The Media Of Mass Communication - Pearson

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A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 1 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .The Media of MassCommunicationETWELFTH EDITIONALJohn VivianNOTFORRESWinona State University330 Hudson Street, NY, NY 10013

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 2 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .Full-Service Project Manager: iEnergizer Aptara , Ltd.Compositor: iEnergizer Aptara , Ltd.Printer/Binder: LSC/ManashaCover Printer: Phoenix ColorCover Design: Lumina DatamaticsCover Art: MacrovectorPortfolio Manager: Ashley DodgeContent Producer: Carly CzechPortfolio Manager Assistant: Anna AustinContent Producer Manager: Maureen RichardsonArt/Designer: iEnergizer Aptara , Ltd.Digital Studio Course Producer: Elissa Senra-SargentAcknowledgments of third party content appear on page 285, which constitutes an extension of thiscopyright page.Copyright 2017, 2013, 2011 by Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates. All Rights Reserved. Printed inthe United States of America. This publication is protected by copyright, and permission should be obtainedfrom the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in anyform or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise. For information regarding permissions, request forms and the appropriate contacts within the Pearson Education Global Rights &Permissions department, please visit www.pearsoned.com/permissions/.PEARSON, ALWAYS LEARNING, and REVEL are exclusive trademarks owned by Pearson Education, Inc.,or its affiliates, in the U.S. and/or other countries.ALEUnless otherwise indicated herein, any third-party trademarks that may appear in this work are the propertyof their respective owners and any references to third-party trademarks, logos, or other trade dress are fordemonstrative or descriptive purposes only. Such references are not intended to imply any sponsorship,endorsement, authorization, or promotion of Pearson’s products by the owners of such marks, or anyrelationship between the owner and Pearson Education, Inc., or its affiliates, authors, licensees, or distributors.ESLibrary of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication DataNOTFORRNames: Vivian, John author.Title: The media of mass communication / John Vivian, Winona State University.Description: Boston : Pearson, 2016. Includes bibliographical references and index.Identifiers: LCCN 2016025354 ISBN 9780133931211 ISBN 0133931218Subjects: LCSH: Mass media. Mass media—Technological innovations. Mass media—Social aspects. Communication—Technological innovations. Mass media and culture.Classification: LCC P90 .V53 2016 DDC 302.23–dc23 LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/201602535410 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1Books a la CarteISBN-10:0-13-393121-8ISBN-13: 978-0-13-393121-1

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 3 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .Brief Contents9Advertising 1522Media Technology 1610Mass Audiences 1723Media Economics 3911Mass Media Effects 1904Cybermedia 5912Governance and Mass Media 2095Legacy Media 7513Global Mass Media 2276News 9814Mass Media Law 2457Entertainment 11915Mass Media Ethics 2588Public Relations NOTFORR136E1ALMass Media Literacy ES1iii

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A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 5 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .ContentsPreface xiAbout the Author xv1.4445566Mediated Communication1.3.1 Traditional Forms of Communication1.3.2 Communication Through Mass Media1.3.3 Communication Through Social Media7779Literacy for Media Consumers1.4.1 Linguistic Literacy1.4.2 Visual Literacy1.4.3 Film Literacy22.12.22.32.42.5Media Technology3101011123030313334343435353638Media Economics39Financial Foundations3.1.1 Capitalism3.1.2 Revenue Streams3.1.3 Investors40404042Ownership Structures3.2.1 Conglomerate Dominance3.2.2 Conglomerate Behavior3.2.3 Divestiture434446463.3Media Economic Patterns3.3.1 Invention3.3.2 Entrepreneurship3.3.3 Industry3.3.4 Maturation3.3.5 Denial4647474949493.4Rethinking Media Ownership3.4.1 Ownership Alternatives3.4.2 University Media Generators3.4.3 Family Ownership525254543.13.213131415NOSummary: Mass Media Literacy TAssessing Media Messages1.5.1 Fundamentals of Media Literacy1.5.2 Spheres of Media Literacy1.5Summary: Media Technology EPurposeful Mass Communication1.2.1 To Inform1.2.2 To Persuade1.2.3 To Entertain1.2.4 To Enlighten1.2.5 Overlapping PurposesTechnology and Mass Communication2.6.1 Lasswell Model2.6.2 Values and Limitations of Models2.6.3 Concentric Circle Model of Communication2.6.4 21st-Century Models2.6AL23334ES1.3Media Exposure1.1.1 Media Usage1.1.2 Concurrent Media Usage1.1.3 Inescapable Symbiosis1.1.4 Being an Empowered Media ConsumerSemiconductorInternet OriginalsMedia ConvergenceMedia ArchitectureInternet-Delivered CommunicationR1.21R1.1Mass Media LiteracyFO12.5.32.5.42.5.52.5.62.5.716Media Technology2.1.1 Technology Dependence2.1.2 Evolving Media Landscape1818183.5Printing Technology2.2.1 Movable Metal Type2.2.2 Gutenberg’s Impact2.2.3 Industrial Revolution Effects2.2.4 Print–Visual Integration2020212222Funding Alternatives3.5.1 Government Role3.5.2 Government Issues3.5.3 Philanthropy3.5.4 Fund Drives55555656563.6Chemical Technology2.3.1 Photography2.3.2 Movies232324New Media Funding3.6.1 Advertising and Subscriptions3.6.2 Hybrid Mix575757Electrical Technology2.4.1 Electricity as Transformational2.4.2 Recording2.4.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum25252626Current Technologies2.5.1 Orbiting Satellites2.5.2 Back to Wires282829Summary: Media Economics 44.1CybermediaChanging Media Landscape4.1.1 Media Convergence4.1.2 Delivery Platforms4.1.3 Industry Realignments4.1.4 Age of Pixelation57596060616162v

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 6 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .vi ContentsJobs’ Historical Model4.3.1 Computer Revolution4.3.2 Internet Revolution4.3.3 Digital Lifestyle64656565User-Generated Content4.4.1 Blogging4.4.2 Social Networking4.4.3 Messaging4.4.4 Texting66666769704.5Online Commerce4.5.1 Sales Sites4.5.2 Product Downloads and Streaming7171724.6Online Dominance4.6.1 Assessing Target Audiences4.6.2 Behavioral Targeting7273734.34.4Summary: Cybermedia 56.2.375102Rethinking News Models6.3.1 Hutchins Model6.3.2 Changing News Dynamics6.3.3 New Platforms and Dynamics6.3.4 Hybrid News Models1051051051061066.4Values That Shape News6.4.1 News Judgment6.4.2 Personal Values1071081086.5Variables Affecting News6.5.1 News Hole6.5.2 News Flow6.5.3 News Staffing6.5.4 Audience Expectations6.5.5 Competition1091091101101111126.6Journalism Trends6.6.1 Newsrooms in Transition6.6.2 Nonstop Coverage6.6.3 Live News6.6.4 Exploratory Reporting6.6.5 Soft News11311411511511611774Legacy MediaBennett Model Flaws6.3E62626364ALNew Audience Engagement4.2.1 Push–Pull Models4.2.2 Limitless Archiving4.2.3 InteractivitySummary: News ES4.271185.1Mass Media as Industries5.1.1 Legacy Industries5.1.2 Transformation of Print Industries7676775.2Business Models5.2.1 The Business of Newspapers5.2.2 Organization of Media Industries7878785.3Ink-on-Paper Industries5.3.1 Newspapers5.3.2 Magazines5.3.3 Books5.4Sound Media Industries5.4.1 Recording5.4.2 Intellectual Property Issues5.4.3 Radio858585875.5Motion Media Industries5.5.1 Movies5.5.2 Television5.5.3 Movie–Television Meld5.5.4 Strength through Trade Groups89899194947.4Platform-Neutral Future5.6.1 Legacy Media under Siege5.6.2 Legacy Media Prospects969696Sports as Media Entertainment7.4.1 Mass Audience for Sports7.4.2 Audience and Advertiser Confluence7.4.3 Televised Sports1271271281287.5Sex as Media Content7.5.1 Adult Entertainment7.5.2 Decency Requirements7.5.3 Sexual Content and Children1291291301307.6Artistic Values7.6.1 Media Content as High Art7.6.2 “High,” “Low,” “Greater,” and“Lesser” (Not Really) Art7.6.3 Evaluating a Range ofMedia Content7.6.4 Pop Art Revisionism131131Summary: Legacy Media 66.16.2NewsConcept of News6.1.1 News as Change6.1.2 NewsworthinessBennett News Model6.2.1 James Gordon Bennett6.2.2 Bennett Model ComponentsR7.1797981821227.2Storytelling7.2.1 Genres of Literature7.2.2 Media-Defined 41241251261261279798999999100100101119Mediation of Entertainment7.1.1 Entertainment as Mass Media7.1.2 Technology-Driven Entertainment7.1.3 Authentic and ative Effect on CultureRockabilly RevolutionRock ‘n’ RollMusic of DissentRise of RapSummary: Entertainment 120120121132133134134

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 7 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .Contents8Public Relations10136Mass Audiencesvii172Public Relations Scope8.1.1 Public Relations Industry8.1.2 The Work of Public Relations13613713710.1 Discovering Mass Audiences10.1.1 Audience Research Evolution10.1.2 Survey Industry1731731738.2Public Relations in Context8.2.1 Public Relations and Advertising8.2.2 Public Relations in News1381391398.3Roots of Public Relations8.3.1 Social Darwinism8.3.2 Ivy Lee8.3.3 Public Relations on a Massive Scale8.3.4 Corporate Public Relations14014014114214310.2 Audience Measurement Principles10.2.1 Probability Sampling10.2.2 Quota Sampling10.2.3 Evaluating Surveys10.2.4 Latter-Day Straw Polls175175177177178Public Relations as Strategy8.4.1 Strategic Communication8.4.2 Integrated Marketing14314414410.3 Measuring Audience Size10.3.1 Newspaper and Magazine Audits10.3.2 Broadcast Ratings10.3.3 Criticism of Ratings10.3.4 Engagement Ratings179179179180181Public Relations Tactics8.5.1 Promotion8.5.2 Image Management8.5.3 Crisis Management14414414514610.4 Audience Measurement Techniques10.4.1 Basic Tools10.4.2 Internet Audience Measures10.4.3 Mobile Audience Measures181182183184Contingency Planning8.6.1 Advocacy8.6.2 Tarnished Image8.6.3 Ethics: Standards and Certification14714714915010.5 Measuring Audience Reaction10.5.1 Focus Groups10.5.2 Galvanic Skin Checks10.5.3 Prototype Research18518518518610.6 Audience Analysis10.6.1 Demographics10.6.2 Cohort Analysis10.6.3 Geodemographics10.6.4 Psychographics187187187188188Summary: Media Audiences 1899Advertising152Importance of Advertising9.1.1 Consumer Economies9.1.2 Advertising and Prosperity9.1.3 Advertising and Democracy153153153154FO9.1151RSummary: Public Relations AL8.6ES8.5R8.4E8.111Mass Media Effects190Origins of Advertising9.2.1 First Advertisements9.2.2 Technology Dependence9.2.3 The Creative Revolution15515515515611.1 Effects Theories11.1.1 Bullet Model11.1.2 Minimalist Model11.1.3 Cumulative Model1911911911929.3Advertising Agencies9.3.1 Pioneer Agencies9.3.2 Agency Compensation1581581589.4Media Plans9.4.1 Campaigns and Placement9.4.2 Online Placement and VirtualMarketing15915911.2 Lifestyle Effects11.2.1 Socialization11.2.2 Living Patterns11.2.3 Intergenerational Eavesdropping1921931931941619.5Brand Strategies9.5.1 Brand Names9.5.2 Brand Images9.5.3 Brand Types16116216216411.3 Attitude Effects11.3.1 Influencing Opinion11.3.2 Role Models11.3.3 Stereotypes194195195196Advertising Tactics9.6.1 Lowest Common Denominator9.6.2 Redundancy Techniques9.6.3 Testimonials9.6.4 Addressing Ad Clutter9.6.5 Buzz Advertising16516516616616716711.4 Cultural Effects11.4.1 Historical Transmission of Values11.4.2 Contemporary Transmission of Values11.4.3 Cultural Imperialism19619719719811.5 Behavioral Effects11.5.1 Motivational Messages11.5.2 Subliminal Messages20120120111.6 Media-Depicted Violence11.6.1 Learning About Violence11.6.2 Media Violence as Positive2022022039.6NOT9.2Summary: Advertising 171

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 8 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .viii ContentsMedia Violence as NegativeCatalytic ModelSocietally Debilitating EffectsMedia Violence and YouthTolerance of ViolenceGovernance and Mass Media2092431412.2 Media–Government Tension12.2.1 Media Influence on Governance12.2.2 News Coverage of Government12.2.3 Media Obsessions21221221421512.3 Government Manipulation12.3.1 Influencing Coverage12.3.2 Trial Balloons and Leaks12.3.3 Stonewalling21721721821912.4 Political Campaigns12.4.1 Cyclical Coverage12.4.2 Tracking Polls12.4.3 Role of Commentary22022022022012.5 Courting Campaign Coverage12.5.1 Campaign Tactics12.5.2 Creating Coverage Opportunities12.5.3 Limiting Access221222222223NOTSummary: Governance and Mass Media 14.1 Censorship14.1.1 Free Expression14.1.2 First Amendment in Context14.1.3 Common Sense and FirstAmendment14.1.4 Incitement Standard22522713.1 Mass Media and Nation-States13.1.1 Authoritarianism13.1.2 Libertarianism22822823013.2 War as a Libertarian Test13.2.1 Combat Reporting13.2.2 Embedded Reporters23223323313.3 Online Global Reform13.3.1 Whither Nation-States13.3.2 Whither Mega-Corporations23423423613.4 Trans-Border Soft Diplomacy13.4.1 Afghanistan Media-Building13.4.2 Trans-Border Propaganda13.4.3 Voice of America13.4.4 Trans-Border Blockages23723723823923913.5 Arab Media Systems13.5.1 Diverse Media Structures13.5.2 Al-Jazeera13.5.3 Media as Totalitarian Tool13.5.4 Dubai Media Incorporated24024024024124124524624624724724714.2 First Amendment Expansionism14.2.1 Literature and FirstAmendment14.2.2 Amusement and First Amendment14.2.3 Emotive Speech14.2.4 Hate Speech14.2.5 Expressive Speech24925025025025014.3 Government Regulation14.3.1 Federal Communications Commission14.3.2 Federal Trade Commission25125125114.4 Indecency14.4.1 Pornography Versus Obscenity14.4.2 Protecting Children25225225214.5 Intellectual Property14.5.1 Copyright14.5.2 Consumer Rights25325325414.6 Defamation14.6.1 Libel as a Concept14.6.2 Reckless Disregard14.6.3 Comment and Criticism255255255256R223223224FO12.6 Campaign Messages12.6.1 Message Strategies12.6.2 Precision TargetingMass Media LawR210210211Global Mass MediaSummary: Global Mass Media 20712.1 Media-Governance Structure12.1.1 Fourth Estate12.1.2 Watchdog Function13242242243E1213.6 China Media13.6.1 Chinese Policy13.6.2 Chinese CensorshipALSummary: Mass Media Effects mary: Mass Media Law 15249257Mass Media Ethics25815.1 The Difficulty of Ethics15.1.1 Prescriptive Ethics15.1.2 Conflict of Duties25925926015.2 Media Ethics15.2.1 Media Commitment15.2.2 Audience Expectations26126126215.3 Moral Principles15.3.1 Golden Mean15.3.2 Reciprocity Principle15.3.3 Utilitarian Ethics15.3.4 Pragmatic Ethics15.3.5 Egalitarian Ethics15.3.6 Social Responsibility26226226326326326426415.4 Process Versus Outcome15.4.1 Deontological Ethics15.4.2 Teleological Ethics15.4.3 Situational Ethics265265265267

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 9 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .Contents26726826915.6 Ethics, Law, and Practicality15.6.1 Ethics and Law15.6.2 Accepted Practices15.6.3 Prudence and Ethics15.6.4 Misrepresentation269270270270270Summary: Mass Media Ethics 272Glossary 273References 280Credits 285Index 287NOTFORRESALE15.5 Potter’s Box15.5.1 Four Quadrants15.5.2 Intellectual Satisfactionix

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A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 11 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .PrefaceT Updated case studies in each chapter, providing students with real-world examples about a range of dynamics within the discipline of Mass Communications. Updated photographs and graphs, providing studentswith better visuals to enhance learning. Updated writing style, increasing readability.REVEL ESALEEducational technology is designed for the way today’sstudents read, think, and learn. When students are engageddeeply, they learn more effectively and perform better in theircourses. This simple fact inspired the creation of REVEL: animmersive learning experience designed for the way today’sstudents read, think, and learn. Built in collaboration witheducators and students nationwide, REVEL is the newest,fully digital way to deliver respected Pearson content.REVEL enlivens course content with media interactives and assessments—integrated directly within the authors’ narrative—that provide opportunities for studentsto read about and practice course material in tandem. Thisimmersive educational technology boosts student engagement, which leads to a better understanding of conceptsand improved performance throughout the course.Learn more about Rhe mass media was in a rapid, dizzying changein 1991 when I first wrote The Media of Mass Communication in an attempt to help college studentsmake sense of it all. Since then, the change has acceleratedexponentially. Indeed, newspapers were still a reigningmedium back then. Facebook inventor Mark Zuckerbergwas a second grader. By the day, it seems, the change ismore rapid, more dizzying—and more exciting and fascinating. As an author, my task is greater than ever to makesense of it all.Through The Media of Mass Communication and a growing network of colleagues who have adopted the book, myreach as a teacher has been extended far, far beyond theconfines of my own classroom. There are editions in several countries, including Canada, China, and Indonesia. Inall, The Media of Mass Communication has been published in24 variations over the years, each revised specifically to keepstudents up-to-speed with ever-changing media dynamics.I am indebted deeply to professors and their students, whopepper me almost daily with their reactions to the book andwith news and tidbits to keep the next edition current.Most gratifying to me is the community that hasgrown up around The Media of Mass Communication. Theseare people, many of whom have become valued friends,whose thoughts have made the book an evolving and interactive project. In countless messages, professors haveshared what works in their classes and how it might workelsewhere. Students write me the most, sometimes puzzledover something that deserves more clarity, sometimes withexamples to illustrate a point. All of the comments, questions, and suggestions help add currency and effectivenessto every new edition.New to This Edition Updated content on new trends in the Mass Communication fields, which will aid students in understandingthe evolution of the Mass Communications and relateddisciplines. New content on the impact of social media on MassCommunications, providing students with a greaterunderstanding of how new technologies have influenced the field. Increased focus on professions within the fields of MassCommunications, including advertising and marketing, enabling students to better explore career optionsAvailable Instructor ResourcesThe following instructor resources can be accessed in theleft-hand navigation of REVEL under “Resources” or byvisiting http://www.pearsonhighered.com/irc: Instructor Manual includes chapter summary, outline,discussion questions, and writing assignments to support the Media Counterpoints feature. PowerPoint Presentation presents learning objectives, available line art, key talking points, and discussion notes for in-class lecture support. Fully ADAcompliant. Test Bank contains 1,000 questions including multiplechoice, short answer, and essay. MyTest Create custom quizzes and exams using theTest Bank questions. You can print these exams forin-class use. Visit: http://www.pearsonhighered.com/mytestxi

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 12 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .xii PrefaceFO Patricia Cambridge, Ohio UniversityEALRRI am indebted to my students and colleagues at my academichome, Winona State University, who made contributionsin ways beyond what they realize. I am indebted too tomany students elsewhere who have written thoughtfulsuggestions that have shaped this edition. They includeNiele Anderson, Grambling State University; KrislynnBarnhart, Green River Community College; MichelleBlackstone, Eckerd College; Mamie Bush, WinthropUniversity; Lashaunda Carruth, Forest Park CommunityCollege; Mike Costache, Pepperdine University; ScottDeWitt, University of Montana; John Dvorak, BethanyLutheran College; Denise Fredrickson, Mesabi RangeCommunity and Technical College; Judy Gaines, AustinCommunity College; James Grades, Michigan StateUniversity; Dion Hillman, Grambling State University;Rebecca Iserman, Saint Olaf University; Scott Wayne Joyner,Michigan State University; David Keys, Citrus College;Chad Larimer, Winona State University; Amy Lipko, GreenRiver Community College; Christina Mendez, CitrusCollege; Nicholas Nabokov, University of Montana; AndrewMadsen, University of Central Florida; Scott Phipps, GreenRiver Community College; Colleen Pierce, Green RiverCommunity College; June Siple, University of Montana;and Candace Webb, Oxnard College.I am grateful to reviewers who provided guidance forthis new edition of The Media of Mass Communication:Danae Clark, University of Pittsburgh; Jeremy Cohen,Stanford University; Michael Colgan, University of SouthCarolina; Ross F. Collins, North Dakota State University;Stephen Corman, Grossmont College; James A. Danowski,University of Illinois, Chicago; David Donnelly, Universityof Houston; Thomas R. Donohue, Virginia CommonwealthUniversity; John Dvorak, Bethany Lutheran College;Michele Rees Edwards, Robert Morris University;Kathleen A. Endres, University of Akron; Glen Feighery,University of Utah; Celestino Fernández, University ofArizona; Donald Fishman, Boston College; Carl Fletcher,Olivet Nazarene University; Laurie H. Fluker, SouthwestTexas State University; Kathy Flynn, Essex CountyCollege in Newark, New Jersey; Robert Fordan, CentralWashington University; Ralph Frasca, University ofToledo; Judy Gaines, Austin Community College; MaryLou Galician, Arizona State University; Andy Gallagher,West Virginia State College; Ronald Garay, Louisiana StateUniversity; Lisa Byerley Gary, University of Tennessee;Donald Godfrey, Arizona State University; Tom Grier,Winona State University; Neil Gustafson, Eastern OregonUniversity; Donna Halper, Emerson College; PeggyHolecek, Northern Illinois University; Anita Howard,Austin Community College; Jason Hutchens, Universityof North Carolina at Pembroke; Elza Ibroscheva,Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville; Carl Isaacson,Sterling College; Nancy-Jo Johnson, Henderson StateUniversity; Carl Kell, Western Kentucky University;Mark A. Kelley, The University of Maine; Wayne F. Kelly,California State University, Long Beach; Donnell King,Pellissippi State Technical Community College; WilliamL. Knowles, University of Montana; John Knowlton,Green River Community College; Sarah Kohnle, LincolnLand Community College in Illinois; Jennifer Lemanski,University of Texas-Pan American; Charles Lewis,Minnesota State University, Mankato; Lila Lieberman,Rutgers University; Amy Lignitz, Johnson CountyCommunity College in Kansas; Amy Lipko, Green RiverCommunity College; Larry Lorenz, Loyola University;Sandra Lowen, Mildred Elley College; Linda Lumsden,Western Kentucky University; John N. Malala, CookmanCollege; Reed Markham, Salt Lake Community College;Maclyn McClary, Humbolt State University; Daniel G.McDonald, Ohio State University; Denis Mercier, RowanCollege of New Jersey; Timothy P. Meyer, University ofWisconsin, Green Bay; Jonathan Millen, Rider University;Bruce Mims, Southeast Missouri State University; JoyMorrison, University of Alaska at Fairbanks; GeneMurray, Grambling State University; Richard Alan Nelson,Kansas State University; Thomas Notton, University ofWisconsin—Superior; Judy Oskam, Texas State University;David J. Paterno, Delaware County Community College;Terri Toles Patkin, Eastern Connecticut State University;ESAcknowledgments Michael Cavanagh, University of Illinois atTSpringfieldNO Thomas Gardner, Westfield State College Nancy Jennings, University of Cincinnati Eungjun Min, Rhode Island College Lynn C. Owens, Peace CollegeI also appreciate the suggestions of other colleagues whosereviews over the years have contributed to the book’ssuccess: Edward Adams, Brigham Young University;Ralph D. Barney, Brigham Young University; ThomasBeell, Iowa State University; Ralph Beliveau, University ofOklahoma; Robert Bellamy, Duquesne University; ElDeanBennett, Arizona State University; Lori Bergen, WichitaState University; Michelle Blackstone, Eckerd College; BobBode, Western Washington University; Timothy Boudreau,Central Michigan University; Bryan Brown, Missouri StateUniversity Cambridge, Ohio University; Jane Campbell,Columbia State Community College; Dom Caristi, BallState University; Michael L. Carlebach, University ofMiami; Meta Carstarphen, University of North Texas;Michael Cavanagh, University of Louisiana at Lafayette;

A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 13 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .PrefaceSharri Ann Pentangelo, Purdue University; DeborahPetersen—Perlman, University of Minnesota—Duluth;Tina Pieraccini, State University of New York at Oswego;Leigh Pomeroy, Minnesota State University, Mankato;Mary-Jo Popovici, Monroe Community College; ThomPrentice, Southwest Texas State University; Hoyt Purvis,University of Arkansas; Jack Rang, University of Dayton;John Reffue, Hillsborough Community College; BenjaminH. Resnick, Glassboro State College; Rich Riski, PeninsulaCollege; Ronald Roat, University of Southern Indiana;Patrick Ropple, Nearside Communications; MarshelRossow, Minnesota State University, Mankato; JuliaRuengert, Pensacola Junior College; Cara L. Schollenberger,Bucks County Community College; Quentin Schultz,Calvin College; Jim Seguin, Robert Morris College; SusanSeibel, Butler County Community College; Todd Simon,Michigan State University; Ray Sinclair, University ofAlaska at Fairbanks; J. Steven Smethers, Kansas StateRESALEUniversity; Karen A. Smith, College of Saint Rose; MarkSmith, Stephens College; Howard L. Snider, Ball StateUniversity; Brian Southwell, University of Minnesota; RobSpicer, DeSales University; Alan G. Stavitsky, Universityof Oregon; Penelope Summers, Northern KentuckyUniversity; Philip Thompsen, West Chester University;Larry Timbs, Winthrop University; John Tisdale, BaylorUniversity; Edgar D. Trotter, California State University,Fullerton; Carl Tyrie, Appalachian State University; HelenVarner, Hawaii Pacific University; Rafael Vela, SouthwestTexas State University; Stephen Venneman, Universityof Oregon; Kimberly Vos, Southern Illinois University;Michael Warden, Southern Methodist University; HazelG. Warlaumont, California State University, Fullerton; RonWeekes, Ricks College; Bill Withers, Wartburg College;Donald K. Wright, University of South Alabama; AlanZaremba, Northeastern University; and Eugenia Zerbinos,University of Maryland.RFOTNOxiii

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A01 VIVI1211 12 SE FM.indd Page 15 26/09/16 9:41 PM f403/205/PH01951/9780133931211 VIVIAN/VIVIAN THE MEDIA OF MASS COMMUNICATION1 SE 9780 .About the AuthorJohn Vivian’s academic home is Winona State Universityin Minnesota, where he has taught a wide range of masscommunication courses. He holds a Medill journalismdegree from Northwestern University and earlier fromGonzaga University. He has done additional work at Marquette University and the University of Minnesota. As anundergraduate, Vivian worked for United Press International. Later, he joined the Associated Press in four Westerncities. His work has won numerous professional awards,including Minaret Awards as an Army Reservist. Vivian isNOTFORRESALEa former national president of Text and Academic Authors.His Media of Mass Communication has been the leading textbook in its field since the first edition. Judges for the TAATexty Award gave MMC the first perfect score in history.Vivian is at home in the scholarly and pedagogical journals of his field. With Alfred Lorenz, he coauthored NewsReporting and Writing. Besides journalism, public relations,and advertising, Vivian’s academic focus is media law andhistory. He invites feedback from students and adopters atjvivian@winona.eduxv

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iii 1 Mass Media Literacy 1 2 Media Technology 16 3 Media Economics 39 4 Cybermedia 59 5 Legacy Media 75 6 News 98 7 Entertainment 119 8 Public Relations 136 9 Advertising 152 10 Mass Audiences 172 11 Mass Media Effects 190 12 Governance and Mass Media 209 13 Global Mass Media 227 14 Mass Media Law 245 15 Mass Media Ethi

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Silat is a combative art of self-defense and survival rooted from Matay archipelago. It was traced at thé early of Langkasuka Kingdom (2nd century CE) till thé reign of Melaka (Malaysia) Sultanate era (13th century). Silat has now evolved to become part of social culture and tradition with thé appearance of a fine physical and spiritual .

On an exceptional basis, Member States may request UNESCO to provide thé candidates with access to thé platform so they can complète thé form by themselves. Thèse requests must be addressed to esd rize unesco. or by 15 A ril 2021 UNESCO will provide thé nomineewith accessto thé platform via their émail address.

̶The leading indicator of employee engagement is based on the quality of the relationship between employee and supervisor Empower your managers! ̶Help them understand the impact on the organization ̶Share important changes, plan options, tasks, and deadlines ̶Provide key messages and talking points ̶Prepare them to answer employee questions

Dr. Sunita Bharatwal** Dr. Pawan Garga*** Abstract Customer satisfaction is derived from thè functionalities and values, a product or Service can provide. The current study aims to segregate thè dimensions of ordine Service quality and gather insights on its impact on web shopping. The trends of purchases have

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Bribery Podbriefing Audio Transcript 00:03 The Bribery Act is the UK’s anti-corruption law. It introduces a range of offences to tackle corruption, and affects both individuals and organisations, in both the private sector and in public sector context. 00:31 What people often think about bribery is a payment in cash or financial advantage, but a bribe can be many things. It can be excessive .