying value, i.e. cost less accumulated depreciation.However this is unlikely to be exactly equal to the amount for which theasset is actually sold. The difference between these two is the profit orloss on disposal.KAPLAN PUBLISHING

123ADVANCED BOOKKEEPING Cost of assetXLess: accumulated depreciation(X)–––Carrying valueXDisposal proceeds(X)–––(Profit)/loss on disposalX–––If the disposal proceeds are greater than the carrying value a profit hasbeen made, if the proceeds are less than the carrying value a loss hasbeen made.Example 1A non-current asset cost 14,000The accumulated depreciation on this asset is 9,600.This asset has just been sold for 3,800.(a)What is the profit or loss on disposal?(b)Write up the relevant ledger accounts to record this disposal.Solution(a) CostAccumulated depreciation––––––Carrying valueProceeds––––––Loss on disposal––––––KAPLAN PUBLISHING

(b)Step 1Determine the cost and accumulated depreciation ledger accountbalances for this asset.Non-current asset Balance b/dAccumulated depreciation Balance b/dStep 2Open the disposal account and transfer balances on the above twoaccounts.CostDebitDisposal accountCreditNon-current asset accountAccumulated depreciationDebitAccumulated depreciationCreditDisposal accountNon-current assetBalance b/d 14000–––––– �–Accumulated depreciation –––––– ��––Balance b/dDisposal KAPLAN PUBLISHING

125ADVANCED BOOKKEEPINGStep 3Enter the proceeds in the disposal account and balance thedisposal account with the profit/loss on disposal.Disposal 14000CostAccum Deprec ��––––––––Note 1:The loss of 600 is credited to the disposal account tobalance the account. The corresponding debit is in thestatement of profit or loss and represents the loss on thedisposal.Note 2:The profit or loss on disposal can actually be calculated asthe balancing figure in the disposal account: if there is a debit entry to balance the account then thisis a profit on disposal which is credited to the SPL asincome if there is a credit entry to balance the account then thisis a loss on disposal which is debited to the SPL as anadditional expense.KAPLAN PUBLISHING

1.4JournalAs with the acquisition of non-current assets, the journal or journalvoucher is used as the book of prime entry. The journal voucher for thisentire disposal is shown as follows:Journal entryDateNo: 2344 JulyPrepared byAuthorised byAccountCodeDisposals0240Motor vehicles cost0130Motor vehicles acc. dep’n0140Disposals0240Cash at bank (receipts)0163Disposals0240Debit Credit TotalsKAPLAN PUBLISHING

ADVANCED BOOKKEEPING22.1Part-exchange of assetsIntroductionThere is an alternative to selling a non-current asset for cash, particularly ifa new asset is to be purchased to replace the one being sold. This is oftenthe case with cars or vans where the old asset may be taken by the sellerof the new asset as part of the purchase price of the new asset. This isknown as a part-exchange deal.2.2Part-exchange deal valueWhen a part exchange deal takes place the seller of the new asset willplace a value on the old asset and this will be its part-exchange value.Example 2A new car is being purchased for a list price of 18,000. An old car ofthe business has been accepted in part-exchange and the paymentrequired for the new car is 14,700.What is the part-exchange value of the old car?Solution List pricePayment required––––––Part-exchange value––––––2.3Accounting for the part-exchange valueThe part-exchange value has two effects on the accounting records:(a)it is effectively the sale proceeds of the old asset(b)it is part of the full cost of the new asset together with the balancepaid (whichever method of payment is applicable).The double entry for the part exchange value is: credit the disposal account as these are the effective proceeds of theold asset debit the new asset cost account as this value is part of the total costof the new asset.KAPLAN PUBLISHING127

Example 3Suppose Nigel had part exchanged his van for a new one.The old van had cost 2,000 and depreciation amounted to 1,500.The garage gave him an allowance of 700 against the price of the newvan which was 5,000. He paid the balance by cheque.Show all the accounting entries for the disposal of the old van and theacquisition of the new van.SolutionStep 1Transfer balances from van and accumulated depreciation accounts tothe disposal account.Old van Balance �––––––––Accumulated depreciation Balance �––––––––Disposal Note: We have closed off the van and accumulated depreciationaccount to make the entries clearer.KAPLAN PUBLISHING

129ADVANCED BOOKKEEPINGStep 2Open a new van account and enter in it:(a) the part exchange value ( 700) from the disposal account; and(b) the balance of the cost of the new van ( 4,300).The 700 part exchange value is also credited to the disposal accountas the effective proceeds of the old van.Disposal 2000Old VanAccum Deprec 1500New van Step 3Balance the accounts(a)Close the disposal account to the statement of profit or loss with aprofit of 200 being recorded.(b)Bring down the total cost ( 5,000) of the new van.Disposal 2000Old VanAccum DeprecNew Van ��–––––––––New van ��–KAPLAN PUBLISHING Balance c/d––––––––––––

Note 1:You could put all the entries in the one van account. It wouldlook like this.Motor vanBalance b/dDisposalBankBalance b/d �–5000DisposalBalance c/d �KAPLAN PUBLISHING

131ADVANCED BOOKKEEPING33.1Disposals and the non-current asset registerIntroductionWhen a non-current asset is disposed of then this must be recorded notonly in the ledger accounts but also in the non-current asset register.Example 4Date �ddepreciationb/f at 1.1.X8 Date of DepreciationAccum’dDisposal Loss/disposalcharge indepreciation proceeds gain on20X8c/fdisposal34010234136Bookcase ��KAPLAN PUBLISHING

Using the non-current asset register example we will now complete theentries for the chair (serial number 278) being disposed of.The disposal proceeds are 15.The profit or loss must also be entered into the non-current asset register andthe total of all of the profits or losses should equal the amount transferred tothe statement of profit or loss for the period.Solution(W1) ative dep’nCVProceedsLossDate of Invoicepurchase e of Depreciation Accum’dDisposal Loss/gaindepreciation disposal charge in depreciation proceeds on disposalb/d at 1.1.X820X8c/d 34010234136Bookcase –––––––844170 �–––––(129)––––The result will be that the disposed asset of will have a zero balance in thenon-current asset register at the end of the accounting period.KAPLAN PUBLISHING

ADVANCED BOOKKEEPING KAPLAN PUBLISHING Introduction When a capital asset or non-current asset is disposed of there are a variety of accounting calculations and entries that need to be made. Firstly, the asset being disposed of must be removed from the accounting records as it is no longer controlled. In most cases the asset will be disposed of for either more or less than its carrying value .

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