Impact Assessment Study Of Kenya Postbank SMATA Youth .

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Impact Assessment Study of Kenya PostbankSMATA Youth Savings Accounts: Building onYouthSaveBaseline Study Report

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportAuthors:Fred M. SsewamalaInternational Center for Child Health and Asset Development (ICHAD) &Center for Social Development (CSD)Gwyneth Kirkbride, Evah Mwangi and Sarah MeyerInternational Center for Child Health and Asset Development (ICHAD)Githinji Njenga and Joseph KieyahKenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA)Research Collaborators:International Center for Child Health and Asset Development (ICHAD) at Columbia UniversityCenter for Social Development (CSD) at Washington University in St. LouisKenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA)Columbia Population Research Center (CPRC)The Interdisciplinary Center for Innovative Theory and Empirics (INCITE) at ColumbiaUniversityKenya Post Office Savings BankSave the Children, Kenya2 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportACKNOWLEDGMENTS:The authors would like to thank our research partners at the Center for Social Development(CSD) at Washington University in St. Louis; Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research andAnalysis (KIPPRA); Kenya Post Office Savings Bank; and Save the Children, Kenya. With aspecial thanks to Michael Sherraden, Director CSD, for additional funding support from CSD.We would like to express our gratitude to the Kenya research team including all interviewers,and data entrants. We extend our gratitude to ICHAD team members Proscovia Nabunya(University of Chicago School of Social Service Administration), Christopher Ddamulira(ICHAD Field Office, Uganda) and Laura Bermudez (ICHAD, New York Office) for helpingwith data cleaning and report formatting. We also thank former ICHAD team member Vilma Ilicfor her work on various aspects of the study.We express our sincerest thanks to all of the adolescents and caregiving families for theirparticipation in the Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATA Youth SavingsAccounts: Building on YouthSave. We would also like to thank the administration of the 90participating primary schools for allowing us to conduct the study in their schools; and theKenya Post Office Savings Bank Branches for working with us on mobilizing the participatingyouth and their families.Funding:This research is funded by Columbia University's International Center for Child Health andAsset Development (ICHAD), the Center for Social Development (CSD) at WashingtonUniversity, The Interdisciplinary Center for Innovative Theory and Empirics (INCITE),Columbia Population Research Center (which in turn is funded by NICHD through award#P2CHD058486), The Interdisciplinary Center for Innovative Theory and Empirics (INCITE) atColumbia University, and Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA).The study builds on the findings from decade-long Suubi-Uganda youth economic empowermentprograms led by Fred Ssewamala, and YouthSave, a five-year consortium project created inpartnership with The MasterCard Foundation and led by Save the Children with the participationof the Center for Social Development at Washington University in St. Louis, the New AmericaFoundation, and CGAP ( Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportKENYA YOUTHSAVE IMPACT STUDY TEAMPrincipal Investigator:Fred M. Ssewamala, Director International Center for ChildHealth and Asset Development (ICHAD); Professor ofSocial Work and International Affairs at ColumbiaUniversity in New York & Faculty Associate, Center forSocial Development (CSD).Co-Investigators:Joseph Kieyah, Principal Policy Analyst, Head of DivisionKIPPRA; Githinji Njenga, Policy Analyst, KIPPRA.In Country Collaborators:David Gatawa, Head of Marketing, Kenya Post OfficeSavings Bank; Kasio Mutuku, Marketing Department,Kenya Post Office Bank.Corrine Ngurukie and Victoria Ndolo formerly at Save theChildren, Kenya.Columbia University ICHAD:Sarah Meyer, Research Coordinator, ICHADGwyneth Kirkbride, Research AssociateKenya In Country Research Team: Evah Mwangi, Kenya in country project coordinatorAmos MutembeiFridah E. MuriukiJohn Keen KinyuaMaryanne LenjoMichael OjudiNicholas MwauraPriscilla MumbiRogers MusamaliRose NginahSamual NgangaStanley Kaponda KinyuaFinancial Institution:Kenya Post Office Savings BankSchools:Al-Huda Primary SchoolBomet Township Primary SchoolBul Primary SchoolChuka Township Primary SchoolDEB Kangaru Primary SchoolEgesieri Primary SchoolEmbu County Primary SchoolEnomaatasian Primary SchoolFrere Town Primary SchoolGarrison Primary SchoolGeneral Kago Primary SchoolHighlands Primary SchoolKabati Primary SchoolKaitheri Primary SchoolBahari Primary SchoolBomu Primary SchoolCentral Primary SchoolDEB Chuka Primary SchoolDEB Nyahururu Primary SchoolEldama Ravine Day & Boarding Primary SchoolEmbu Urban Primary SchoolFahari Primary SchoolGakoigo Primary SchoolGatumaini Primary SchoolGitothua Primary SchoolHoly Ghost Mission Primary SchoolKabete Vet Lab Primary SchoolKajiado Township Primary School4 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportKaloleni Primary SchoolKangundo DEB Primary SchoolKarira Primary SchoolKathithyamaa Primary SchoolKengeleni Primary SchoolKiambu Primary SchoolKbaoni Primary SchoolKilanlani Primary SchoolKirigu Primary SchoolKissi Primary SchoolKwashee Primary SchoolLenana Primary SchoolMakongeni Primary SchoolManera Primary SchoolMbagathi Road Primary SchoolMoto Primary SchoolMtomondoni Primary SchoolMuthurwa Primary SchoolNdumberi Primary SchoolNgurubani Primary SchoolNyambera Primary SchoolNyeri Primary SchoolRagati Primary SchoolSaina Primary SchoolShimo La Tewa Primary SchoolSt. Georges Primary SchoolSt. Mary’s Primary SchoolSt. Patrick Shimoni Primary SchoolTemple Road Primary SchoolThika School for the BlindUthiru Primary SchoolKambala Primary SchoolKaptembwa Primary SchoolKasimba Primary SchoolKegogi Primary SchoolKeroka Primary SchoolKiamwangi Primary SchoolKibiko Primary SchoolKirigo Primary SchoolKissi Campus Primary SchoolKiu River Primary SchoolLangata Road Primary SchoolMakande Primary SchoolMama Ngina Primary SchoolMasikonde Primary SchoolMoi Primary SchoolMtepeni Primary SchoolMurang’s Technology Primary SchoolNdagani Primary SchoolNgarenaro Primary SchoolNyamachaki Primary SchoolNyamira DEB Primary SchoolOyugis Primary SchoolRuiru Primary SchoolSare Primary SchoolSony Sugar Primary SchoolSt. Mary’s Mixed Primary School BometSt. Patrick Giligil Primary SchoolSt. Patricks Primary School KerichoThiba Primary SchoolTownship Primary School KerichoVidhu Ramji Primary School5 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportTable of ContentsExecutive Summary . 9Acronyms . 131. The Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATA: Introduction andRationale . 142.Demographics. 193.Community Background . 214.Family Background . 225.Psycho-Social Issues . 236.Family Relations/Cohesion . 237.Social Support . 278.Educational Parameters . 309.Attitudes About Savings . 3610.HIV/AIDS . 4111.Personal Health . 4312.Psycho-Social Measures. 4413.Poverty . 4614.Education and Employment Background for Caregivers . 4915.Youth Risk Behavior. 5116.Sexual Risk Behavior . 5217.Self-Efficacy . 5618.Wrap-up Questions . 5819.End Notes . 5820.Conclusion . 59References . 60APPENDIX A – EXTENDED TABLES. 646 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportList of TablesTable 2.1 Demographic Characteristics of Study SampleTable 3.1 Walking Time in Minutes to Community ResourcesTable 3.2 Community SatisfactionTable 6.1 Family CohesionTable 7.1 Basic Social SupportTable 7.2 Respondents’ safest placeTable 7.3 Social Support NetworkTable 7.4 Non-Kin Support NetworksTable 8.1 Class/GradeTable 8.2 Communicating About SchoolTable 8.3 Repeated ClassesTable 8.4 School-life Satisfaction ScaleTable 8.5 Pediatric Quality of LifeTable 8.6 Experience in Last School TermTable 8.7 Top Ten Desired Professions by GenderTable 8.8 Respondents Belief in How Far They Will Really Go in School by GenderTable 8.9 Care and Like for Future SelfTable 9.1 Savings LocationsTable 9.2 Parent/Guardian(s) Communication Regarding Financial IssuesTable 9.3 What Would Child do if Given 200 KSh by GenderTable 9.4 Sources Child has Learned about Saving and InvestingTable 9.5 Attitudes about Spending and SavingsTable 9.9 Confidence in Ability to SaveTable 10.1 HIV/AIDS Prevention AttitudesTable 11.1 Personal Health by GenderTable 13.1 Poverty Measures by GenderTable 13.2 Family AssetsTable 14.1 Top 10 Jobs of Financial SupportersTable 14.2 Education Levels of Financial SupportTable 15.1 Substance Abuse by GenderTable 16.1 Sexual Experience by GenderTable 16.3 Peer and Parent/Guardian PressureTable 16.8 Sexual Attitudes by GenderTable 16.9 Last Time had SexTable 19.1 How Respondent AnsweredTable A.1 Community Satisfaction - Individual AnswersTable A.2 Family Cohesion – Individual AnswerTable A.3 Child-Caregiver Communication – Individual Answers7 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportTable A.4 Discussion of Risk Behaviors/Sensitive Issues – Individual AnswersTable A.5 Level of Comfort Discussing Risk Behaviors/Sensitive IssuesTable A. 6 Social Support NetworkTable A.7 School-Life Satisfaction Scale – Individual AnswersTable A. 8 Pediatric Quality of Life – Individual AnswersTable A.9 Plans for Money and Monitoring of SpendingTable A.10 Financial Management KnowledgeTable A.11 Attitudes about Spending and Savings – Individual AnswersTable A.12 Importance of Saving – Individual AnswersTable A.13 Confidence in Ability to Save – Individual AnswersTable A.14 HIV/AIDS Prevention Attitudes – Individual AnswersTable A.15 HIV Knowledge Part 1/HIV Transmission – Individual AnswersTable A.16 HIV Knowledge Part 2/General Knowledge – Individual AnswersTable A.17 Adapted CDI – Individual AnswersTable A.18 Adapted Tennessee Self-Concept Scale – Individual AnswersTable A.19 Adapted Beck’s Hopelessness – Individual AnswersTable A.20 Sexual Attitudes – Individual AnswersTable A.21 Adapted Child and Youth Self-Efficacy Assessment – Individual AnswersList of FiguresFigure 1.1 Kenya Population Pyramid 2015Figure 1.2 Kenya MapFigure 1.3 Baseline Consort Flow ChartFigure 3.1 Distance to Community Resources (%)Figure 6.1 Frequency of Discussion on Sensitive Topics and Risk Behaviors withParents/CaregiversFigure 6.2 Level of Comfort and Frequency of Discussion on Sensitive Topics and RiskBehaviors with Parents/CaregiversFigure 9.1 Importance of Saving %Figure 10.1 HIV Knowledge Part 1/HIV Transmission %Figure 10.2 HIV Knowledge Part 2/General KnowledgeFigure 12.1 Adapted Tennessee Self-Concept ScaleFigure 17.1 Self-Efficacy Scale8 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline ReportExecutive SummaryThis report presents pre-intervention survey data collected from 3,965 Kenyan youth residing inthe Mt. Kenya, Nairobi, Coast region, Rift Valley and Western regions. Impact AssessmentStudy of Kenya Postbank SMATA Youth Savings Accounts (hereafter: SMATA Study) aims tomeasure the long-term impact of youth savings accounts on developmental outcomes of younggirls and boys. This includes the impact on household finances, and on youth’s overall wellbeing (educational, employment opportunities, health and mental health, sexual risk takingbehavior, alcohol and substance use behavior, and family stability outcomes). The preintervention data reported here encompasses several aspects of respondents’ lives: demographics;community and family background; psycho-social issues and measurements; familyrelations/cohesion; social support; education; health issues including HIV/AIDs; risky behaviors;poverty; and attitudes about savings. The survey utilized in this study contained existingevidence-based measures as well as standardized, adapted and original scales and itemsdeveloped specifically for low-income youth in Sub-Saharan Africa.The following key findings are highlights from the baseline survey: Community Background: Respondents reported the distance from their home to avariety of local institutions including banks, hospitals, water sources and schools. Slightlyover 60% of respondents reported being “near” or “very near” a bank, but 11.3% ofrespondents indicated they “don’t know” the distance to the nearest bank. Respondentsreported a fairly high overall satisfaction with the communities in which they live (meanscore of 33.25; theoretical range of the scale was 8 to 40, with higher scores indicatinghigher community satisfaction). Family Background: Over 93% of respondents reported having lived in their currenthome for one or more years (mean of 6.9 years). Most respondents reported both parentsas living, with 86.5% reporting their father “still living” and 95.3% reporting their mother“still living.” Family Relations/Cohesion: Respondents reported fairly high family cohesion (meanscore of 33.53; theoretical range of the scale was 5 to 40, with higher scores indicatinghigher family cohesion). Respondents indicated a moderately high level ofcommunication between themselves and parent/guardian(s) (mean score of 64.57;theoretical range was 18 to 90, with higher scores indicating higher communicationlevels). Respondents were most comfortable speaking with parent/guardian(s) regardingeducation, future plans and bad friends. They were least comfortable speaking withparent/guardian(s) about marriage, sex, STDs, cigarettes and alcohol. Social Support: Over 97% of respondents reported having someone to help them whenthey have a problem, but only 59.4% reported having someone to talk about a romantic9 Page

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline Reportpartner. The total mean score on this measure was high at 97.81 (theoretical range was 23to 115, with higher scores indicating higher social support). Educational Parameters: 100% of respondents were enrolled in school in Primarygrades 5 through 7. Most were in Primary grade 6 (90.5%) followed by Primary grade 5(6.0%) and Primary grade 7 (1.5%). Just over 40% of respondents reported havingrepeated a grade at some point. The most frequently repeated grade was grade 1 (24.4%)followed by grade 3 (19.6%). Satisfaction with school was high (mean score of 32.8;theoretical range on this measure was 8 to 40, with higher scores indicating higher schoolsatisfaction levels).Almost all respondents (99.6%) indicated a plan to attend secondary school, with 54.2%believing they will go to university and 37.4% believing they will go beyond universityto graduate school. Attitudes About Savings: Just under 45% of respondents currently have some sort ofsavings. Most kept their savings outside of established formal financial institutions (e.g.,banks or SACCOs). Only 11.6% reported using a bank and 0.8% using a SACCO. Justover half (55.2%) of respondents discuss the importance of savings withparent/guardian(s). The least talked about financial topic among respondents andparent/guardian(s) was using credit. Only 8.1% reported discussing the topic of how touse credit. When asked what they would do if given 200KSh, responses varied fromspend half, save half (37.6%) to save all of it (24.1%) and save most of it (22.2%).The most common sources for information on saving and investing were family (69.4%),multimedia (46.0%), school (37.3%) and friends (29.8%). Most respondents indicatedthey did not know enough about savings (57.3%). Overall attitudes about spending andsavings were moderately positive (mean score of 29.96; theoretical range was from 8 to40, with higher scores indicating more positive attitudes about spending and saving).Respondents indicated moderately high confidence in their ability to save (mean score of22.96 points; theoretical range was 6 to 30, with higher scores indicating higherconfidence in ability to save). HIV/AIDS: The HIV transmission knowledge measure found that although mostrespondents were conversant with the way HIV/AIDS is transmitted (e.g., the majoritywere aware that sharing needles and having unprotected sex were unsafe; and thatholding hands was safe); many respondents were unable to dispel the myth surroundingkissing and HIV/AIDS transmission. Most respondents (78.3%) believed that kissingsomeone with HIV was unsafe.10 P a g e

Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATABaseline Report Personal Health: Most respondents were either extremely satisfied (25.1%) or verysatisfied (57.8%) with their overall life. A majority also indicated that their presentphysical health was either excellent (25.6%) or good (57.5%).Several respondents reported taking medication on a daily basis primarily due toheadache, coughing, asthma and/or HIV/AIDS. Psycho-Social Measures: Child depression inventory (CDI) scores were low (meanscore of 2.53; theoretical range of 0 to 28, with lower scores indicating lower depressionlevels).The mean total score for the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale (TSCS) was 77.38, indicatingrelatively high levels of positive self-concept (theoretical range is 18 to 90, with higherscores indicating higher positive self-concept).The total mean score on the Becks Hopelessness scale was 1.90, indicating low levels ofhopelessness (theoretical range is 0 to 20, with lower scores indicating low levels ofhopelessness). Pov

St. Georges Primary School St. Mary’s Mixed Primary School Bomet . Temple Road Primary School Thiba Primary School Thika School for the Blind Township Primary School Kericho Uthiru Primary School Vidhu Ramji Primary School . Impact Assessment Study of Kenya Postbank SMATA

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